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UNIT 3:

INTEGRATION
3.1 Integration as the Reverse of Differentiation
3.2 Indefinite Integrals
​3.3 Techniques of Integration
3.4 Definite Integrals
Application Rule/ prior knowledge

dy
Tangents and
Differentiation
Application of

normals dx

d2y
Maximum and
minimum dx2
Chain rule
Related Rates dy dy du
= ×
dx du dx
dy
Small increment in
approximation dx
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION

2.1 Tangents and Normal


Tangents and Normal
Outcome
1. Gradient of curve
2. Tangent line
a) Gradient of tangent
b) Equation of tangent
3. Normal line
a) Gradient of Normal
b) Equation of Normal
(x1, y1) ●
Prior knowledge
dy
Gradient, m =
dx

y – y1 = m ( x – x 1 )
Tangents and Normal

← tangent line
(x1, y1) ●
← curve

←Normal line
1. Gradient of curve, mT
Example
y = x2 - 3
Find the gradient of
● (1, 8)
curve y = x2 - 3 at point (1,

8)

mT = y’(x1)
1. Gradient of curve, mT
Example

(1, 8) ●
y = x2 - 3 Find the gradient of

curve y = -3x2 + 6 at point

(-0.5, 7)

mT = y’(x1)
2. Equation of tangent
Example
y = x2 - 3
Find the equation of
● (1, 8)
tangent y = x2 - 3 at point

(1, 8)

mT = y’(x1) y – y1 = m ( x – x1 )
2. Equation of tangent
Example

(1, 8) ●
y = x2 - 3 Find the equation of

tangent y = -3x2 + 6 at

point (-0.5, 7)

mT = y’(x1)
3. Equation of Normal

Example

● (1, 8) Find the equation of normal


y = x2 - 3

y = x2 - 3 at point (1, 8)

−1
mN =
m y – y1 = m ( x – x1 )
3. Equation of Normal

Example
(-0.5, 7) ● y = -3x2 + 6
Find the equation of normal

y = -3x2 + 6 at point (-0.5, 7)

−1
mN =
m y – y1 = m ( x – x1 )
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION

2.2 Maximum & Minimum


Maximum and Minimum
____________ point

← curve


____________ point
Maximum and Minimum
Outcome
d2y
maximum point 1. Second order derivatives,
dx2
↓ 2. Determine coordinate of turning
point.
3. Determine nature of turning point
← curve 4. Problem solving of maximum and
minimum.

Prior knowledge

minimum point dy d2y
,
dx dx2
1. Second order derivatives, y’’
d2 y Example
• = y’’
dx2
• Referring to two
times differentiation
Find second order
derivatives for the
following

a) y = 8x4 + 7x3
3 3
b) y = x - 5x-1 – 1.5
4
y' = 0 Turning
points

y’’ > 0 y’’ < 0


y’’(x) Positive Negative

nature Minimum
point
Maximum
point
2. Turning Points
Example 2.2.2 (a)
Turning
y' = 0 points
The curve is given by
y = 2x2 – 8x + 1
y’’ > 0 y’’ < 0
i. Find coordinate of y’’(x) Positive Negative
turning point
ii. Determine the
nature of turning nature
Minimum
point
Maximum
point
point
2. Turning Points
Example 2.2.2 (b)
Turning
y' = 0 points The curve is given by
y = 3x - 5x2 + 6
y’’ > 0 y’’ < 0
y’’(x) Positive Negative
i. Find coordinate of
turning point
ii. Determine the
nature
Minimum
point
Maximum
point
nature of turning
point
3. Problem Solving
Example 2.2.3 (a)

25
The resistance of motion, F is given by F = + 100x.
x

i. Determine the optimum resistance


ii. Determine the nature of the resistance.
3. Problem Solving
Example 2.2.3 (b)

The acceleration of particle is given by a = t2 + 2t – 1

i. Determine the optimum acceleration of the


particle.
ii. Determine the nature of the acceleration.
3. Problem Solving
Example 2.2.3

y 5x

4x
A triangle has perimeter of 120m. Determine
i. The equation of area in form of x.
ii. Maximum value of x and y
iii. Maximum area of triangle.
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION

2.3 Related Rates of Change


Related Rates of Change
Outcome
1. Determine rate of change.
a) State the
differentiation
statement
b) State the rate of Prior knowledge
change
c) Related rate of change
2. Solved problem involving Chain rule
related rates of change. dy dy du
= ×
dx du dx
1. State differentiation statement
For the following state the rate of change in form
of differentiation.

dy
Rates of change of y with respect to x →
dx

dA
Rates of change of A with respect to h →
dh

Rates of change of y with respect to t


State the
Rates of change of V with respect to t differentiation
statement
2. Determine rate of change