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(Write this chapter in present tense)

Background (pages 2-3)

Introduction of the study along its origin, history, and background. Introduce the topic
with the support of references in ascending order. Also, write the introduction of company,
organization, sector, or industry, where you are going to conduct research. However, your focus
should be on the topic. You may also describe each variable in this part.

Problem Identification/ Broad Problem Area/Need of the Study (2 pages)

You have to identify the problem, how the actual problem is existing theoretically as well
as practically. I mean build a story by three different ways 1) Find the gap from literature with
proper references (future directions/ limitations from recent papers specially from post 2010
papers); 2) build the local scenario of your target sector or companies by comparing the
theory/literature and practice/actual situation and 3) compare the current situation of your
particular sector or company with developed/underdeveloped/emerging economies and write
situation of Pakistan. This is the very important part of your study.

Problem Statement

Write the actual problem/crux in one or two sentence/s drive it from the problem identification.

Research Question/s

Derive from problem statement, should start from how, why, where, what, to what extent, to
whom, etc.

Objective/s of the Study

Write the objective/s of your study which start from “to” and the mostly useable words
are (To explore, to determine, to find out, to measure, to highlight, to examine, to judge). There
should be developmental aspect.

Significance of the Study (1.5 -2 pages)

Discuss the importance/worth/rationale of the study, what kind of benefit and who will be
the beneficiary/ies of this work, what will be the practical implications, how this study will
contribute in your particular area or sector? What kind of policy will be given by this study?
How the policies will be implemented.

Scope of the study (1 page)

What will be the scope of your research? How much your study will cover the scenario?
How much the study results are generalized?
Literature Review

(Write this chapter in past tense, use second form)

In this part explain your study variables by the support of citations/references, I mean
bombard this part with references. Literature review should be written as i.e. the significant
relationship was found among the dependent and independent variables (Aurther, 2009: 23
page); or Sing (2010) conducted a research on…………. page numbers if possible. Also put you
voice among the different scholars ideas/findings (I mean commentary).

The appropriate words could be (Elaborated, declared, discussed, highlighted, examined,

explored, agued, found, focused on, determined, revealed, investigated, described, showed,
used, predicted, studied, developed, follow the approach used by, documented, favored this,
noticed that, studied the determinants, Earlier researches relied on, suggested, reinforced etc.)

At the end of the literature review before theoretical framework you have to write the
summery of the literature how many variables are used and what relationship is found in the

Theoretical Framework

Draw a figure which shows the independent/s mediating/moderating/ intervening and dependent
variables relationship and put the sign (+ or -) on arrows on the bases of literature review.


Research Model (only for secondary data)

Draw an equation and explain the abbreviation/s or alphabetic/s

Hypotheses Statements

Draw the hypothesis/es on the bases of literature review. What relationship was found in
previous researches and yours’ study assumptions/hypotheses will be in line of previous studies.
Research Methodology

(Write this chapter in future tense, almost use will/shall)

Methodology of primary Data collection

Research Design

Explain what is research design? and what will be the design of yours’ study? Nature of

Population of the Study

Explain what is population? and what will be the population of yours’ study?

Sampling Techniques

Explain the techniques of sampling and what will be sampling technique of yours’ study?

Sample Size

What is sample? And what will be sample size of yours’ study?

Instrument and Measures/ Research Tools (very important part of this chapter)

Write about the research instrument, how many variables are being used? How many are
independents and dependent? Write their names. Is scale/instrument/questionnaire self
developed, adopted, or adapted from previous studies? If adopted/adapted from past studies give
their references. Also, write how many items/statements/questions are used to measure the each
variable. Which software will be used for analysis? Discuss which tool will be used for data

Pilot Testing

Procedure/ data collection

Explain what will be the procedure of data collection

Data Analysis/Techniques
What will be the most appropriate tests for yours’ study and write the assumptions/applications
of those tests?

Methodology of Secondary Data collection

Research Design

Methodological Literature

Write the different techniques of data analysis which have been used in previous studies
i.e. Smith (2011) conducted research/analyzed on………………. And used/apply the
technique………. towards data analysis ……………….


From where the data of each variable was taken and what was the time span?


Write about the variables, their formulas/equations etc. dependent, and independent variables


What will be the most appropriate technique for data analysis and introduction of that technique?
Background of those technique or assumptions etc.

References (Should as per manual of University)

The citations/references, which are used in text, must be include in reference list and
should be written in proper referencing style.
Questionnaire should be designed as following only for primary data if any



Title of the Study

The study is being conducted by -----; --- University Islamabad Campus. The primary objective
of this study is to ----------. I wish to assure you that any response you make will be strictly
confidential. If you have any query, you can contact at E-mail: -------- or Cell: ----------.

Section: 1 (Demographic Variables)

You can add or adjust these variables as per your study

1. Gender Male ( ) Female ( )

2. Age 18-31, 32-44, 45-57, 58-70

Section: 2 (research variables)

Please Tick () your responses using the following scale:

(1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agreed, 5= Strongly Agree)

Sr. # Variables

I Name of Variable 1
II Name of second Variable

III Name of third Variable

IV Name of fourth Variable

V Name of fifth Variable