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Noise rating number (NR)

130 I
130
I
': 120 125

110 I
\ I

-1 100 105

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co 90 " . """ ".......


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....J 80 85 ...-...
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(/) LLJ
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19
0 60 z
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0 40 r-,:--
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30 i

20

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10
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-10
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
I !
OCTAVE BAND CENTRE FREQUENCY Hz

Fig. 2.9. Noise rating curves


PT. MEINHARDT INDONESIA ATTENUATION CALCULATION FOR DUCT SYSTEM EXAMPLE

Component Reference 8000

Fan noise level at AHU Manufacturer


Lined duct attenuation:
Linedductlength(m)
PIA (m/m2)
Absorptioncoefficient(a)

I Total Attenuation
I
IAHU exit plenum attenuation:

Lined duct attenuation: (See Note3)


Linedductlength(m)
PIA (m/m2)
Absorptioncoefficient(a)

Total Attenuation
I aA1.4

Lined duct attenuation:


Lined duc! length (m)
PIA (m/m2)
Absorption coefficient (a)

Total Attenuation
Unlined duct attenuation:
Total duct length
PIA (m/m2)
Attenuation per m
Attenuation

Elbow 1 attenuation lined 25mm


Square elbows (lined or unlined): I(Ref Figs 7 & 8)
Elbow 2 attenuation
Elbow 3 attenuation
Radius bends (lined or unlined): I(Ref Figs 7 & 8)
Bend 1 attenuation
Bend 2 attenuation
Bend 3 attenuation.
Sound Level before branch
Branch duct area(m2)
Total duct area(m2)
Attenuation due to branch
Sound level after branch
End Reflection loss (if applicable) (See Fig 10)
SOUND LEVEL AT 1ST OUTLET <56.6 52.7 26.9 4.8 ..SA ..23,6 -9.71 45.6

57 48 41 36 32 30 28
I
Requirementfor bedrooms(NC30)
Requirementfor offices(NC35) 61 53 45 40 36 34 33
Requirementfor restauarnts(NC45) 67 60 54 49 46 45 43

Chosen NC level =NC35 61 53 45 40 36 34 T 33


Extraattenuation required 4.4 -0.3 -18.1 44.8 41.4 -57.6 142.71 0.0

STANDARD VALUES FOR ATTENUATION DUE TO PARTICULAR COMPONENTS

Note 1 Loss due to plenum chamber is calculate!:! using WOODS formul


Above values are results of sample calculations and are

SWL, -SWL, = 10 log S, {cos teta I (2'pi'd ') + (1-a) I St'a} dB

Note 2 According to WOODS eqn (5.2), where there is a branch in the duct, the SPL splits prc
to the area of the branches. which is as follows:

Attenuation = 10 log ( branch air volume /total air volume) dB

Note 3 According to Bradford Insulation, the attenuation in lined ducts can be found b
"Sabine" formula, which is as follows:

Attenuation (dB I m) = 1.05' P I A 'a A '.4

S:\Job1 06\ 10651 O\E2\ACOUSTIC Calcs 1 0/12/2006


Plenum Sound Reduction

reduction = 10Jog{ So ( CosA + 1- a )}


2 Pi dl\2 aSw

So= Outlet area = 0.12 m2 So = Outlet area = 0.98 m2


Angle - inlet & Angle - inlet &
A= outlet = 90 A= outlet = 90
d= distance i to 0 = 1.0 d= distance i to 0 = 1.0
a= Absorption = 0.8 a= = 0.98
.Absorption
Sw= plenum surface = 5.4 Sw= plenum surface = 3.66

If angle equals 90 degrees


reduction = 101og{ So ( CosA + 1- a) )}
2 Pi dl\2 aSw reduction = 10 log{ So ( 1- a) )}
aSw
reduction = 10 log{ 0.12 ( 0.540 + 0.2 )}
6.28 4.32 reduction = 101og{ 0.98 ( 0.02 )}
3.5868
reduction = 10 log{ 0.12 ( 0.086 + 0.046 )}
reduction = 101og{ 0.98 ( 0.006 )}
reduction = 10 log{ 0.12 ( 0.132 )}
reduction = 1010g{ 0.01 }
.
reduction = -17.99 dB reduction = -22.62 dB

S:\Job1 06\ 10651 O\E2\ACOUSTIC Cales


J,r-:==.
- - - - ------ ""'I
~
;e graphs on page I I present a p
!" (dB/m) = I.OS o:IA should extend a distance not less than
fonservative guide to the performance
'of all Bradford Glasswool and lAtten;.;a ---
.
tiC .
A
. ~
2D before and after the bend .

FibertexTMRockwool ductliners at wher; P-: inside perime~f lined Attenuation By Lined 41) t
2Smm thickness. Four different lengths duct,m Plenums
A = internal cross-sectional area,
of lining are shown for each of three The acoustical lining of fan discharge
duct sizes and the attenuation of a m2
0: = absorption coefficient of the and suction plenums is often the most
fully lined bend is also indicated. economical and convenient approach to
Should more detailed information be ductliner at the frequency
concerned. achieving a major part of the sounp
required on the performance of any
attenuation required in a system. The
one particular ductliner, full details The location of ductlining can be a following formula gives an
are available through all Bradford critical factor. It is normally placed at approximate value of the attenuation
offices. the start of a duct system to attenuatE achieved by this means (refer diagram).
fan noise and near the outlets to correct
Authority: CSR Building Materials
Research Laboratories (NATA
Registered).
air fiG""generated noise from dampers
and fittings and to restrict noise
transmission from adjacent areas
IOlog,o
where 0:
[
=
(cose
So \21td2 +
I - 0:
o:Sw )~'J
absorption coefficient of
Test Method: Based on British through the air conditioning duct. the lining
Standard 4718, 1971.
Lined Bends So = area of outlet opening, m'
An alternative rough indication of 6J 4
attenuation achieved by the lining of The application of acoustic lining to Sw= tota! r:~.:::iUmwall area, m'
ductwork can be found by use of the bends can !Je very effective in d = slant distance, centre inlet
"~~bine" formula. This gives attenuating duct-bornf' sound. Square to centre outlet, m
reasonable results for straight ducts at elbows are much preferred to radiussed
low frequencies provided the smallest bends. The lining should have a e = angle of incidenceat the
dUl:tdimension is within the range thickness at least 10% of D, the clear outlet, degrees.
150mm to 4S0mm and the width is no width between the two linings (refer
greater than three times the depth. diagram), and the length or lining

( .
Table 7. Lined Duct Attenuation, dB/m
Lining Depth Frequency(Hz)
Thickness Between
Linings D
mm mm 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
50 200 1.3 4.5 10.8 15.8 15.4 7.7
300 1.2 3.3 7.7 9.2 6.8 3.4
400
600
800
1.2
1.0
0.6
2.6
1.5
1.2
5.8
3.5
2.4
8.0
3.4
2.0
3.8
1.6
1.0
1.9
0.9
0.4
&'), .
1000 0.5 1.1 2.0 1.1 0.6 0.3
100 200 4.3 8.8 14.5 15.8 15.4 7.7
300 3.2 6.5 10.2 9 6.8 3.4
400 2.1 5.4 7.9 8.0 3.8 1.9
600 1.7 3.8 5.2 3.4 1.6 0.9
800 1.3 2.9 4.0 2.0 1.0 0.4
1000 0.8 2.0 3.1 1.1 0.6 0.3
Limit of .
Attenuation 26 31 38 42 50 60

2D D d f}

10

I
:01
I
,.k.. '

tund Absorption
Bradford Ductliners have the following tested by the ReverberationRoom
, sound absorptioncoefficientswhen method at the frequencieslisted.
e
Table 2
Sound Absorption by Ductliners
Product Frequency
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC
Glasswool25mm thick
Flexitel (no facing) 0.33 0.28 0.61 0.89 1.01 1.05 1.05 0.72
Attenuliner (BMF) 0.14 0.36 0.66 0.88 0.95 1.02 1.00 0.71
Flexitel Perf. Foil Face 0.08 0.33 0.68 1.04 1.15 0.95 0.91 0.80
Supertel (no facing) 0.12 0041 0.63 0.90 1.01 0.99 0.94 0.74
Linacoustic (BMF) 0.07 0.26 0.65 0.93 1.04 1.03 1.00 0.72
Supertel Perf Foil Face 0.08 0.39 0.73 1.02 1.12 0.84 0.75 0.81
Rockwool 25mm thick
Fibertex R4 Flexskin 0.18 0.29 0.69 0.86 1.05 1.20 1.16 0.72 8,
Fibertex R4 BMF 0.51 0.33 0.77 1.02 1.14 0.79. 1.20 0.82
Fibertex R4 Perf Foil 0.14 0.38 0.87 1.07 1.06 0.90 0.79 0.84
Fibertex R6 Flexskin 'J.ll 0.20 0.80 1.10 1.02 1.12 1.20 0.75
Fibertex R6 BMF 0.10 0.30 0.70 0.93 i.04 1.02 1.02 0.75
Fibertex R6 Pelf Foil 0.12 0.27 0.80 1.17 1.16 0.80 0.86 0.75
Glasswool 50mm thick
Flexitel (no facing) U.42 0.64 0.92 1.07 0.98 1.02 1.03 0.90
Flexitel Perf. Foil Face 0.39 0.84 1.08 1.20 1.06 1.01 0.95 1.05
Supertel (no facing) 0.27 0.75 1.12 1.12 1.07 1.04 1.03 1.01 (
Linacoustic (BMF) 0.24 0.73 1.02 1.14 1.07 1.07 1.01 0.99
Supertel Perf Foil Face 0.39 0.72 1.14 1.19 1.05 0.98 0.90 1.02
I
Rockwool 50mm thick
I
Fibertex R4 Flexskin 0.21 0.69 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.14 1.03
I
Fibertex R4 BMF 0.36 0.76 1.19 1.09 1.03 1.04 0.90 1.01
Fibertex R4 Perf Foil 0.20 0.66 1.13 1.13 1.12 . 1.04 0.91 1.01 I
Fibertex R6 Flexskin 0.29 0.76 1.07 1.10 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.00 I
Fibertex R6 BMF 0.28 0.71 1.17 1.18 1.13 1.16 1.08 1.05 I
Fibrtex R6 Perf Foil 0.27 0.78 1.23 1.17 1.13 1.00 0.94 1.08 -),) I

'L

~I

t
12

J
90 Woods Practical Guide to Noise Control
, Calculation of noise in ventilating systems 91

Figure 5.7 summarises the attenuation of energy to be expected by


reflection from a duct opening. Note here that the open area referred to
is the gross open area of the terminal grille or diffuser, neglecting vanes, I
louvres etc., which normally do not have a marked effect on reflection
except perhaps at very high frequencies (wavelengths comparable with the
vane size).
All the foregoing remarks apply to duct terminations which are fitted I
with what might be termed "conventional" grilles or diffusers. In some I
cases however, the terminal unit itself may be a noise attenuating unit. I
The most usual example nowadays is the high velocity system induction
unit. Most manufacturers will be able to supply insertion loss figures for
!
I .
such units, which should be used in place of the reflection loss figures
described above. -
Internal
surface ;'
I
r. Intarnal
average
area=Sr absorption
coefficient
; I =o:c
I '

.f-----
(e) Plenum chambers
" /) ,
Where plenum chambers form part of the system through which the fan
noise has to propagate, they can provide attenuation. A general layout is " "" 1-~-
G
shown in figure 5.8 and the effect upon sound energy arriving at the inlet " /'
is rather like entering a small room and then passing from the room into a "" " 1.-..
/
.!._- ,I .
Quct on the other side (see "Cross-talk"). As in a room, the sound pressure I -
) i..:
level at the outlet point (and hence the sound power leaving),,willcomprise
the energy radiated directly to that point from the inlet, and the reverberant ",,/ 1---
energy in the chamber. The approximate loss in sound power across the
plenum is given by SWL1
- f cos 6 . ~l (5.3)
SW~ - SWL2 - 10 log S2 l2nd2 +RcJ dB
whereS2is the outlet area, m3 Fig. 5.8. Geometry of plenum chamber
d is theslant distance from centre of inlet to centre of outlet, m
6 is the angle d makes with the inlet axis
Rc is the "room constant" of the plenum m2 units = S~
1-;%
STis the total internal. surface area of the plenum (including inlet
and Qutlet areas), m3 - --
a. is the average absorption co-efficient of the internal surfaces of The method of calculation
the plenum (equation 4.12) We now have sufficient information to be able to predict the room
Note when calculating a.that inlet and outlet areas are assumed sound pressure level that will result from the transmission of fan noise
to have an absorption co-efficient of 1.0. th>:'oughthe system. -..
The nett attenuation across a plenum chamber will in fact be higher than The calculation can be summarised as follows.
that predicted by equation (5.3), because no account is taken there oflosses
due to reflection at the inlet. For the complete attenuation therefore, the (a) Fan to duct termination
loss due to reflection given in figure 5.7 should be added to the theoretical (i) Write down the sound power level in each octave band of frequency
VJ'lh,p'~ ~J'It~"btp.rI frnm ".",,<>tinn r<:,~\ whi~h wi11 hp. f".rI intn th". ~"~t,,.m }", th". f<>n Th;~ ;nf,."on-oo<>t;"n ,,';11 h..

--- ----- =--