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Chapter 11 • Turbomachinery 815

11.16 For the “sprinkler turbine’’ of


Fig. P11.15, let R = 18 cm, with total flow
rate of 14 m3/h of water at 20°C. If the
nozzle exit diameter is 8 mm, estimate
(a) the maximum power delivered in W and
(b) the appropriate rotation rate in r/min.
Solution: For water at 20°C, take ρ ≈
998 kg/m3. Each arm takes 7 m3/h: Fig. P11.15

Q/2 7/3600 m
Vrel = = = 38.7 ; at max power,
A exit (π /4)(0.008) 2
s
1 m rad
u = ωR = Vrel = 19.34 = ω (0.18 m), solve ω = 107 ≈ 1030 rpm Ans. (b)
2 s s
Pmax = ρQu2 = 998(14/3600)(19.34)2 ≈ 1450 W Ans. (a)

11.17 A centrifugal pump has d1 = 7 in, d2 = 13 in, b1 = 4 in, b2 = 3 in, β1 = 25°, and β2 = 40°
and rotates at 1160 r/min. If the fluid is gasoline at 20°C and the flow enters the blades
radially, estimate the theoretical (a) flow rate in gal/min, (b) horsepower, and (c) head in ft.

Solution: For gasoline, take ρ ≈ 1.32 slug/ft3. Compute ω = 1160 rpm = 121.5 rad/s.

æ 3.5 ö
u1 = ω r1 = 121 ç ≈ 35.4 ft/s
è 12 ÷ø
Vn1 = u1 tan β1 = 35.4 tan 25° ≈ 16.5 ft/s
æ 3.5 ö æ 4 ö
Q = 2π r1b1Vn1 = 2π ç (16.5)
è 12 ÷ø çè 12 ÷ø
ft 3
≈ 10 Ans. (a) Fig. P11.17
s
Q 10.0 ft
Vn2 = = ≈ 11.9
2π r2 b 2 æ 6.5 ö æ 3 ö s
2π ç ÷ ç ÷
è 12 ø è 12 ø
u2 = ω r2 = 121(6.5/12) ≈ 65.8 ft/s
Vt2 = u 2 − Vn2 cot 40° ≈ 51.7 ft/s
816 Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition

Finally, Pideal = ρ Q u2Vt2 = 1.32(10.0)(65.8)(51.7) = 44900 ÷ 550 ≈ 82 hp. Ans. (b)


Theoretical head H = P/( ρ gQ) = 44900/[1.32(32.2)(10.0)] ≈ 106 ft. Ans. (c)

11.18 A jet of velocity V strikes a vane


which moves to the right at speed Vc, as in
Fig. P11.18. The vane has a turning angle θ.
Derive an expression for the power deliv-
ered to the vane by the jet. For what vane
speed is the power maximum?
Fig. P11.18

Solution: The jet approaches the vane at relative velocity (V − Vc). Then the force is
F = ρA(V − Vc)2(1 − cosθ ), and Power = FVc = ρAVc(V − Vc)2(1 − cosθ) Ans. (a)

dP
Maximum power occurs when = 0,
dVc
1 æ 4 ö
or: Vc = Vjet Ans. (b) ç P = ρAV3 [1 − cos θ ]÷
3 è 27 ø

11.19 A centrifugal water pump has r2 = 9 in, b2 = 2 in, and β 2 = 35° and rotates at 1060 r/min.
If it generates a head of 180 ft, determine the theoretical (a) flow rate in gal/min and
(b) horsepower. Assume near-radial entry flow.

Solution: For water take ρ = 1.94 slug/ft3. Convert ω = 1060 rpm = 111 rad/s. Then
æ 9ö ft
u2 = ω r2 = 111ç ÷ = 83.3 ;
è 12 ø s
æ Q ö P
Power = ρ Qu2 ç u2 − cotβ 2 ÷ , and H = = 180 ft
è 2π r2 b2 ø ρ gQ
é Q ù
or: P = 62.4QH = 1.94Q(83.3) ê83.3 − cot 35°ú with H = 180
ë 2π (9/12)(2/12) û
Solve for Q = 7.5 ft 3 /s ≈ 3360 gal/min Ans. (a)

With Q and H known, P = ρgQH = 62.4(7.5)(180) ÷ 550 ≈ 153 hp. Ans. (b)