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FAO FORESTRY

FAO FORESTRY PAPER 24

caMe logging systems


cable

prepared with
prepared with the
the support
supp rt of
of the
the
fao/norwaygovernment
fao/norway govr rnmentcooperative
csperathe programme
programme

FOOD * F THE UNTE


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF D NATIONS
UNITED NATIONS
Rome
Rome 1981
1981
=

The
The designations employed and the presentation
presentation
of material
material inin this
this publication do not
publication do not imply
imply the
expressionofof any
expression any opinion
opinion whatsoever
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the
part of the
part the Food
Food and
andAgriculture
AgricultureOrganization
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of the United
United Nations
Nations concerning
concerning the the legal
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city or
or area
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or
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concerning the
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of its frontiers
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or boundaries.
boundaries.

M-36
M-36
ISBN 92-5-101046-3
92-5-101046-3

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in the
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Food and
and Agriculture
Agriculture Orga-
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© FAO
© FAO1981
1981
\
I
-
- iii

ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT

Forests, which have


Forests, which have aa great
great potential
potential source
source of
of income
income
in
in developing
developing countries,
countries, can
can and
and often
often do
do provide
provide badly
badly needed
needed
employment opportunities
opportunities for
for rural
rural people.
people.

In the recent past,


the recent past, and
and even today,
today, tractor
tractor skidding
skidding was
the logging
logging technique
technique mostly
mostly used
used in
in tropical
tropical mechanized
mechanized logging.
logging.
However,
However, as forest
forest development moves up to the hinterland,
hinterland, where
the terrain
the is often
terrain is often too
too steep
steep for
for tractor
tractor skidding,
skidding, cable
cable logging
logging
is
is often
often more
more advantageous,
advantageous, not
not only for
for productivity but
but also
often for
often for soil
soil conservation.
conservation. The effects ofof any logging
logging system
system
on
on the
the residual
residual stand can have
have aa bearing on which of any system to
use.
Cable logging was primarily developed in Central Europe
and introduced into
into and redeveloped inin North Europe,
Europe, North America
and Japan according
according to
to their
their own
own forest
forest conditions.
conditions.

This Manual
Manual is designed to give the reader an overall
picture of the
the different major cable logging systems being
manufactured at
at this time and how these systems compare with each
other.
other. The
The most important aspect
most important aspect in trying to achieve
achieve this goal
has been to describe all systems in
in a similar manner,
manner, in order
in order
that
that the
the reader can directly
directly compare
compare the
the different
different systems
systems and
and
determine which system or systems are appropriate for a given set
set
of conditions.
- v -

LIST OF
LIST OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Page No.
Page No,

1• INTROIUCTION
INTRODUCTION 1

2. CABLE LOGGING SYSTEMS


CABLE SYSTEMS 1

2.1 Independent Bunching Winches


Independent Winches 2
2
2.2 Machine-mounted Winches 55
2.3 Yarders
Yarders 9
2.3.1 Ground Lead
Lead 18
18

2.3.2 High Lead 19


2.3.3 Snubbing
Snubbing 20
20

2.3.4 Tyler
Tyler System
System 21
Endless Line
2.3.5 Endless Line System
System 22
22
Endless Tyler
2.3.6 Endless Tyler 22
2.3.7 North Bend 23
2.3.8 Slackline 24
24
2.3.9 Running
Runn ing Skyline
Sk;y1 ine 25
2.3.10 Cont inuous Main
Continuous 1 ine
Mainline 26
2.4 System
Yarding Trailers for Continuous Mainline System 27
2.5 Mobile Tower Yarders 29
2.5.1 Small Mobile Tower Yarders 30
30
2.5.2 Medium Mobile Tower Yarders 34
2.5.3 Large
Large Mobile
Mobile Tower Yarders 34
2.5.4 Highlead
2.5.4 34
2.5.5 Live
Live Sk;yline
Skyline 39
2.5.6 Standing Sk;yline
Skyline 41
2.6
2.6 Running Sk;yline
Skyline Swing Yarders 42

3. CARRIAGES
CARRIAGES AND
AND ACCESSORIES
ACCESSORIES 48
3.1 Single-span Sk;yline
Skyline Carriage 48
Sk;yline Carriage
3.2 Multispan Skyline Carriage 49
3.3 Carriage Stop 49
3.4 Load Beam
Beam 50
3.5 Clamping Carriage
Carriage 50
3.6 Ope rat ing Lines
Operating 52
3.7 Gravity Carriage 52
3.8 Non-gravity Carriage
Non-gravity Carriage 53
3.9 Butt Rigging 54
--vi-
vi.-

Page No.

3.10
3.10 Skidding Capability
Capability 54
3.11 Carriage
Carriage and Cable
Cable Logging
Logging System
System Combinations 55
3.12
3.12 Skyline
Skyline Load
Load Capacity
Capacity 55
4.
4. PRODUCTIVITY
PRODUCTIVITY 59
Factors Which
4.1 Factors which affect
affect Productivity
Productivity 59
4.2 Mechanical Specifications 60
60
4.3 Available
Available Productivity
Productivity Data
Data 60
60
4.4 Productivity of Different
Productivity of Cable Logging
Different Cable Logging Operations
Operations 61
61
4.4.1 Independent
Independent Bunching Winches
Bunching Winches 61
61
4.4.2 Machine-mounted
Machine-mounted Winches
Winches 62
62
4.4.3 Yarders
Yarders 62
4.4.4 Yarding Trailers
Yarding Trailers for
for Continuous
Continuous Mainline
Mainline System
System 64
4.4.5 Small Mobile Tower
Small Tower Yarders
Yarders 64
4.4.6 Medium Mobile
Mobile Tower
Tower Yarders
Yarders 65
4.4.7 Large Mobile
Large Mobile Tower Yarders
Tower Yarders 66
4.4.8 Running Skyline Swin,g
Swing Yarders
Yarders 66
APPEmlICES
APPENDICES
Appendix 11 -- Specifications of
Appendix of some
some Selected
Selected Examples
E:mmples of
of 73
Logging· Equipment
Cable Logging

Appendix
Appendix 22 -
- A. Units of
of Measure
Measure 95
Terminology
B. Terminology 96

REFERENCES
REFERENCES 100
100

LIST OF FIGURES 103


103

LIST OF
LIST OF TABLES
TOLES 105
105
- 1 -

1. INTROOOCTION
INTRODUCTION

attaches great
FAO attaches great importance
importance to
to the
the impact
impact of
of its
its educational
educational activities
activities as
as a means
means
of transferring knowledge and technology to the developing
developing. countries.

lliis Manual has been especially prepared


This prepared for foresters,
foresters, loggers and foremen in
developing countries.
developing countries. is to make
Its aim is make the
the use of cable
cable logging systems
systems easier
easier and
and more
more
efficient by showing the users the options available to
to them.
them.

Cable logging systems have developed differently


differently throughout
throughout the world.
world. This is due
to differences in traditions and conditions. Terrain,
Terrain, yarding distances, road
road location,
location,
log sizes,
tree and log sizes, labour
labour costs
costs and
and silvicultural
silvicul tural treatments
treatments are
are examples
examples of
of the
the many factors
miIny factors
influenced the
that have influenced the development
development of
of different
different cable
cable logging
logging systems
systems in
in different
different regions
regions
of the
the world.
world.

Cable logging systems from some regions of


Cable of the
the world have been tried in
in other regions,
regions,
sometimes with success, without.
success, sometimes without. selection is
in selection
The key factor in is to
to match
match the
the
harvesting system
system to
to the
the harvesting
harvesting conditions.
conditions. However,
However, the selection of
of the
the correct
correct
system is not
not enough since there are usually many alternatives
alternatives for any given type of
of logging
s,ystem.
system. capabilities, such
Machine capabilities, such as
as pulling
pulling power,
power, line
line speed,
speed, yarding
yarding distance,
distance,
etc., can
mobility etc., can vary
vary greatly
greatly from
from one
one machine
machine to
to another,
another, and
and therefore it is
therefore it is important
important
alternative within
to select the correct alternative within aa system
system as
as well
well as
as to
to select
select the
the proper
proper type
type of
of
machine.
machine. lliis is not an
This an easy
easy task.
task. The variety of cable
variety of cable logging
logging equipment
equipment available,
available,
possibilities for
plus the possibilities for modifying
modifying the
the application
application of
of the
the equipment
equipment results
results in
in aa virtually
virtually
unlimited number of
of alternatives.

It
It should be
be noted that cable systems are not always the best alternative and their
generally applies
use generally applies for
for the
the special
speCial conditions
conditions for
for which
which they
they were
were developed.
developed.

lliis Manual is
This is designed
designed to give a good
good overall
overall picture
picture of
of the
the different
different major
major cable
cable
manufactured at
logging systems being manufactured at this
this time,
time, and
and how
how these
these systems
systems compare
compare with
with each
each
other.
other. llie important aspect in trying to
The most important to achieve this
this goal has been to describe all
same manner and
systems in the same and to
to use the
the same
same international
international units
\mite of
of measure
measure when
when giving
giving
the
the .specification system.
specification for each system. Using this
Using this as
as aa base
base the
the reader
reader can
can directly
directly compare
compare
these different systems with each
each other
other and
and determine
determine which
which are
are appropriate
appropriate for
for aa given
given set
set
of conditions.

This Manual does not replace the instruction


instruction manual
manual provided
provided by
by manufacturers
manufacturers of
of
cable logging systems,
systems, which should
should always be studied
studied carefully,
carefully, and
and it
it should
should be
be noted
noted
tha.t
that machine and equipment specifications
specifications are
are in
in aa continuous
continuous state
state of
of change.
change.

The
The Manual has been made possible through aa special
speCial contribution
contribution from
from Norway
Norway under
under
the
the FAO/Norway Cooperative Programme.
FAO/Norway Government Cooperative Programme. The main author was Mr Roy S.
S. Larsen of
Interforest AB, leader Mr
AB, and the project leader G. Segerström
~tt G. Segerstrom of
of FAO.
FAO.

and suggestions
Any comments and suggestions with
with regard
regard to
to modifications
modifications and
and improvements
improvements of
of this
this
be welcome.
Manual will be welcome.

2. CABLE LOGGING SYSTEMS


Typical examples of major cable
cable logging systems are
are shown
shown in this Manual and
and the
the
factors
factors which
which affect the productivity
productivity of
of each system
system are
are discussed
discussed as
as well
well as
as their
their
advantages and disadvantages, in order that
in order that readers
readers can
can decide
decide which
which cable
cable logging
logging system
system
is the
is the m ost suitable when planning
most planning their
their forest
forest harvesting.
harvesting. Some actual productivity
figures are
are given.
-
- 22-
-

other classifications
While there are other classifications on
on cable logging
logging systems,
systems, in
in this Manual the
classification depends on cable logging machines currently used in the
the world,
world, because
because the
the
is designed for foresters
Manual is foresters who first
first have to decide
decide what kind of
of machine should
should be
used in their
used in their forests.
forests.

classifications have
The following classifications have been
been used:
used:

Independent Bunching Winches


Independent

Machine-mounted Winches

- Yarders

- Yarding Trailers for Continuous Mainline System

- Mobile Tower Yarders

- Running Skyline Swing Yarders

addition, since many carriages for the above systems can be,
In addition, be, and are used for more
than one cable logging system classification,
classification, the various types of
of carriages
carriages have been
described
described under:

- Carriages and
and Accessories

The above pages.


above categories are described on the following pages.

2.1
2.1 Independent Bunching
Bunching Winches

Independent
Independent Bunching Winches can be used to collect small logs logs in
in order
order to improve
improve
efficiency and
the efficiency and economy
econoffilf of
of transport
transport to
t o the
the roadside
r oads ide by
by other
other equipment
equipment such
such asas tractors,
tractors,
skiddere
skidders and forwarders in in gentle terrain or or skyline
skyline cranes
cranes in steep terrain.
in steep In other
words, these
words, these winches can
can be used
used to
to shorten
shorten the
the lateral
lateral skidding
skidding or
or yarding
yarding distance
distance on on the
the
main equipment and they
they are
are sometimes
sometimes used
used as
as the
the main
main equipment
equipment to
to transport
transport to
to the
the road,-
road-
side,
side, where
where the extracted trees or or logs
logs can be loaded
loaded onon to
to trucks oror trailers.
trailers.

Figure 11 -
- Independent
Independent Bunching Winch,
Bunching Winch,
c ontrolled
Radio controlled

Photo:
Photo: Courtesy Kolpe-Patent AB
- 3 -

Independent bunching winches usually have no haulback line so so that the line must be
pulled back to the
the logs
logs manually.
manually. If the
the winch is
is radio-controlled,
radio-controlled, this system needs
only one operator who pulls the line to the logs to be extracted, hooks up the logs,logs, follows
logs into
the logs into the bunching
bunching location,
location, unhooks
unhooks them
them and
and then
then pulls
pulls the
the line
line back
back for
for the
the next
next
turn, while constantly
turn, constantly retaining
retaining control
control of
of the
the winch
winch with
with the
the radio
radio (Figure
(Figure 1).
1). If the
If the
system is
is not
not radio-controlled it
it usually needs two men, i.e.
i.e. a winch operator
operator and a
(choker setter-cum-line
chokerman (choker setter-cum-line puller).
puller).

Figure 22 -- Skidding
Skidding Cones
Cones

Standard cone
Standard cone
Photo: Courtesy Kolpe-Patent AB
Photo:

shaped cone
Pan shaped cone
Photo: Courtesy Kblpe-Patent
Photo: KOlpe-Patent AB
AB
- 4 -

Since
Since there
there is often no lift with this system it is necessary to m1nlmlZe
minimize hang-ups
other means such
through other such as
as cutting
cutting low
low stumps
stumps and
and using
using skidding
skidding cones,
cones, pans
pans or
or sledges
sledges
(Figure 2).
2).

The winch is moved by pulling itself


itself along with its
its winching
winching line. However,
However, when
when
changing from one
one yarding strip
strip to
to an
an adjacent
adjacent yarding
yarding strip,
strip, it
it is
is usually
usually easier and
easier and
faster to use blocks to relocate the lines
lines and
and thus change
change the
the direction
direction of
of pull, rather
pull,
than to move the winch itself
itself (Figure
(Figure 3).
3).

In the
the felling operation,
operation, the
the trees
trees must
must be
be directed
directed in
in aa manner
manner that
that will
will make
make the
the
winching operation as efficient as possible.
possible. This
This normally
normally requires
requires felling
felling the
the trees
trees in
the
the direction in which they will be winched.
winched.

Figure 33 -- Changing
Changing Yarding
Yarding Strips
Strips with Blocks
Blocks

----- Tractor, Skidder, Forwarder


If
/ or
orSkyline
Skyline Crane"Road"
Crane II'Road 1/

Courtesy Nordfor Teknik AB

is designed
This equipment is designed for
for bunching
bunching small
small wood.
wood. It is
It is ideally
ideally suited
suited for
for use
use
in a first
first thinning in small dimension
in small dimension wood.
wood. Should it
Should be necessary
it be necessary to
to move
move an
an occasional
occa.sional
larger log,
log, the
the pulling power can be increased
increased by
by using
UBing aa block
block for
for mechanical
mechanical advantage
(Figure 4).
- 5 -

Figure
Figure 44 - UsL~ a
Using a Block
Block to
to Increase
Increase Pulling
Pulling Power
Power
/ . ~ ~

\
~_~.c::;j
. ,\ \ , ...~.I----.,.-,,-
.. .--,J
.:.
\ "

"i:

"
.!I(I'I ,-
.... ~
........ AIII
\

. . . '"
, ',
-. . .~ '" "
;

I.. , ~ ;..· I\\!'.:. .

bunching winches can


Independent bunching can also.be
also .be used
used for
for other
other purposes
purposes such
such as
as pulling
pulling
skidding line
the skidding line (mainline)
(mainline) out
out laterally
laterally from
from aa skyline
skyline crane.
crane. A recent development,
A development,
is old,
although the principle is old, is
is to
to use the
the winch
winch for
for mechanically
mechanically delimbing
delimbing small
small trees
trees
by pulling them
them through aa small
small limbing
limbing device.
device.

'lb.e general specifications for independent


The independent bunching winches are given in
bunching winches in Table
Table 1.
1.
Some selected examples
e:mmples are given
given in
in Appendix
Appendix 1.
1.

Table 1 -- Independent
Independent Bunching Winches -- General
Bunching Winches General Specifications
Specificat ions

Maximum pulling power 55 to


to 45
45 kN
Idl'
(500 to
(500 to 4 500 kp)
500 kp)
Maximum line speed 0.4 to
to 1.5 m/s

Maximum drum capacity to 250


50 to 250 mm
Engine power to 37 kW
4 to kW
50 hpj
(5 to 50 hp)

Weight 40 to 750 kg

2.2 Machine-mounted Winches


Machine-mounted

(Figure 5) on tractors,
Machine-mounted winches (Figure tractors, skidders,
skidders, forwarders etc.,
etc . , are used
logs which are
to collect the logs are then
then transported
transported by
by the
the machine
machine to
to the
the roadside.
roadside. In many
In many
is the most common
regions this is common means
means of
of collecting
collecting and
and transporting
transporting wood.
wood. Such winches
are advantageous in broken terrain
in broken in which
terrain in which aa machine
machine with
with only
only aa grapple
grapple or
or crane
crane cannot
cannot
logs without wasting
reach all the logs wasting time
time in
in getting
getting to
to the
the logs
logs and
and disturbing
disturbing the
the soil
soil
'WUlecessarily.
unnecessarily.
-- 6 -
-

These winches vary


va:ry in number of
of drums and
and whether they
they are mounted
mounted with or without
towers. There are also considerable
considerable differences
differences in
in the capacities ofof the various winches.
This is primarily due to differences inin the size
size and weight of
of the
the logs
logs to be moved,
moved, the
winching distances required and the size
size and weight ofof the base machines
machines for which the
equipment is
is designed.

The task performed


performed with
with these
these winches
winches isiscalled
called"winchinig".
"winching". In winching,
winching, the
the cable
cable
and chokers
and chokers are pulled
pulled out
out manually
manually from
from the
the machine
machine and
and fastened
fastened to
to the
the logs.
logs. The logs
winched to
are then winched to the
the machine
machine and
and transported
transported to to the
the rGadside.
roadside. Pre-set chokers can
can be
be
used to advantage in
in many situations.
many situations. The
The winch is most
most often manually controlled although
although
radio-controlled units
units are
are used
used in
in some regions.
Borne regions. Bunching usually requires
requires two
two men;
men; one
chokerman and one machine
machine operator.
operator. However, it is not
However, it not unusual for the
the machine
machine operator to
also set chokers.
chokers.

Figure 55 -- Machine-mounted Winches

Single
Single drum winch
Courtesy Caterpillar

drum winch
Double drum
Courtesy Sepson

Four drum
Four winch
drum winch
Courtesy Per Iglands Fabrik
Fabrik A/S
- 7-

variations are
Some variations are Shown
shown in
in Figure 6.
Figure 6. When a winch is
is equipped
equipped with
with two
two or
or more
more
drums it can be used in
drums,t it in various sable
c,§l.ble configurations such
such as those described under Yarders.
it is
When it also equipped
is also equipped with
with aa tower, it can
tower, it can be
be used
used in
in various shownin Figure 7.
various ways, as shownin
shown in
The configurations Shown in Figures Th, 7c and 7d are described
Figures 7b, described under Yarders,
Yarders, Mobile Tower
Yarders and Running Skyline
Skyl ine Swing
Swing Yarders.
Yarders. interlocked double drum winch which
An interlocked
on the interlock
operates on interlock principles
principles described
described under
under Running
Running Skyline
Skyline Swing
Swing Yarders
Yarders has
has
been developed
recently been developed inin Norway.
Norway. illustrate the
These examples illustrate the great
great flexibility of
winching and
winching and cable
cable logging
logging systems.
systems.

operation, the trees must be directed


In the felling operation, directed in
in aa manner
manner that will make
make the
the
winching operation
winching operation as
as efficient
efficient as
as possible.
possible. This normally requires felling the
the trees
toward or away from the direction in
in which they
they will
will be
be winched.
winched.

Figure 6
6 -- Variations Using-a
Using: a Single
Single Drum
Drum Winch
\'/inch

a. Mounted on
a. on skidder
skidder with
with arch
arch
Courtesy Eaton
Eaton Yale
Yale Ltd

b. Mounted on
b. on skidder
skidder with
with tiltable
til table crane
crane
(with or
post (with or without haulback
haulback drum)
drum)
Courtesy Nordfor Teknik AB

;;,
/......"._.- ._ ._ ._ ._ . C&'\
w"'\...J~.'" ~_:.r- -,-._ ._
o

c.
c. Mounted on forwarder
forwarder crane
crane arm
Courtesy Ostbergs Fabriks AB
AB
--88 -

Figure 77 -- Some
SomeVariations
Variations using
usinga aDouble-Drum
Double-DrumWinch
Winch

a. Winching
D. Standard Winching

,............,
mo.,......_

0
00.001"''---- 01.°V. -

OIL.: .4 lip

b. Sianding
Standing Skyline

. 1 lati
..

. ,. -14,k
_.
.4
,i010,00.- ...,
illkim
_.. I 4,1e0V
-
..00.
c,Running
c. Running Skyline

; 4 likA
4g ." .

..:J . s

--.. I 2)
,t ill
PIL :IL tir°". 5`...:. , .

: fr
.../..- \_--\------i : i,o-3
i

v
4,i .
.
dd Live
Live Skykne
Skyi"me ( (Graviiyl
Gravity)

.4.11k\s
Z.
:

' i
,..7.7--

::::,..._-
-
'

it :t.-. .
.' 112113k-
srearwor -,
10?
si
A
. ,..
/r -4._
/. fi
p4,t,...- SZ
iip-"------- --

Courtesy:
Courtesy: Per Iglands
Iglands Fabrik
FabrikA/S
A/S
- 9-

The
The general
general specifications for machine-mounted
machine-mounted winches are given in
in Appendix 1.
1.

Table 2 -- Machine-mounted Winches for Ground Machines


~!achines --
General
General Specificat i ons
Specifications

of drums
Number of drums to 4
1 to
1

Maxirm.un pulling
Maximum pull ing power
power 10 to 735 kN
(1
(1 000 kp)
000 to 75 000 kp)

line speed
~!axirm.un line
MRximum speed to 2.5
0.4 to mls
2.5 m/s
Maxirm.un drum capacity
Maximum 30 to 800 mm
30

"Tower" height 0 to 5·5


5.5 m
m

Engine power of
of base machine 11 to 336 kW
to 450
(15 to
(15 hpj
450 hP)

We ight of winch
Weight 100 to 2 000
000 kg

2.3
2.3 Yarders

Yarders are the


the most
most commonly
commonly used
used cable
cable logging
logging machines.
machines. The equipment
The equipment is
is used inin
similar to
a manner similar to the
the mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders,
yarders, discussed Sec~~on 2.5.
discussedininSectilon 2.5. A major difference
A
is that
is that the
the yarding distance for this equipment can can be
be greaterl/
greaterll than
than for the
the small
small mobile
mobile
tower yarders used inin Europe (Section 2.5.1).
(Section 2.5.1).

can be transferred
Yarders can transferred by
by trucks,
trucks, trailers
trailers or or tractors.
tractors. Central European
Central
mounted on
yarders are mounted on sleds,
sleds, as
as are
are the
the high-lead
high-lead yarders
yarders (donkeys)
(donkeys) still
still used
used in
in Asia,
Asia,
these can move
and these move over
over the
the terrain
terrain under
under their
their own
own power.
power. Some yarders are
are operated
being unloaded
without being unloaded from
from trucks,
trucks, trailers
trailers or
or tractors
tractors and
and are
are used
used in
in aa manner
manner similar
similar
to the mobile yarders. t?rrain they
In extremely difficult terrain are sometimes transferred in
they are in
pieces.

The of 11 to
The yarder generally consists of to 33 single
single drums, are sometimes
which are
drums, which sometimes grooved
grooved
(Figure 8),
(Figure 8), or endless pulleys, with an engine
engine as
as aa source
source of
of power.
power. The
The number and type
number and type
of drums in a yarder should
should be selected
selected carefully
carefully because
because these
these limit
limit the
the variation
variation of
of the
the
cable configurations which can be used.
cable A set
A set of
of grooved
grooved drums
drums or
or an
an endless
endless pulley
pulley are
are
used to power
used power the circulating
circulating line
line in the so-called
in the so-called "continuous
Itcontinuous line"
line" or
or "endless
Hendless line"
line"
system.

Instead of using aa prebuilt


prebuilt tower
tower these
these systems
systems use
use elevated
elevated blocks
blocks and
and intermediate
intermediate
supports
supports suspended from trees and poles to obtain
obtain the
the desired
desired height
height and
and thus
thus keep
keep the
the load
load
dragging on
from dragging on the
the ground.
ground. Examples of
of such supports
supports are shown in Figure 99 and
shown in and Figures
16 22.
16 to 22.

V Because
Because the
the drum
drum capacity
capacity ofof yarders
yarders is
is generally
generally greater
greater and becpse of
and bec~use
the greater stability
stability of
of aa sled-mounted
sled-mounted yarder
yarder and
and its
its guying
guying system.
system.
- 10 -

Drums
Figure 8 -- Example of Grooved Drums

KDlpe-Patent AB
Courtesy Kolpe-Patent

In general,
general, it
it can be said that yarders are used in in skyline systems mainly in in
and Japan,
Europe and Japan, and
and the
the highlead
highlead system
system which
which is
is still
still in
in use
use in
in its
its original
original form,
form,
especially in
in Southeast
Southeast Asia,
ASia, as
asshown
shown in
in Figure
Figure 16.
16. Thehighlead
The highleadsystem
systemis isalso
alsostill
still
in
in use
use in North
North America,
America, but
but generally with mobile towers which are covered
covered in
in Section 2.5.

or without intermediate
The skyline systems with or intermediate supports
supports are
are classified
classified as
as follows:
follows:

- Single-span Skyline System


System
Multi-Span
Multi-span Skyline System
System

These two
twa systems have no fundamental mechanical
mechanical difference.
difference. A multi-span
A multi-span skyline
skyline system
system
is
is considered to be
considered to. be aa series of single-span skyline systems.

Intermediate supports are time-consuming


Intermediate time-consuming and
and often
often expensive
expensive toto rig
rig up
up and
and to
to build.
Construction of intermediate
intermediate gupports
supports is
is normally
normally done
done with
with aa three-man
three-man crew
crew and
and requires
requires
or more
day or
about half a day more per
per gupport,
support, depending
depending upon
upon its
its complexity.
complexity. nulti-span
The multi-span
skyline system is generally used for long
long transportation
transportation where nono other
other methods
methods are
are
suitable.
suitable.

When intermediate
When intermediate supports
supports are
are not
not enough
enough to
to r;ntain
obtain the desired
desired height
height or or lift
lif.t to
to
keep the
the load from dragging on the
the ground because
because ofof uneven
uneven terrain,
terrain, aa set
set ofof two
two oror
is sometimes
more yarders is sometimes used, some
some for
for yarding
yarding and
and some
some for
for swiaging,
swinging, instead
instead of of the
the
skyline system.
multi-span skyline system. However, this
this use
use of
of more
more than
than one
one yarder
yarder is
is more
more time
time--
consuming not only in
in moving, setting-up
setting'-up and
and taking
taking down,
down, but
but also
also in
in the
the logging
logging
operation itself.
operation itself.

Japan, the
In Japan, the multi-span
multi-span skyline
skyline system,
system, or
or the
the systems
systems with
with aa set
set of
of two
two or
or more
more
once employed
yarders, were once employed because
because of the steep
o~ the steep and
and undulating
undulating terrain
terrain and
and the
the low
low density
density
of roads.
of roads. of more
With the development of more roads
roads into forest areas,
into. forest areas, however,
however, these
these systems
systems
seldom used
are seldom used now.
now.

In the general operation of


of these
these systems,
systems, aa crew
crew consists
consists of mm~mum of
of aa minimum of three
three
men:
men: one machine operator, at least
least one
one chokerman
chokerman and
and at
at least
least one
one landing
landing man
man (chaser).
(chaser).
Communication between
between the
the crew is
is usually performed
performed by
by hand
hand or
or flag
flag signals
signals in
in short
short
(visible)
(visible) distances or by radio transmitter, or
or electric
electric whistles
whistles over
over longer
longer distances.
distances.
- 11
11 -

Figure 99 -- Examples of
of Intermediate
Intermediate Ms-srline
Skyline Supports
Supports

Tail Spar.Carriage
Tail Spar-Carriage can
can
pass over
pass over without
without
load
load

Courtes~ Koller
Courtesy: Koller Seilbahnen
Seilbahnen
-- 1122 --

must be directed
In the felling operation the trees must directed in
m aa manner
mamler that
that will make the
make the
yarding as efficient as possible. especially important
This is especially important in
m thinnings and partial
cuts. Independent bunching wmches
Independent winches are sometimes used for pre-bunching the wood inm
thinnings. In
In clearcuts
clearcuts the
the felling
felling direction is
is not
not as
as critical
critical as m thinnmgs
as in thinnings and
cuts, but felling if
partial cuts, if at all possible
possible Should
should be to
to lead.
lead. should be as low
Stumps should
as possible to minimize hang-ups.

plannmg and layout


The planning laycut of skylines
sl<;ylmes is
is based
based upon the principles
prmciples ofof skyline
sl<;yline tension
and deflection design.
design. Long spans of over 1 000 metres in m length are used in m the
European Alps when the deflection is is good. In multi-span sl<;ylme
skyline systems,
systems, yarding
distances of over 4 000 metres are possible
possible and
and the
the layout
layout isis calculated
calculated for
for each
each span
span
using the
the principles
prmciples of
of skyline
sl<;yline tension
tension and
and deflection.
deflection. sl<;yline
These systems often employ skyline
cranes, i.e. carriages that can yard
cranes, i.e. yard laterally
laterally to
to the
the skyline.
sl<;yline. Emmples
Examples of these carriages
are shown in
in Figures 39,
39, 40,
40, 41 and
and 42.

and type of
The number and of drums
drums on
on yarders
yarders enable
enable or
or limit
limit the
the type
type of
of yarding
yarding operation
operation
may be carried
which may carried out,
out, for
for instance
instance the
the interaction
interaction between
between aa mainline
mainline and
and aa haulback
haulback
allow for the
the use
use of aa North Bend system
system (Figure
(Figure 20),
20), whereas a single
single drum winch would
drum winch would not.

configurations are
The major cable configurations are also
also given
given in
in the
the section
section on
on large
large mobile
mobile tower
tower
yarders. can be placed
Cable configurations can placed in
in two
two main
main categories:
categories:

Syatems
Gravity Systems

- All-terrain Systems
Systems

Gravity systems are the "traditianal"


"traditional" systems
systems of
of Central
Central Europe.
Europe. These systems
normally require
normally require the
the placement
placement of
of the
the yarder
yarder (Figure
(Figure 13)
13) at
at the
the upper
upper end
end (Figure
(Figure 10)
10) of
of the
the
logging area.
logging area. If there isis no road close by, itit can
can take
take considerable
considerable time
time to
to move
move the
the
yarder to
yarder to the back
back of
of the
the logging
logging unit.
unit. The operator must walk out out to the machine each day
or camp there and it can be difficult and and time-consuming
time-consuming to to get
get parts,
parts, equipment
equipment and
and
personnel to the yarder for repair
repair and
and maintenance
maintenance work.
work.

In the
the traditional use of gravity systems
systems the
the load
load was lowered
lowered downhill
downhill and
and braked
braked by
by
the yarder since the roads were located
located in
m the
the valley
valley bottoms.
bottoms. There was no need for the
powerful yarders required for uphill yarding. ysars there has been
Over the years been an
an increasing
mcreasmg
need for uphill
need for uphill yarding.
yarding. resulted in
This has resulted in the
the development
development of
of more
more powerful
powerful yarders
yarders
faster line
with faster line speeds.
speeds.

It is necessary
It is necessary for slope of
fcr the slope of the skyline
sl<;yline to
to be such
such that
that gravity
gravity will carry the
will carry the
carriage
carriage to where
where it is needed, shown in
needed, as shown in Figure 10.
10.

All-terram syatems in
All-terrain systems in Central
Central Europe
Europe are
are basically
basically aa modification
modification of of the
the gravity
gravity
in which the operating
systems in operating cable
cable is
is endless
endless or
or is
is attached
attached to
to either
either end
end ofof the
the skyline
sl<;yline
crane and functions as a a mainline and
and haulback
haulback line.
lme. of this
Because of this the
the system
system is is
independent of gravity and can be usedused for
for flat
flat or
or adverse
ooverse terrain
terrain asas well
well asas favourable
favourable
(downhill with the load)
load) terrain.
terram. The yarder can
can be
be located
located anywhere
anywhere along
along the
the skyline.
sl<;ylme.
This is an advantage as the yarder
yarder can
can be
be located
located near
near the
the road
read where
where itit is
is easily
easily accessfble
accessible
maintenance and
for maintenance and repair,
repair, for
for fueling
fueling and
and for
for the
the operator.
operator. In addition,
addition, it it does not
long and
require the long and sometimes
sometimes dangerous
dangerous operation
operation of
of winching
winching the
the yarder
yarder to to the
the back
back end
end ofof
operating . area
the operating area (Figures
(Figures 11
11 and
and 12).
12).
-- 13
13 --

Figure 10
Figure 10 -- Gre,vity
Gravity Multispan
Multispan SIgline
Skyline System
System -- Central
CentralEurope
Europe

CD
40, Skyline ® Hauling line
line block
block
® Hauling
30 and lifting
Hauling and lifting line
He (j) Skyline anchoring
Skyline anchoring
0 Grav"rty Carriage
® Drive
Drive winch ® Skyline tensioning
tensioning device
device
® Grav.ity
0 Intermediate support
® support
8
® Skyline end
Skyline <'I ,dblock
block

Courtesy: Reinhold
Courtesy: llinteregger
Reinhold Hinteregger
- 14 -

Figure
Figure 11 11 - All-Terrain f.!ultispan Skyline
AllTerrain Multispan Skyline System - Central Europe

CD Skyline
@
0 Circulating
C ,'rculating line
line
®
0 Drive
Drivewinch
winch
CD All-terrain
Ali-terrain Carriage
Carriage
® Intermediate
Intermediate support
® Circulating line-tension
Circulating line -tension tower
tower
with tension weight
w"lth tension
(J)
C) Circulating
Circulating line-tail
line - tail block
block
@ Skyline
Skyline anchoring
anchoring
® Skylin~ tensioning device
Skyline device
@
CD Skyline
Skyline end
end block
block

Norwegian Forest
Courtesy: Norwegian Forest Research
Research Institute
Institute
- 15
15 --

Figure 12
12 -- All-Terrain
All-Terrain Multispan
Multispan Sisyline
Skyline System
System -- Radi<rcontrolled,
Radio-controlled, Norway

~
Radio
Radio Transmitters Carriage Stops
Carriage Stops
Radio Receiver-Yarder Control
Radio Receiver-Yarder Control 18 Skyr,ne
Skyline
0 Carriage
Carriage ®
0 Endless Operating Line
Endless Operating Line
10 Internal
Internal Skidding
Skidding Drum
Drum ®
CD Grooved
Grooved Drums
Drums on Yarder
Yarder
0 Skidding
Skidding Line
Line

Courtesy:
Courtesy: Norwegian
Norwegian Forest Research Institute
Inst itute

Due to the
Due the endless line (continuous
(continuous line)
line) feature,
feature, in
in which
which the
the line
line is
is driven
driven by
by aa
set
set of grooved drums or an endless pulley, drum capacity does
drum capacity does not
not determine
determine the
the yarding
yarding
distance. Since
Since the
the grooved drums can be mounted
mounted onto
onto an
an existing
existing Central
Central European
gravity
gravity yarder,
yarder, there
there is no need to acquire aa special
special yarder
yarder for
for an
an all-terrain
all-terrain system
system
(Figure 13).

In
In Japan,
Japan, the
the gravity
gravity systems were first
first imported
imported from
from Europe. there has
However, there has
been increasing
increasing need uphill yarding
for uphill yarding in
in complex
complex terrain.
terrain. configurations have
Many cable configurations have
been developed based upon the
the European
European ones.
ones. Two- or three-drum yarders are so designed
Two-or
as to be able to rig them with endless
them endless pulleys.
pulleys.
-- 16 --

Central European
13 - Central
Figure 13 European Multispan
Multispan Skyline
Sl<;yline System
System Yarders

a. (single drum)
a. Gravity yarder (single drum)

b.
b. All-terrain yarder (gravity
( gravity
yarder with
yarder with grooved drums)
grooved drums)

Courtesy: Wyesen
Courtesy: Wyssen Skyline-Cranes

A Norwegian
A Norwegian yarder
yarder is
is equipped
equipped with
with grooved
grooved drums
drums as
as original
original equipment
equipment (Figure
(Figure 14)
gravity yarder.
and is not a modified gravity

There are radio-controlled systems


systems with radio-controlled
radio-controlled aarriages,
carriages, or
or radio-
radio-
controlled yarders. A self-release
A self-release hook
hook is
is also
also used
used to
to lower
lower the
the number
number of
of crew
crew
required.

The general specifications for yarders are given


given in
in Table
Table 3. selected examples
Some selected
given in
are given in Appendix 1.
Appendix 1.
Table
Table 3 -- Yarders -- General Specifications
Specificat ions

Maximum load capacity 9JO to 12000


900 12 000 kg
puliing power
Maximum pulling power 10 to 150 kN
15 000
(1000 to 15 kp)
000 kp)
Maximum line
Maximum line speed
speed 2.0 mls
2.0 to 10.0 m/s
Maximum dl'Ultl
drum capac i ty
capacity 600 to 200 mm
to 4 200
power
Engine power 77 to 149 kW
200 hp)
(10 to 200 hpj
of yarder
Weight of yarder to 77000
500 to
500 000 kg
- 17
- 17 --

14 -- Yarder
Figure 14 Yarder with Grooved
Grooved Drums
Drums for
for All-Terrain
All-Terrain
Radio-controlled -- No~y
Application, Radio-controlled Norway

Tract or mounted
Tractor

Truck mounted
Courtesy:
Courtesy: Norwegian
Norwegian Forest Research Lnstitute
Institute

I
- 18
- 18--

Major cable
Major cable systems
systems are
are described
described below:

2.3.1
2.3.1 Ground Lead
Lead (Figure
(Figure 15)
15)

system is
This system is the
the simplest
simplest of
of all cable
cable configurations.
configurations. it consisted
Originally it consisted of
of
aa power supply
supply and
and an
an operating
operating line.
line. supply could
The power supply could be
be aa gasoline
gasoline or
or diesel
diesel
engine
engine while,
while, in the more primitive form,
form, an animal was used.
used. Independent bunching winches
Independent
or machine-mounted winches can be used instead of yardeoo,
yarders, as described in thethe respective
respective
sections. This system isis still
still popular and normally used on terrain too steep for the safe safe
operation of surface
surface equipment.
equipment. In the original form,
form, power
power is
is supplied
supplied only
only for
for the
the
hauling; therefore, since
since there
there is
is no haulback
haulback drum,
drum, the mainline
mainline must be hauled out
out by
manual means.

low initial
The major advantages are low initial cost and maintenance,
maintenance, simplicity
simplicity and short set-up
and take-down times. Main disadvantages are limited yarding distance,
distance I very low volume per
turn and a great amount
amount of
of soil
soil disturbance.
disturbance.

Figure 15
15 -- Ground
Ground Lead
Lead (System)
(System)

Mainline
Mainline (skidding/haul~
( skidding/haul)
(skidding/haul)
\ ~--¥--::7''-----'"
...

D~ i \
o
Lead (original)
Ground Lead (original) Ground Lead
With single
single operating
operating drum
drum haulback line
With haulback line && 22 operating
operating drums
drums

,(
-- 19
19 --

2 . 3.2
2.3.2 Lead (Figure
High Lead 161
(Figure 16)
originated from
This system originated from the ground
ground lead
lead system.
system. The difference is only an ele~tG
The elevatGdd
b lock which is
block is installed
installed on
on the
the head
head spar.
spar. is normally used on a clearcut operation
It is operat joon to
yaxd
yard uphill andand odownhill for relatively
downhill for relatively short
short distances.
distances. haulback line
Because the haulback line rune
tailblock attached
through a tailblock attached to
to aa stump,
stump, the
the system
system does
does not
not provide
provide much
much vertical
vertical litt
lif t on
on
logs.
the logs. ~e
The logs,
logs, therefore,
therefore, are dragged on the ground with a a vertical lift only atat the
end near
front end near the
the spar.
spar. While under
under certain
certain soil
soil and
andtopograPhic
topographicconditions
conditionsthis
thissys.:;em
systerrl
C9,.use extensive soil
can cause soil damage,
damage, itit is
is popular for its
popular for its simplicity
simplicity and
and low
low capital investment ..
capital investment.
important modification to the yarder
An important yarder is
is an
an interlock
interlock mechanism
meohanism which
which ties
ties the
the main
maL,.,
and haulback drums,
drums, allowing
all owing the
the lines
lines to
to work
work in
in unison, thus
thus creating
creating aa tightline
tightline effect,
effect,
providing additional
providing additional lift.
lift. Thus an interlock
interl ock will help to overcome drag and hang'-ups
hang-ups and
damage to
lessen damage t o the
the soil.
soil.
16 -- Highlead
Figure 16 Highlead (System)
(System)

Mainline
( skidding/haul)

\ ~
Tailblock

\
o
Highlead - Two operat ing droms
- 20--
- 20

2.3.3
2.3.3 Snubbing (Flore 11l
Snubbing (Figure 17)

This is a typical gravity


e,'Tavity system.
system. While itit can be used in clearcut, partial
in clearcut, partial. cut
cut and
thinnings, it
thinnings, it is
is usually used for downhill gwinging long distances.
mringing over long distances. The yarder js
is
placed at the upper end and a special
special gravity carriage is is use d.
used. The single-operating
The single-operating drum
pulls the
yarder pulls the empty
empty carriage
carriage up a~ong the
up along thf:! skyline
sky-line to
to the
the logs,
logs, and
and when the
the carriage
carriage isis
stopped it
stopped it is
is locked to the
locked to the skyline
skyli"e and
and the
the enubline
enubl ine is
is lowered
lowered down
down to
to the
the logs.
logs. When the
logs are lifted , the carriage lock
are lifted, l ock disengages and then the carriage is is lowered along to the the
landing site
landing site by
by gravity,
gravity, >lith.
with the
the carriage
carriage and logs kept control by snubbing.
kept under control

Intermediate supports are frequently used for this system (see


are frequently (S8€" Figure 10).
10). Numerous
gravity carriages have been developed and are sold under various names -- some are relatively
simple while others
others are
are quite
quite complicated.
complicated8 A ~lso used in
is also
A radio-controlled carriage is in some
regions.
The
The major disadvantages are:
are: relatively
relat i vely low
l ow daily production, l ong set-up and take-down
production, long
times,
times, especially
esrecially the movement of the yarder to its position and thus the problems
its operating position
with maintenance.
with maintenance. In gen ~ ral, it
genral, haG a limited
it has limited lateral
lateral yarding
yarding distance which
which must
must be
be done
other equipment.
manually or by use of other equipment . it has the advantage that only a one-drum
However, it one-drum
yardeI' is
yarder is needed
needed and that
that it
it can
can be
be ueed
ul:"'ed for
for long swings when
long swings when the road density
density is
is low.
low.

Figure
Figure 17
17 - (System)
Snubbing (System)

"
~ ~
J ~
~-~~- ~ _>1

~turnps
/ShOWll w1th tailspar;
Shown with tailspar;
-
'--_ _ _ _ _ •_ _ _ _ _ _
L-
stumps
_ _ _ ___ __ may
_ also
_ _be _used
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _...J

J.

Sleyline

er__::~~ca~r~r~iage
Carriage stop
st op

--~~~~~r;a~v~ity
ravity
• carriage

Aalnline

o
.,

(snubline)
aaa,
Snubbing (genaral form)
Snubbing (genaral form)
drum, gravity
operating drum,
Single operating gr~vity carriage
carriage
-- 21
21 --

2.3.4 'l;ylerSystem
2.3.4 L2er System(Figure 18)
(Figm'e 18)
system "hi~h
An uphill and downhill system standmg or tight skyline
hhilh uses a standing skylme to provide
provido ijft
Uft
on
on the
the logs with the help of
of aa lifting
lifting line.
line. Th.e system is
The is often
eften used to
t o swing
swing legs
logs across
across
canyons and out
canyons situations.
cut of tight situations.
Th.e
The number of of drums required on
on the yarder depends on whether the swing
swing is
i s uphill or
or
downhill. In Japan,
In the ~yler
Japan, the Tyler system has
has replaoed
replaced the
the old snuDbing
snuobing system mamly
mainly because
because
the
the yarder (two-drum)
(two-d.rl>rn) can be positioned
positioned at the
the roadside.
roadsi.de. For uphill ewinging
For swingmg aa third
third drum
drum
handles aa sacotd
secolld mainline
mamlme or skidding
skidding line
1m', which
which is
is used to pull the turn up the landing.
landmg.
This line ~
Th.is may also be required
required in
m other
other situations.
situations.
Th.e ordinarJ carriage is
The ordinary is pulled along the skylineskylme to the log log pile
pile or
or logs
logs by
by the
the
haul back, the fall block with chokers is
haulback, is lowered
lowered to the logs by slacking
slacking off
off on lifting
on the lifting
lme
line and
and once
once the
the logs
logs are
are choked they are are lifted by tightening the the lifting line.
lme. Th.e
The
carriage
carriage with
with logs
logs is
is either
either lowered
lowered oror pulled
pulled toto the
the landmg,
landing, depending
depending on
on the
he uphill/
downhill nature of of the
the settingn
setting . Th.e
The haulback may be used for lateral
hamlback l!l!\Y lateral yarding
yardmg if if IJquired.
IV.quired .
this system
However, this system is
is less
lese suitable
suitable fbrfor long
long swings
swmgs in m Japan because of the limited line
Japan because lme
holdmg capacity of
holding capacity of the
the haulback
halllback drams
d.rl>rns in
muse.
use.

nere
!':..igure 18 !,tear (Syete"ll
18--N.711E_LalEt_ET)

heeve ifti
me

Shac

Fall blC'ck
block

..--------'-------, Sky ine


,a Skyline
~'--Io--,
Mainline

Ji
(lifting line)
1-q1 ine
WIting line)
ve-3" 2nd Main t\
(skiddirig\lin,e) Haulback
V_
lme-~
line

n
'l;yler
0'"
Tyler -- Two operating
operating drums
drums ler - Three operatinf drums
drums
-22
- 22 --

2.3.5 Endless System (Figure 11)


(Figure 11)
This is one of the all-terrain systems and is is generally used for long
long distance
transportation. It
It employs
employs aa ccntinuous line (endless
continuous line (endless line)
line) operated
operated from
from aa yarder
yarder with
with
a dl~m (or
a grooved arum (or endless
endless pulley).
pulley). The carriage is
is moved
moved by
by the
the continuous
continuous line
line and
and
the skidding line is
the is lowered
lowered or
or raised by an internal
internal drum inside the
~ fitted inside the carriage
carriage
(see Figures 39 and 40).
(see Figures 40), For
Por lateral yarding the skidding line
line must be pulled outout
manually.
2.3.6 Endless TYler 19)
Tyler (Figure 19)
This system is
is based
based on
on the
the Tyler
T,yler system.
system. it is
In Japan it
In is the most common
common system
system
used in clearcut operations
in clearcut operations and
and many versions have
many versions have been
been devised.
devised. The system employs
The system employs aa
continuous line instead
continuous line instead of
of the
the 2nd
2nd mainline
mainline and
and the
the haulback
haulback line
line as
as in
in the
the Tyler.
Tyler. The
The
so-called
so-called continuous
continuous line is not
line is not endless,
endless, but is interconnected
but is interconnected through the.tha fallblock and
carriage.
carriage. In general, the continuous
general, the continuous line
line moves
moves the
the carriage
carriage along
along the
the skyline
sk;yline and
and the
the
fallblock moves laterally
laterally to
to the
the logs.
logs. The
The fallblock is is controlled
controlled by tenSioning
tensioning and
slackening of
of the lifting line.
the lifting line.
This
This system
system has
has advantages and disadvantages
advantages and disadvantages similar
similar toto those
those of
of the Tyler.
Tyler. However,
However,
it
it has
haz aa big
big advantage in
in that
that it
it is
is suitable
suitable for
for all
all types
types of
of terrain.
terrain. This system needs
needs
great
great engineering and planning skills and a lot of of set-up
set-up and take-down time is is required,
required ~

19 -- Endless
Figure 19 Endle ss Tyler
TYler (System),
(System)

c-

Guylines have
have been om~~~::~~~--~------~==~;:;;~~
been omittéaTe..--

Sk;yline
Sk;yline
Skyline
e •
re
el a
Fallblock allblock
allblock
MW Lifting Lifting
O H ~line (--line

<!rau~~aicnu~>n;-el~~::~~1
o
Wu ac me-'
Gant inuous line
Continuous 1 ine o

\
o Endless Tyler
o Continuon
COnt ·
-8 line
lllUous line
ler -- Three operating
operating drums
~s
Endless Tyler -- Two operating
operating drums
~s Endless
23
- 23 --

2.3.7 (LI,Cure 221


North Bend (Figure 20)
'Inis i s one
This is aIle of
of the most c ommon ly used
most commonly us ed standing
s t anding skyline
skylL.'"1e systems.
systems. It is useful (or
It for
l ogg i ng uphill, level
logging l evel or
or moderate
moderate downhill
downhill slopes.
s l opes. The yardirg can be up to
yarding distance can t o 500
500 mm
defle ction is
when deflection is suitable,
suitable .
The carriage and the t he fallblock
fa llb lock are
a re controlled
contr olled by the
the main
main and
and haulback
haulback lines.
lines. At
l east one end
least en d of
of the
the logs
l ogs is
i s dragged
dragge d along
al ong the
t he ground
ground but
but when
when obstacles
obstacles are
are encountered
encountered thethe
fallb l ock can be raised
fallblock ra ised by braking
braking the
the haulback
haulback drum, (tightening), thereby
drum, (tightening), thereby lifting
lifting the
the turn
turn
upward until thet he obstacle
obsta c le is
is cleared.
cleared. It i s more
It is more advantageous
advantageous than Highlead, since it
Highlead, since it can
avoid hang-ups more easily and and thus
thus reach
reach further;
further; however it it requires
requires aa tailspar.
tailspar. Its
advantages over other
other skyline
skyline systems
systems are
are that
that the
the same
same two-drum
two-drum yarder
yarde r can
can be
be used
used for
for
and that
Highlead, and that it
it has
has the
the simplest
simplest rigging
rigging ofof any
any standing
standing skyline
skyline system.
system.
There
Them isis aa modified
modifiedNorth
NorthBend
Bendsystem
systemcalled.
called "South
"South Bend"
Bendll or
or "Falling
"Falling Block"
Bl ock" system.
system.
It
It differs from the conventional North BendBend in
in that
that the
the mainline
mainline doubles
doubles back
back between
between the
the
carriage and the
the fallblock.
fallblock. This gives a greater lift
lift on
on the turn of of logs
l ogs than
than in
in the
the
conventional North Bend system
system and thus better
better control.
control. It
It iis
s used
used ffor
or yarding
yarding uphill
uphill or
do.mhill on
downhill on steep
steep slopes
slopes where
where the
the regular
regular North
North Bend
Bend system
sy stem would
would not
not provide
provide sufficient
suffiCient
lift
lift to free turn from
free the tarn fr om obstacles, and
and since
since ground
ground friction
friction cancan be
be lowered
l owered and
and obstacles
obstacles
avoided
avoided,, better production
product i on can be obtained.
obtained.

20 -- North
Figure 20 North Bend
Bend ·(System)
(Systm)

Guyline s have
Guylines have been omitted
omitt e d

Skyline Skyl ine..,.


'-~--~----~J-----------'
,......_--...A
----L
r----..aJ.i-' Fallb l ock ,..Fallblock
............__

V
Mainline
I I
I
Haulback_
Haulback
Haulback 4 ,1
I
1 lline---I
ine j line
line
/ezr------------t--------41

LNosIll_E214.- Two o0 eratin


o
EL South Bend (Falling Block)
Two operating drums
drums
-24 --

2.3.
2.3.88 Slackline System (Ff.gure
Slackline System (F:gure 21)
21)

This system
system is
is generally
generally considered
considered to
t o be
be the
the best
best skyline
skyline system
system for
for yarding
yarding and
and is
is
widely used
used for this purpose where the slope
slope is
is downhill.
downhill. It is also
It is also useful
useful for swingin~
for swinging
from piles and fur moving logs
logs across
a.cr oss canyons and major
major obstacles.
obstacles.

'ntis
Thi.ssystem,
system,also
also somet imes referred
sometimes referred to
to as
as aa live
live skyline
skyline system,
system, differs
differs essentially
from
from other skyline systems
,ystems in
in that
that one
one end
end of
of the
the skyline
skyline is
is wound
wound on
on aB large drQ~ on
large drum on the
the
yarder and is
is lowered
lowered to
to hook
hook up
up logs,
logs, and
and then
then raised
raised by
by winding
winding on
on the
the skyline
skyline drum
drum to
to
llift
ift the the obstacles.
the logs above the obstacles . The
The far
far end of the
end of the skyline
skyline is
is anchored
anchored to
to aa stump(s)
stump(s)
as in other skyline
in othel. skyline systems.

An additional drum
An drum isis therefore
therefore required on the
require~. on the yarder
yarder toto hold the skyline,
hold the skyl ina, and a large
and a large
and expensive braking system .is needed
braking system.is needed for
for the
the skyline
skyline arum.
drum. Advantages of
Advantages of the
the Slackline
Slackline
are:
are: greater control of the
the loglog since
since it
it can
can be instantly
instantly elevated
elevated oror lowered
lowered to
to accommodate
accommodate
ground conditions by tightening
tightening or or slackening
slackening the
the skyline;
skyline; the lcgs can
the logs can be
be raised
raised clear
clear of
of
the
the ground to minimize 5urface
surface damage;
damage; and a skyline
and a akyli',e "road"
"road" can
can be
be changed
changed mo-.*
mo·.... quickly than
quickly than
in
in the
the stmdirig
stending skyline systems
sy .. tems since
since the skyline
skyline is
is reeled
reeled inin with
with tne
tne skyline
s!cyline drum.
drum.

21 -- Slaokl ine (System)


Figure 21

~lines have been omitted


G4ylines

Skyline
Skyline
Sky-line

!? Heel blocks
I
Haulbac~
Mainline 1
Haulbaok
line
Skyline control line cy
_-line

I' no6t
Slackii5-Tgravity)
Ja panase version)
(japanese
Sl~gravity) 22 operating
operating drums
drums
a 00
Slack
Slack 1 ineline tpru
- '!bree-Threotimn
0 d.t"UtnB
t
25 -
-- 25-

n,e
The left-hand inset
inset drawing.
drawiag in Figure
Figure 2121 shows the Japanese method of
of controlling
the sk;yline using a two-drum machine
the skyline machine for
foI' gravity
g'L'avity swinging.
swinging.

Yarding distances are dependent upon deflection. ground conditions


Where ground conditione warrant,
warrant,
distances 500 mrn are possible.
distancea of up to 500 possible.

2.3.9 RUl'ning Sk;yl


Rucinir_i_c ine (Figure
Skyline (Figure 22)
221

This system can be used in


be used in aa variety of ways and can be used elearout as
in clearcut
used in as well
l'isll as
as
partial cuts or
or thinnings.
thinnings. The
The system differs from highlead in that that the
the haulback line is is
ueed running skyline,
used as a running sk;yline, thus
thus its
its position
position is
is revers,ld
revers'ld on
on the
the sparts).
spars). Figure 22
Figure 22 shows
shows
aa tailspar,
tail spar, but if
if deflection
deflection isis suitable
suitable stumps
stumps may be used
may be used as
as the
the back
back end.
and.

The normal method


method employs
employs aa two-aram
two-drum yarder;
yarder; however acIl.ded
hoWever ad.ded lift
lift is provided by
braking tha
braking the haulback
haulback as
as the
the mainline
mainline isis brought
brought in.
in. L~terlocks facilitate correct
Drum interlocks
tensioning.
Figure
Figure 22
22 -- il"mning Skyline ((System)
R=ning Skyline Syatem)

1 ine
Haulback line
,~~~~-;
Haulback Continous line
""~ Rider block
Butt rigging
\ (Mainline
Mainline .

*--,-
Malnline

D= Sk;yline (original
Running Skyline
operating drums
Two operating drums
(original nb Running Skyline
Running
co;;';inUOU; line)-
continuous
Sk;yline (with
(with
line) - Two operating
operating drums
drums
-- 26
26 --

version uses
Another version uses aa three-drum
three-drum interlock
interlock yarder
yarder and
and grapples
grapples are
are often
often used
used instead
instead
of chokers.
of chokers.
important advantage
An important advantage is
is the
the short
short set-up/take-down
eet-up/take-down time
time as
as in
in highlead
highlead if
if no
no tail-
tail-
spar is used.
spar is used . The narrow strip which can be logged is
The is advantaaeous
adv?ntageous for thinning.
thinning~

As in
As in any skyline system
any skyline system attention
attention must
must be
be paid
paid to
to the
the stresses
stresses placed
placed on
on the
the anchor
anchor
stumps at the back
back end
end to
to ensure
ensure against
against failure.
failure.

Continuous Mainline
2.3.10 Continuous Mainline (Figure
(Figure23).
23)

system is
This system is unique
unique among
among cable
cable configurations
configurations and
and is
is based
based on
on the
the ground
ground lead
lead
system.
system. It is designed for thinning
It thinn ing at
at yarding distances
distances of
of up
up to
to 400
400 metres
metres and
and employs
employs
a special
a speCial open-faced block • . The
openfaced block. The logs
logs are attached
attached by
by chain
chain or
or hemp
hemp rope
rope to
to the
the mainline,
mainline.
AA control
control line
line isis used
used to
t o tension
tension the
the mainline.
mainline. Single or
Single or double
double drum
drum winches
winches are
are used,
used,
as
as shown in the
the units of Figure 23. 23.
Figure 23
23 -
- Continuous Mainline -
- Monocable (System)
(System)

Open-faced
block~~____------~~ Mainline
bloc
rOpen-faced

,EL___7 Continuous Main ine


me
le..o.atatirx
Sin le 0 rat· drum
drum
- 27 --
-27

There are many other


other cable
cable configurations
configurations which have been oror are currently
currently in
in use.
use.
However,
However, the basic problem
problem is
is to determine
determine which system
system to
to use in order to
in order to collect
collect and
set of
transport logs efficiently under each set of conditions,
conditions, having due regard toto environmental
and silvicultural factors.
factors.

Cable configurations are classified according toto several


several factors,
factors, such as:
as: gravity or
or
skyline or
all-terrain, skyline or non-skyline,
non-skyline, standing
standing skyline
skyline (tight
(tight skyline)
skyline) or
or live
live skyline,
skyline, using
using
lines or
continuous lines or not,
not, etc.
etc.

A configurations is
A classification of the major cable configurations is given in
in Table 4.
4.

Table 4 -- Classification of
of Cable Configurations
Configurations

~
Skyline
Non-skyline
Non- skyline
Standing Live
'.........---------------------------s---"--,.

Gravity
Gravity Snubbing
Snubbing (Slack line)
(downhill)
Tyler

Uphill Tyler
Tyler
(3 drums)

I1Didless
Endless I
1 Slack line
Slack line lead
Ground lead
All-terrain
I;t;~!;BS
Tyler
ess
I
1
High lead
Runn~ skyline
Running skyline

North bend I'Continuous mainline I


Continuous mainline I

Usually or
Usually or always
always employs
employs continuous
continuous line
line

Some versions
vereions employ continuous line
line

2.4
2.4 Yarding Trailers for Continuous Mainline System

lJhe
The yarding trailer for a continuous mainline system
system isis a relatively
relatively new
new Austrian
development. The commercial manufacture ofof this trailer
trailer was begun
begun in
in 1975. The system
is unique
unique in that it
it provides aa "continuous
"cont inuous flow"
flow" of
of trees
trees or
or logs
logs to
to the
the yarder (Figure
(Figure 24)
24)
and is
is basically groundlead, being
being designed
designed for
for thinning
thinning atat yarding
yarding distances
distances of
of up
up to
to 400
400
spacing between
metres with a 10 meter spacing between the
the yarding
yarding strips.
strips.

Chain
Chain is
is used
used for the
the mainline although thethe original
original versianJused
version -used cable. The chokers
are suspended from the chain
chain and
and are moveable
moveable along
along each
each 20
20 meter
meter section
section ofof the
the chain.
chain.
Trees are yarded
yarded top
top first.
first. When aa turn of
of trees reaches
reaches the
the yarder the operator
operator stops
stops the
chain,
chain, releases the turn and and attaches itit to
to an
an auxiliary
auxiliary line
line which
which is
is then
then used
used to
to yard
yard the
the
turn out of
of the way
way into
into aa pile.
pile. on the auxiliary line
The turn on line is
is released
released by remote
control. chain is
While the chain is stopped,
stopped, the
the chokerman
chokerman attaches
attaches aa turn
turn of
of trees
trees to
to the
the next
next
choker. The chokerman and the yarder
yarder operator
operator coordinate
coordinate their
their activities
activities through
through the
the use
UBe
of aa radio
radio system.
system. Trees are limbed and bucked
bucked at the
the road.
road.
-28 -

Figure 24
24 -- Continuous
Continu~us Mainline System
System with
with aa Yarding
Yarding Trailer
Trailer

I
,,~ IOm \ lOm \
\..
Wm'
10m '
.. \
.,
)1 \.1,I4 i 'I I
\ ik
T

\A A 11/4,
,\\''t *, ?\ .II; ]\.
)l o/\ Ì \
\ ,\
c A h\
f 1
;
,

N! ,
,k f\ .4. \ A.
4k 4 i\
'I' ,' V\
'4` A ). \ \tV1(
À,
.1,
k\ A 1 " .11\'`YI
A7
't.,), ,ikf
1
\\1t k
.

! i
A \\,:k 4
I

O AtSi \ ''k"
r( Ifi" V.il.
CA 4' \ \ .
1 !... 011 .1
5O ,
k
;A -\- 1

A : . y: -
1;3
'

;k \ \1 ii 'k 1
'

1/).kAk t k
\d'k;:'¡.#1 )11

4
q
, ' i
1 \ \ ',Y.i: ),'.
\
A\ 1\ A','W. \
/,',,;

A
( A l k ,.\ ;O. f-'
.6
,
\ )(k
,\ \ ., 1 )'
,i i. i \ q .'k 111 ok
T ., \ '['

.k S ''` , \ ,,..''
A` ' \k \ /44 1
. k lk " \'r" ./l ;'(k, ,<C1
\ v s'AA 4!
' I ..- ,

·i.
,1
.I, ;
1.. Fe 11 ing in
Felling p~ogre s . 1-
in progres A
k
\
Yl!.rding in progres
2. Y&rding progres___
3. Activities
Activitie s coMpleted
completed
..1,1:t,
¡\ 4:
3-e

Courtesy Steyr Forsttechnik


Forsttechnik
-
- 29 -
29

The crew consists


consists of
of aa minimum
mm:lJnum of
of two
two men:
men: a machine operator
operator and a chokerman.
chokerman. An
An
additional chokerman is
is sometimes needed for setting ~~d/or for working with the
setting chokers and/or
auxiliary line
auxiliary line decking
decking operation.
operation. the felling operation,
In the operation, the
the trees must
must be
be directed
into
into or
or close
close to the
the yarding strip,
strip, the
the tops should point
tope Should point in
in the
the direction
direction that
that the
the trees
trees
yarded (to
will be yarded (to lead)
lead) so
so that
that the
the yarding
yarding operation
operation is
is as
as efficient
efficient as
as possible.
possible.

The general specifications for a yarding trailer are given in Table 55 and
'ilie and in
in
Appendix 1.1. '

Table
Table 5 -- Continuous
Specifications for a Yarding Trailer for Continuous
Mainline System
System (based
(based upon
upon Timber-veyor)
Timber-veyor)

Maximum pulling power 60 kN


60
(6000 kp)
(6 000 kp)

Maximum line speed mls


1.4 m/s

yarding distance
Maximum yarding distance 400 m
m

IITower" height
"Tower" 44mm
Eng ine power
Engine 88 kW
88 kW
(120 hpj
(120 hp)

of complete
Weight of complete unit
unit 14000
14 000 kg

2.5 Mobile Tower


Tower Yarders

Mobile tower yarders were developed


developed about 20 years
about 20 years ago
ago as
as an
an improvement
improvement onon the
the
spar and
wooden spar and yarder
yarder system
system in
in use
use on
on the
the west
west coast
coast of
of North
North America
America at
at that
that time.
time.
Since their introduction,
introduction, the mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders have
have received
received wide
wide acceptance
acceptance due
due to
to
their increased
their increased mobility
mobility and
and faster
faster set-up
set-up and
and take-down
take-down time
time as
as compared
compared to
to the
the old
old spar
spar
tree system.
system.

More recently,
recently, European mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders have
have been
been developed
developed forfor cable
cable cranes
cranes
used in
commonly used in Europe.
Europe. European systems
Some European systems incorporate
incorporate North
North American
American methods
methods as
as well.
Since the European systems
systems are
are basically
basically designed
designed for
for smaller
smaller wood
wood and
and lighter
lighter loads
loads than
than
North Ameriaan
North American systems,
systems, some
some of
of the
the European
European systems
systems are
are being
being tried
tried in
in North
North America
America for
for
thinning in
thinning in steep
steep terrain.
terrain. American units
Smaller North American units have also
also been
been developed.
developed.

'ilie in this section


The systems described in section have been
been classified
classified as
as follows:
follows:

Tower Yarders -- Maximum


Small Mobile Tower Maximum mainline
mainline pulling
pulling power
power
up to
up to 100 kN (10
100 1d (10 200 kp)

Medium Mobile Tower Yarders -- Maximum mainline


mainline pulling power
power
over 100 kN .(10
over 200 kp)
"( 10 200 kp) and
and up
up to (~ 600 kp)
))0 kN (30
to 300 kp)

Tower Yarders -- Maximum


- Large Mobile Tower Maximum mainline
mainline pulling
pulling power
power
~O kN (30
over 300 (~ 600 kp)

All these systems


systems consist of
of three
three main
main components:
oomponents:
- the tower
the yarder
the carrier
Although these three main components
components are
are common to all
COI!lllOIl to all mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders,
yarders, there
there are
also certain
certain differences
differences between
between these
these three
three classifications
classifications as as regards
regards design
design and
and applicatian
applioation
equipment.
of this equipment. 'ilierefore for each
Therefore the main features for each classification
classification have
have been
been described
desoribed
separately.
--30-
30 -

2.5.1
2.5.1 Tower Yarders
Small Mobile Tower Yarders (Figures
(Figures 25
25 and
and 26)
26)

General
General features

the small mobile tower


General features of the tower yarders are as follows:
foll ows:

- The tower and yarder


yarder usually
usually come
Come as
as aa unit.
unit.

The
The tower is laid down over the carrier for easy transport and is
is sometimes
sometimes
hinged to
to shorten
shorten its
its length.
length.

- The
The tower is
is normally stabilized with two or three guylines.
guylines.

- The
The yarder
yarder usually has three
three operating
ope rat ing drums plus a strawline
strawl ine drum.
drum. The
strawline is normally only used for laying out
strawline is out and changing the
the operating
lines.

When the carrier is


is a trailer,
trailer, the power
power for
for the
the yarder
yarder may
may be
be included
included
with the
the trailer unit
un i t or
or it
it may
may be provided
provided by
by the
the machine
machine which
which tows
tows
unit.
the unit.

- When the is a truck,


the carrier is truck, the
the power
power for
for the yarder is
is usually provided
provided
by the truck
truck (power
(power take-off).
take-off).

The general
The general specifications
specifications for
for small
small mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders are
are g' ven
gven in Table
in Table 66 on
on
Page
Page 41. in Appendix
Some selected examples are given in Appendix 1.
1.

Usage

designed for
The small mobile tower yarders are designed for single
single or
or multispan
multispan skyline
skyline usage
with a carriage (skyline crane), for
for lateral
lateral yarding. These systems are
are commonly used
used
in thinnings
in thinnings and partial cuts.
cuts. Present emphasis is
is on
on yarding · distances of
of 300
300 to 600
metres and aa minimum
miniTmlm of
of intermediate
intermediate supports.
supports.

The crew consists of two oror more men depending


depending upon
upon the
the equipment
equipment and
and the
the operating
ope rating
conditi ons.
conditions. two men
The first two men required
required on
on the
the crew
crew are
are aa machine
machine operator
operator and
and aa
ch okerman.
chokerman. third man
The third man is
is usually
usually aa landing
landing man,
man, and
and the
the fourth
fourth is
is usually
usually an
an
additional chokerman.
additional chokerman.

The felling operations are the sane


The same as those described
described under
under Yarders (see
(see Page
Page 9).
Small
Small mobile
mobile tower yarders are designed
designed for
for temporary
temporary use
use at
at one
one or
or more
more landings
landings
in or
in or at
at the
the edge
edge of an operating
operating area.
area. The landing is
is normally
normally at at aa truck
truck road.
road.
However, some types of these yarders can be used
However, some used off
off the
the road
r oad to
to log
l og isolated
isolated patches
patch~s
of forest
forest on steep terrain, lie within areas
terrain, which lie areas which are
are to
t o be
be logged
logged with
with ground
ground
equipment. In such situations
situati ons the
the wood is
is yarded
yarded and
and bunched
bunched for
for subsequent
subsequent transport
transport
tto
o the ground equipment.
the roadside by ground equipment. road construction
In this way road c onstruction cancan be
be reduced.
reduced.
_
- 31
31 _-

Figure 25
Figure 25 -- Small
Small Mobile
l~obile Tower Yarder -- Trailer
To>le r Yarder TrailerMounted
l~ounted

Travel Position
Position

--.
-- --- ---
~.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Working Position
Posijion

Courtesy James
Courtesy James Jones
J one s &
& Sons
Sons Limited
Limited
-32
- 32 --

Figure 26
Figure 26 -- Small
SmallMobile
MobileTower
Tower Yarders
Yarders -- Truck
TruckMounted
Mounted

Travel Position
Travel Working Position

hinge

Top vl'ew

Travel Position Warking Poa!tion

Side view I

Top vi_

Courtesy
Courtesy Reinhold
Reinhold Hinteregger
-- 33
33 --

Figure 27 -- Medium Mobile Tower


Tower Yarders

Truck Mounted Sk,dder Mounted

Side vi ..... Side view

Courtesy Steyr Forstteohnik


Forstteohnik

Tonk
Tank Mounted
Mounted

••

Side view
Side view Front view
Froni view

S. Madill Limited
Courtesy S. Limited
- 34
34 -

2.5.2
2.5.2 Medium Mobile
Medium Mobile Tower
Tower Yarders
Yarders (Figure
(Figure 27)
27)

General features

General features
features of
of the
the medium
medium mobile
mobile tower
tower'yarder
yarder are
are as
as follows:
follows:

- The
The tower and yarder usually
usually come
Come as a unit.

- The tower can


can be laid
laid down
down over
over the
the carrier
carrier for
for easy
easy transport.
transport.

The
The tower is normally stabilized with three to
to six
six guylines depending
depending
upon the tower height, tower
tower design
design and
and the
the forces
forces exerted
exerted upon
upon the
the
tower.
tower.

The yarder usually has two


two to
to four
four operating
operating drums
drums plus
plus aa strawline
strawline
drum.
arum. strawline is
The strawline is normally
normally only
only used
used for
for laying
laying out
out and
and changing
changing
the operating
operating lines.
lines.

- The self-propelled carrier


carrier can
can be a skidder,
skidder, truck,
truck, or
or the
the bases
bases of
of
tank units.
crawler or tank unite.

and yarder
- The carrier and yarder usually
usually are
are powered
powered by
by the
the same
same engine.
engine.

specifications for
The general specifications for medium
medium mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders are
are given
given in
in Table
Table· 7
on Page 42.
42. Some selected examples
examples are
are given
given in
in Appendix
Appendix 1.
1.

Usage

The
The medium mobile tower yarders areare basically
basically designed
designed for
for highlead
highlead and
and skyline
skyline
which is
usage which is common
common on
on the ~est coast
the west coast of
of North
North America.
America. This is
ie described
described below, under
undar
Yarders!'.
"Large Mobile Tower Yarders". Some these yarders are also designed for the usage
Some of these
described above under small
small mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders.
yarders.

2.5.3
2.5.3 Large Mobile Tower Yarders (Figure
(Figure 28)
28)

General features

featu.res of
General features of the large
large mobile
mobile. tower
tower yarders
yarders are
are as
as follows:
follows:

- The steel tower can be telescoping


telescoping or
or non-telescoping.
non-telescoping.

- The
The tower is
is normally stabilized with
normally stabilized with three
three to
to eight
eight guylines
guylines althougt
although some
some
towers can use up to twelve
twelve guylines.
guylines. The
The number of guylines used is is
dependent
dependent upon the tower height,
height, tower
tower design
design and
and the
the forces
forces exerted
exerted upon
upon
the tower.

The
The carrier (Figure 29)
29) is
is available as a trailer
trailer unit
unit or
or as
as aa self-propelled
self-propelled
rubbel'-tyred or tracked
rubber-tyred or tracked unit.
unit.

- The yarder
yarder (Figure ~) is
(Figure 301) is available
available with
with two
two to four
faur operating drums plus aa
strawline drum. The strawline is for l~out
is normally only used for layout out
out and
and
operating lines.
changing the operating lines.

The carrier and yarder


yarder are powered by the
the same
same engine,
engine, exoept
except when
when the
the carrier
carrier
is
is aa trailer.

The
The general specifications
specifications for
for large
large mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders are
are given
given in
in Table
Table 88 on
on
42.
Page 42.
Page selected examples are
Some selected are given inin Appendix
Appendix 1.
1.
--35
35 --

F1gure
Figure 28 -- Large Mobile Tower Yarder -
- Telescoping
Telescoping Steel
Steel Tower and
Yarder on Self-Propelled Rubber-Tyred
Rubber-TY!ed Carrier

Working
Working position _

Rear Front

Travel position

Side view
Side

Iron Works
Courtesy Washington Iron
Figur
Figuree 29
29 -- Carriers
Carriers for
f or Large
Large Mobile
Mob i l e Tower Yarders
Tower Yarders
Rubber-Tired.
Rubber-Tired, Self- Propelled
Self-Propelled

~ ILCnIT:511
Irwir /AL I 01.040010 -r
Trail er
Trailer

( o X o) A
Tracked.
Tracked, Self-Propelled

1111111114-111.111
Crawler
Crawler Tank

Figure 30
Figure 3D -- Yarders
Yarders for
f or Large
Large Mobile
Mobile Tower Yarders
Yarders

HIGHLEAD YARDER
HIGHLEAD YARDER-- SLACKLINE OR
SLACKLINE DR SLACKPULLING
SLACKPULLING YARDER
YARDER--
2 DPERATING
OPERATING DRUMS OPERATING DRUMS
3 OPERATING DRUMS

Side
Side view Side view

Haulback Straw-
Haulback Straw- Main
Main Haulback
Haulback Straw-Skyline
Straw- Skyline Skidding
Skidding
Drum rlne
line Drum
Drum Drum
Drum line
line or Main or Slack-
Main or Slack-
Drum Drum Drum
Drum pulling
pulling
Drum

Top view
Top Top view
view

Courtesy Skagit
Courtesy Skagit Corporat
Corporation
ion
-. 1=11=cesp :

-37-
- 31 -

and the order to keep the operations


the loading machine in order operations as
as synchronized
synchronized as possible.
possible. In
such cases,
cases, the is limited to the productivity of
the productivity of the loader is of the yarder.
yarder.

There are so
so many different cable
cable configurations
configurations used
used with the
the large
large mobile
mobile tower
tower
yarders that it
it is
is impractical
impractical to
to try
try to
to describe
describe them
them all.
all. However, the highlead,
However, since the highlead,
live
live skyline (slackline versions) (north bend version)
versions) and standing skyline (north version) configurations
give a good cross of the
crOSB section of the various alternatives,
alternatives, these
these configurations
configurations will
will be
be
described below, described in
below, and these have also been described the section
in the section an
on Yarders.
Yarders.

Figure 31
31 -- Logging Pattern
Pattern for Most
Most Large (and Medium)
Large (and ~Iobile Tower
Medium) Mobile Tower Yarders
Yarders

Lancflng
Roo Road
Landing

/~~ \-
~I/

~\I
I --
/~
I
I \
I \
\ \
\ 6
~p
\ 4.
' ..... -------
-- -..........
....... _-- / / .-'

2.5.4
2.5.4 (Figure 32)
Highlead (Figure

This system,
system, the
the most common on the west coast
Common on coast of
of North
North America, requires
requires only two-
only aa two-
drum yarder to handle the mainline and
and haulback
haul back lines.
lines. This
This is
is basically
basically an uphill
uphill yarding
system for use in clearcuts (haul
(haul line)
line) but isis also
also used
used for
for downhill
downhill yarding.
yarding. The logging
The logging
pattern shown in
in Figure 31
31 is
is typical for highlead
highlead logging.
logging. No carriage
No carriage is
is used.
used. The
mainline
mainline and haul back line are connected
haulback connected with
with aa set
set of
of swivels
swivels and
and chain,
chain, called
called butt
butt rigging
rigging
(Figure 43 on Page
Page 53), which isis designed
designed toto accommodate
accommodate two
two or
or three
three chokers.
chokers. Maximum
Maximum
yarding distance is
is normally
normally about 300 meters.
300 meters. The logs being yarded usually drag on the
ground.
The
The crew consists of four or
or more men:
men: one machine,
machine. operator,
operator, one
one landing man (chaser),
(chaser),
ane
one man
man who oversees the yarding activities, and
and one
one or
or more
more chokermen.
chokermen.
- 38-
38

Usage

The large mobile tower


tower yarders being
being manufactured
manufactured today
today are
are basically
basically designed
designed for
for
clearcut
clearcut llogging
ogging of the large timber in in the steep terrain found on on the west coast
coast of North
America.
America. Since these systems are designed
designed to handle large,
large, heavy
heavy wood,
wood, they
they have found
f ound
in other
acceptance in othe r parts
parts of
of the
the world
world where
where such
such wood
wood is
is found
found in
in terrain
terrain which
which requires
requires
of cable
the use of cable systems.
systems. Yarding distancesof
Yarding distances of 2400
200 to
to 400
400 metres
metres are
are most
most common,
common, although
although
this
this can
can vary greatly depending upon the equipment,
equipment, terrain and other conditions,
conditions, and the
cable
cable configuration used.
used. A descri ption of
A description of the major cable configurations for large mobile mobile
tower yarders is
is given later
later on
on in this section.
in this section.

The
The crew norrrally consists of
normally consists of three
three to
to seven
seven men depending
depending upon the
the cable
cable configuration
configuration
and/or carriage used. More details are given in of the different
in the descriptions of
c onf igurat ions.
configurations.

In the
the felling operations
operations in
in large
large timber
timber it
it is
is important
important to
to fell
fell the
the trees inin aa
manner that will minimize breakage
brea.ka€e and
and the
the resultant
resultant value loss.
loss. In partial
partial cuts and
thinnings it is also necessary to direct
direct the
the trees so
so that the
the lateral
lateral yarding
yarding to
to the
skyline strip is as efficient as as possible.
possible. In clearcuts the most common felling pattern
is
is to
to direct
direct the
the trees
trees parallel with the contour as long as the terrain allows it. it. When
sharp ridges occur across the slope,
slope, it
it is
is normally
normally necessary
necessary to
to change
change the
the felling
felling
direction to
direction to avoid
avoid excessive
excessive breakage.
breakage. The trees should be felled parallel
parallel with
with each other
to
to minimize brea.ka€e.
minimize breakage. operations in
In felling operations in small timber, breakage
brea.ka€e is
is normally less
since
since the
the small stems are more resilient. In addition,
addition, the
the value loss when breakage
breakage occurs
is normally less in in aa small
small stem.
stem. Exceptions can be special
speCial products such
such as poles and
pilings.

chokers, the
When using chokers, the felling
felling direction,
direction, in re!~tion to
in relation to the
the yarding
yarding direction,
direction, is
is
critical to
not as critical to productivity
productivity asas when
when using
using aa grapple2/.
grapple1i. However, it
However, is advantageous
it is
(although
(although not
not always
always possible)
possible) for the felling direction to be parallel with the yarding
direction,
direction, especially when little or or no lift
lift can
can be
be applied
applied to
to the
the leading
leading ends
ends of
of the
the logs
logs
since han~upe
hang-ups will bebe reduced.
reduced.

When using grapples with mobile


mobile towers
towers it
it is
is most
most desirable
desirable that
that the
the trees
trees are
are felled
felled
at right angles to the direction of
at right of yarding
yarding because
because this
this allows
allows aa greater
greater number
number of
of logs
logs and
and
portion of
a greater portion of each
each log
l og to
to be
be exposed
exposed to
to each
each yarding
yarding strip.
strip. This permits
This permits the
the yarding
yarding
strips to bebe farther apart and thereby
thereby reduces
reduces the
the nuMber
number of
of yarding
yarding strips
strips required
required per
per
ope rat ing area.
operating area.

An important difference between


An important between using
using chokers
chokers and
and grapples
grapples is
is the
the effective
effective width
width of
of
the
the yarding strips.
strips. The chokermen can
can pull
pull the
the chokers
chokers out
out to
to either
either side
side of
of the
the yarding
logs.
strip to get logs. This increases the effective width ofof each
each yarding strip.
strip. A grapple
A grapple
can only pick up
up logs which lie
l ie under the
the grapple.

of aa grapple
The effective width of grapple yarding
yarding strip
strip is
is relatively
relatively limited.
limited. However, the
However, the
width of a yarding strip
strip can
can be
be increased
increased by
by side
side blocking.
blocking. The yarding
The yarding strips
strips usually
usually
landings as
radiate out from the landings as shown
shown in
in Figure
Figure 31.
31.

Large mobile tower yarders areare designed


designed for
for temporary
temporary location
location at
at oneone or
or more
more landings
landings
in or at
in at the edge of an operating
operating area.
su-ea. yarding machines
Since the yarding machines are
are somewhat
somewhat fixed in in
position and have no swing capabilities, the
swing capabilities, the incoming
incoming logs
logs are
are all
all placed
placed in the same
in the same
l ocation on
location on the landing.
landing. the landing
When the landing isis on
on aa truck
truck road,
road, aa loader
loader is is normally
normally kept
kept
at the the landing to keep it it open
open for
for incoming
incoming logs
l ogs and
and to
to load
load logs
logs on
on to
to trucks.
trucks. In planning
In planning
the
the operations it is is important toto consider
consider the
the difference
difference in productivity between
in productivity between the
the yarder
yarder
in order
machilUl in
and the loading machine order to
to keep
keep the
the operations
operatiollJ!l as
as synohonized
synohollized as
.... possible.
possible. In In such
such
0cases, produotivity of
....... , the productivity of the loader
loader isis limit
limit ed
ed to
to the
the productivity
productivity of
of thethe yarder.
yarcler.

Y
2/ A grapple/carriage
A grapple/oarriage combination is shown
ahow in Figure 47b,
__ 39
39__

Figure 32
32 -- Highlead with a Large (or
(or Medium)Mobile
Medium) Mobile
- Two
Tower Yarder - Two Operating
Ope rat ing Drums
Drums

A -MainLine
Main line
BHaulbackLine
B -Haulback LIne

Courtesy Skagit Corporation

2.5.5 Live
Live Skyline (Figure 33)
33)

These systems use a carriage and


and require
require aa yarder
yarder with
with two
two or
or more
more drums
drums depending
depending
upon the
upon the configuration
configuration used.
used. If the
the carriage used is is such that
that the
the chokers are attached to
it,
it, as·
as in
in Figure
Figure 44,
44, the
the mainline must bebe lowered
lowered inin order
order to
to reach
reach the
the logs,
logs, therefore
therefore the
the
system is
is best
best suited for aa clearcut operation.
operation.

If the skidding line can be pulled


pulled out
out of
of the
the carriage
carriage (Figures
(Figures 45,
45, 46
46 and
and 47a
47a on
on
Pages 54 and 56 respectively), thisthis system
system is
is better
better adapted
adapted for
for thinning,
thinning, oror partial
partial
cutting. two-drum yarders
When using two-drum yarders the
the system
system isis normally
normally only
only for
for uphill
uphill yarding
yarding with
with
the operating area
the carriage returning to the operating area by
by gravity
gravity (Figure
(Figure 33a).
33a). When using yarders
three or
with three or more
more operating
operating drums,
drums, the
the system
system can
can be
be used
used for
for uphill
uphill and
and downhill
downhill yarding
yarding
(Figure 33b).
33b). Maximum. yarding
Maximum yarding distance
distance isis about
about 750
750 metres.

Compared to the
the highlead system,
system, skyline
skyline systems
systems have
have the
the advantage
advantage of
of being
being able
able to
to
lift
lift the
the leading end of the logs,
logs, or
or the
the entire
entire logs,
logs, clear
clear of
of obstacles
obstacles on
on the
the ground.
ground. InIn
addition,
addition, using gravity to return the
the carriage
carriage to
to the
the operating
operating area
area has
has the
the advantage
advantage of
of aa
short
short cycle
cycle time
time due
due to
to the
the rapid
rapid return
return (can
(can exceed m/s) of
exceed 25 m/s) of the carriage to
to the
the
operating area.
area.

The
The crew for live skyline yarding
yarding with
with aa radio
radio controlled
controlled grapple
grapple carriage
carriage can
can be as
few as
as three
three men (including a man to
to take care
care of
of yarding
yarding strip
strip changes)
changes) since
since there
there is
is no
no
need to have a man
man at
at the
the landing
landing or
or for
for setting
setting chokers.
chokers. The crew
The crew for
for live
live skyline
skyline
yarding using a choker
choker carriage
carriage normally
normally consists
consists of
of five
five or
or more
more men.
men.
-40 -
-40 -

Fie¥re 33 -- Live
Figure 33 Live Skyline with a Large (or Medium) Mobile
Mobile
Tower Yarder

a.
a. Grav ity -- Two Operating
Gravity Ope rat Lng Drums

AMain
A-MainLine
Line
BHaulbeck
8-HaulbackLine
Une

b. - Three Operating
b. Slack Line - Operating Drums

zg,
AA-Skyline
Skyline
B
8- Haulback
Haulback Line
Line
C
C -Skidding
SkiddingLine
Li ne

Courtesy Skagit Corporation


Corporation
41°
- 41 -

2.5.6 Standing
Standing Skyline (Figure
(Figure 34)

These
These systems usually require
require aa yarder with two or or more drums depending upon the the
configuration used. If
If the
the skyline
skyline isis not
not controlled by one
controlled by one of
of the
the yarder
yarder drums,
drums, only
only
one
one drum.
drum is stand~ skyline
is required to operate some standing skyline systems (gravity).
(gravity). These systems
These systems
use aa carriage (Figures
(Figures 4545 and
and 46 onon Page
Page 54, and can bebe used for
for thinning,
thinning, and for
for
partial
partial cutting or clearcutting with the same same limitations
limitations as in the
the live
l ive skyline systems.
systems.
Some
Some standing skyline systems,
systems, such aas s the
the north
north bend system shown in in Figur e 34, are
Figure are used
used
for decked logs.
for swinging decked logs. Maximum
Maximum yarding
yarding distance isis normally
normally about
about 600 metres,
metres, although
some
some yarders can yard
yard up
up toto 11 200
200 metres.
metres.

The
The crew for a standing skyline
skyline system usually consists of five
five or more men.
men.

34 -- Standing Skyline Yarding


Figure 34 Yarding with
with aa Large
Large (or
(or Medium)
Medium)
Mobile
Mobile Tower Yarder -- Two Operating Drums plus
Skyline
Skyline (North Bend configuration)
configuration)

AMain
A-MainLine
Line
8BHaulback
- HautbackLine
Line
CSkytine
C-Skytine

Corporat ion
Courtesy Skagit Corporation

6- Small }.lobile
Table 6 - Small Mobile Tower Yarders -- General Specifications
SEecifications
load capacity
Maximum load capacity to 22 500
600 to 500 kg
kg
- Skyline
Maximum pulling power - 2D to 200
20 200 kN
kN
(2 000 to 20 kp)
20 400 kP)
Maximum pulling power - Mainline kN
10 to 70 kN
(1 000 to 77 100
(1 kp)
100 kp)
Maximum pulling
Maximum pulling power -
- Haulback 10 to 60 kN
(1 000 to
(1 to 66 100 kp)
100 kp)
Maximum line
Maximum line speed -- Skyline
Skyline 0.5
0.5 to
to mi.
5.0 m/s
Maximum line
Maximum line speed -- Mainline 3.5 to
to 8.0 mls
8.0 m/s
line speed -- Haulback
Maximum line
Maximum 4.5 to m/s
8.0 m/s
to 8.0
Maximum drum
Maximum - Skyline
drum capacity - Skyline 300 to 800
BoO mm
Maxinru.m drum
Maximum drum capacity -- Mainline 300 to
300 to 11 200
200 mm
Maxinru.m drum
Maximum drum capacity -- Haulback
Haulback to 11 600
600 to 600 mm
Tower height 4.5 to 10.0
to 10.0 mm
power
Engine power 19 to 186
186 kW
kW
250 hp)
(25 to 250 hpj
(tower, yarder
Weight (tower, yarder and
and carrier)
carrier) 2000
2 20 000 kg
000 to 20
-- 42
42 --

Table
Table 7 -- Medium Mobile Tower Yarders -- General
General S~cifications
Specifications

pulling power
Maximum pulling power -- Skyline
Skyline 110
170 to 500 kN
(17 300
(17 to 51 000 kp)
kp)
Maximum pull ing power
pulling power -
- Mainline 110 280 kN
to 280
200
(11 200 to 28
to 28 500
500 kp)
kp)
pull ing power -- Haulback
Maximum pulling 100 to
to 240
240 kN
(10
(10 200
200 to 24 500
to 24 500 kP)
kp)
Maximum line speed -- Skyline 4.0 to
4.0 to 10.0 m/s
10.Q m/s
line speed -- Mainline
Maximum line 4.0 to
4.0 to 16.0 m/sm/s
Maxinru.m line speed -- Haulback
Maximum 5.0 to 16.0
5.0 to m/s
m/s
Maximum drum capacity -- Skyline
Maxirm.t.m 200
200 to 1 500
500 m
m
Maximum drum capacity -
- Mainline
Mainline 150 to 1 300
150 300mm
Maximum drum capacity -- Haulback 350 to 1 300 mm
350
Tower height to 20.0
7.5 to 20.0 mm
Engine power to 261
45 to 261 kW
kW
(60 to 350
(60 to 350 hP)
hp)
Weight (tower, yarder
yarder and
and carrier)
carrier) 14 000 50 000 kg
000 to 50

Table S~cifications
Table 8 -- Large Mobile Tower Yarders -- General Specifications
Maximum pulling
pulling power
power -- Skyline
Skyline 340 to
340 to 11 600
600 kN
kN
(34
(34 700
700 to 163
163 100
100 kP)
kp)
Mainline
power -- Mainline
Maximum pulling power 310 to
310 to 11 300
300 kN
kN
132 500
(31 600 to 132 500 kp)
kp)
power -- Haulback
Maximum pulling power Haulback to88okN
110 to 880 kN
89 700
(11 200 to 89 700 kp)
kp)
speed -- Skyline
Maximum line speed m/s
10.0 m/s
4.0 to 10.0
Maximum line speed -- Mainline
line speed Mainline 4.0 m/s
to 13.0 m/s
Maxinnlm line speed -- Haulback
Maximum line 9.0 to 30.0
to m/s
30.0 m/s
capacity -- Skyline
Maximum drum capacity 5(J0 mm
500 to 900
500
capacity -- Mainline
Maximum drum capacity to 900
300 to
300 5(J0 mm
capacity -- Haulback
Maximum drum capacity Haulback to 11 BOO
5(J0 to
900 800 mm
Tower height to 37 mm
15 to
Engine
Engine power 224 to 485 kW
to 650
(300 to 650 hp)
hJl)
Weight (tower, yarder
yarder and
and carrier)
carrier) 30 000 to 120 000 kg
kg

2.6
2.6 Running Skyline Swing Yarders

Running skyline swing


awing yarders (Figure
(Figure 35)
35) have
have received
received rapid
rapid acceptance since
since their
in the Pacific Northwest region
introduction in region of
of North America
America at
at the
the end
end of
of the
the 1960's.
1960's.

This system has the advantage of


of being very mobile,
mobile, has
has aa swinging
swinging boom and normally
uses aa slackpulling
slackpulling carriage
carriage with
with chokers
chokers (Figure
(Figure 47a
47a on Page 56), or
on Page or with
with aa grapple
grapple
on Page
(Figure 47b on Page 56).
- 43
43-

Running skyline
Running skyl ine swing
swing yarders
yarders are
are designed
designed in
in the following way:
the following

The three main components (tower,


(tower, yarder and carrier) come as
a complete unit.

The leaning steel tower is


is normally of lattice
lattice construction.
construction.

leaning steel
The leaning steel tower
tower is
is normally
normally stabilized
stabilized with
with two
two
guylines.

yarder has three operating


The yarder operat ing drums:
drums:
- 22 mainline
mainl ine drums
drums (or
(or a mainline
mainl ine drum
drum and
and aa
slackpulling drum)
slackpulling drum)
- 11 interlocked
interlocked and tensioned
tensioned haulback
haulback drum.
drum.

strawline drum.
In addition the yarder has a strawline drum. The strawline
is
is normally
normally only used for laying
laying out and changing the
operating lines.
operating lines.

The
The yarder and the leaning steel
steel tower are mounted
mounted on
on aa swing
swing
assembly on the carrier and the entire unit is
is self-
self-
propelled.

The self-propelled carrier is


is either rubber-tyred
rubber-tyred or
or tracked.
tracked.

The
The carrier and yarder are powered
powered by the same
same engine.

llie
The general specifications for running
running skyline
skyline swing yarders are given in
swing yarders Table 9
in Table
on Page 46.
Page 46.

Some selected examples are


are given in Appendix
Appendix 1.

To take advantage ofof the


the mobility
mobility of
of this
this yarding
yarding system,
system, the
the harvesting
harvesting
operations
operations can be planned so that
that the running skyline
skyline swing
swmg yarder
yarder can
Can move
move along the
the road
road
pile the yarded
and pile yarded logs
logs on
on the
the road
road behind
behmd itit as
as shown
shown in
in Figure 36.
Figure 36. This is especially
applicable when using
using a grapple carriage
carriage in
in aa clearcut
clearcut area.
area. that the
Note that the trees
trees are
are
shown
shown to
to be
be felled at right
right angles to the yarding
yardmg direction
direction for
for grapple yarding. Yardmg
Yarding
or downhill.
can be uphill or downhill .

Piling the logs on


on the road
road eliminates
eliminates thethe need
need for
for large
large landing
landing areas.
areas. This
need to keep a loading
also eliminates the need loadmg machine
machine at
at the
the landing
landing as
as compared
compered to the
the
situation
situation when
when stationary cable systems are used. With aa running
running skyline
skyline swing
swing yarder
the loader can move in after the yarder
in after yarder has
has finished
fmished the
the area,
area, and
and load
load the
the logs
logs out
out on
on
a continuous basis (progressing
a (progressing from
from BB to
to AA as
as shown
shown in
m Figure 36).
Figure 36).

If the
the road system is
is such that logs
logs can
can be hauled
hauled out
out in
in the
the opposite
opposite direction,
direction,
transportation can
the loading and transportation can begin
begm before
before the
the yarder
yarder has
has finished
finished in
in the
the operating
operating
area (in this case progressing from A
A to BB as
as shown
shown in
m Figure 36).
Figure 36).

In either case the


the loading and transportation isis not
not affected
affected by
by the
the yarder's
yarder's
productivity and these activities do not, therefore, interfere
interfere with
with each
each other.
other. This
utilization and
permits better equipment utilization and productivity
productivity than
than the
the situation
situation described
described for
for
large
large mobile tower yarders (see Page 35).
mobile tower
_44
44 _
...,

35 - Running Skyline
Figure 35 Skyline Swing
Swing Yarders
Yarders

a. Slackpulling
a. Slackpulling Carriage
Carriage with
with Chokers
Chokers

Slackpulling Carriage

AHaulback Line
A-Haulback Line
BMain Lines
B-Maln lines (2)
(2)

b. Carriage with Grapple


b. Slackpulling Carriage Grapple

Slackpulling Carriage

Grapple
Grapple

A Haulback Line
A-Haulback Line
B
B -Main
Mal"Lines
Lines(2)
(2)

Courtesy Skagit Corporation


-- 45
45 -

36 - Running Skyline Swing Yarder


Figure 36 Yarder Using
Using aa Grapple
Grapple in
in aa Clearcut
Clearcut

Guylines
A
A 8
\
Logs decked
Log& di?cked
• Direction
+
on road
on I"-
rood ----.. 1 of travel --... Road
/
--lr~o~_~o~o~oUJlollUJl~~'~~~~ ~~~~~~~~------------------------:I-------
__ 7-,
l 0-00 0 00 o 0 0
i I 0
a00
J 0 000 000
I 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0
0
0
, \ ==~~==
\\c:: =
"et

=~===,==
= = I
I
I
I
100000 = I
Yarding _.t. ~
0 o
0 0 0 0
O
= ~ _. ~. _ Yarding c::=::=:::::>

dlrection-r
direcfion -~-
I o 0o 0o 00 0
o 0
o ~
= ___ ~ -- -r-- direction
direction
===,) I

i I:: ~oardoedooar;ao
Yarded area
o
o
o
o
0 0o == =
to be
Logs to
=
be yarded
yarded ==----:: r
o Lin~s
o ------y--' =
o o
looooo~
I 0 00
oo o
o Lines
o

o
=
~
=
I
o 00 00
o oo° ~== I

,
~
\
'...... o0 0000 0
------------ ----------
0
0
0 0
-
0
----'"
/
/

\ Tail
TaH holds
holds
t

Although aa running
Although running skyline
skyline system
system need
need only
only consist
consist ofof an
an interlocked
interlocked mainline
mainline and and
haulback, in practice it
haulback, in it consists of
of two
two mainlines
mainlines (a
(a mainline
mainline and
and slack-pulling
slack-pulling line)
line) andand
a haulback line.
line. The
The haul back is
haulback is tensioned
tensioned to
to provide
provide lift.
lift. B,y employing
By employing two
two mainlines
mainlines
it is
it is possible
possible to control the slackpulling operations from the the yarder.
yarder. load is
The load is
supported by
by the
the running skyline (which
(which is also the haulback) plus plus the haulback and the
mainline(s). Since the
the load is
is supported by the equivalent of of two
two lines,
lines, these lines
lines canCan
be lighter than any single line
line required
required to
to support
support the
the load.
load. The best and most
most efficient
efficient
means of maintaining the
the tension between
between the
the mainlines
mainlines andand haulback
haulback and
and at
at the
the same
same time
time
conserving as much as possible of of the power
power used
used in maintaining this
in maintaining this tension,
tension, isis through
through
the use of
of an interlock.
interlock. This tension system allows the deflection of the lines to increase increase
with an increased load,
load, rather than increasing
increasing the
the tension
tension ofof the
the lines.
lines. This minimises
overloading the running skyline
the lines and the running skyline anchors.
aI'lOhors.

skyline systems,
As with all skyline systems, running
running skylines
skylines require
require proper
proper deflection.
deflection. Deflection
Deflection
is affected by topography but can be improved
is improved by the proper
proper location
location of
of the
the harvesting
harvesting road.
road.
Once
Once the
the road has been located,
located, the only
only means of
of increasing
increasing deflection
deflection is
is to
to elevate
elevate the
the
single
single tail
tail block, used.
block, since intermediate supports are not used.

system uses aa slackpulling


Since this system slackpulling carriage
carriage with
with chokers
chokers or
or aa grapple,
grapple, it
it can
can be
be
thinning, partial
used for thinning, partial cutting
cutting and
and clearcutting.
clearcutting. When using aa grapple in
in aa clearcut,
clearcut,
the
the machine
machine operator handles all yarding and decking
decking operations
operations from
from the cab
cab of
of the
the yarder.
yarder.
view of
When the operator has a good view of the
the harvesting
harvesting area
area he
he positions
positions the
the grapple
grapple over
over the
the
logs,
logs, picks
picks up
up the
the logs,
logs, yards them to the decking area,
area, places
places them
them in
in the
the deck
deck by opening
opening
the grapple and returns the
the grapple to
to the
the logging
logging area
area to
to pick
pick up
up the
the next
next log(s).
loges).
-=_

__46_
46 _

The cycle is
The is repeated until it
it is
is necessary to
to move
move the yarder or
or the tailhold.
tailhold. If the
If the
operator cannot see the logs to be picked up,
up, the man in
in the logging area guides him to the
by giving him directions over
logs by over a radio.

When using
When using aa grapple
grapple the
the workers
workers do
do not
not need
need to
to get
get near
near the
the operating
operating lines.
lines.
Because of
of this
this it
it is
is possible
possible to
to safely
safely operate
operate the
the grapple
grapple system
system at
at night
night by
by illuminating
illuminating
the operating area
the operating area with
with lights.
lights. This greatly increases
increases the available operating time which
is advantageous,
is due to
advantageous, due to the
the high investment
investment cost
cost of
of the
the JlaI'der.
yarder.

consists of
The crew consists of' two
two or
or three
three men
men in
in aa grapple
grapple operation:
operation: one yarder operator,
operator,
two or more
two or more men in
in the
the logging
logging area,
area, and
and one
one man
man at
at the
the landing.
landing. in the logging
The men in
area are
are responsible for making the tailhold
tailhold changes.
changes. A mobile
A mobile tailhold,
tailhold, normally mounted
on an old crawler tractor,
tractor, is
is often
often used a grapple operation
in a
used in operation in clearcut area.
in a clearcut area. This
allows the
the tailhold to
to be moved
moved quickly
quickly and
and easily.
eaSily.

operations are
The felling operations are the
the same
same as
as described
described under
under Large
Large Mobile
Mobile Tower
Tower Yarders.

skyline swing
There are running skyline swing yarders
yarders which
which are
are capable
capable of
of yarding
yarding distances
distances of
of
more than
more than 650 metres. the Pacific
in the
However, in Pacific Northwest it
it is
is common
common practice
practice to
to use a
yarding distance of
of 200
200 to
to 225
225 metres.

Running skyline
Running skyline swing
swing yarders
yarders can
can also
also be
be used
used in
in other
other cable
cable configurations,
configurations, such
such
as
as highlead,
highlead, gravity, etc.
gravity, etc.

skyline yarders are used


Some running skyline used with
with the
the carriers
carriers and
and towers
towers described
described under
under
Large
Large Mobile Tower Yarders.

Table 99 -- Running Skyline Swing Yarders


General Specifications

Maximum pulling power -- Mainlines 220 to 550 kN


kN
(22 400 to 56 100 kp)

Maximum pulling power -- Haulback 70 to 530


70 53:> kN
kN
(7
(7 100 to 54 kp)
54 000 kp)

~in. speed -- Mainlines


Maximum line 4.0 to 15.0
15.0 mls
m/s

Maximum line speed -- Haulback 4.0 to 16.0 mls


m/s

Maximum drum capacity - Mainlines 450 to 850 m


m

Maximum drum capacity - Haulback 700 to 1 500


700 500 m
m

Tower height
he ight 13.5 to 19.0 mm
Engine power 142 to 343 kW
(19J to 460
(190 460 hp)
hll)
Weight (tower,
(tower, yarder and carrier)
yarder and carrier) 40000 9JOOOkg
40 000 to 90 000 kg
Table 10 -- Comparison of the
the Different
Different Cable
Cable Yarding
Yarding System Classifioations -- General
System Classifications General Speoifioations
Specifications
through 9 (eEluding
Summary of Tables 1 through Table 4)
(excluding Table 4)
Classifica.tion
'Classification Independent
Independent Bunohing
Bunching Machin~maunted
Machine-mounted Yarders Yarding Trailers for Con-
Winches Winches tinuous Mainline
tinuous Mainline System
System
Maximum pulling power 5 to 45 kN
kN 10 to 735 kN
kN 10 to 150
10 to 150 kN 60kN
60 kN
(590 to
(500 4 500
500 kiD)
kP) (1 000 to 75 000
000 kp)
kp) (1
(1 000
000 to 15 000 kp)
to 15 kp) 000 kp)
(6 000 kp)
Maxirmun 1 ine speed
Maximum line 0.4 to 1.5 m/s
m/s mls
. 4 to 2.5 m/s
00.4 mls
2.0 to 10.0 m/s m/s
1.4 mis
Maximum drum capaoi ty
capacity 50 to 25 m
m 30 to 800 mm 600 to 44 200
600 200 mm 400 mm
"Tower" height o0 to 5.5 m
m 44mm
Engine
Engine power 4 to 37 kW
kW 11 to 336 klI
11 to kW 7 to 149 kW kW
88 kW
50 hpj
(5 to 50 hp) (15 to 450 hpj
450 hP) (10 200 hp)
(10 to 200 hpj (120 hp)
(120 hpj
Weight 40 to 750 kg
kg 100 to 2 000 kg
kg 500 to 7 000 kg 14000
14 000 kg

Classification Small Mobile Tower Medium Mobile Tower Large


Large Mobile
Mobile Tower Running Skyline
S}l;yline Swing
Yarders Yardere
Yarders Yarders Yarders
pull ing power -- Skyline
Maximum pulling 20 200kikr
to 200
20 to kN 170 500 kN
to 500 kN 340 to 11 600 kN
kN
(2 000 to 20 400 kp)
20 400 kp) 300
(17 300 to 51000 kp)
51 000 kp) (34
(34 to 163 100
700 to kp)
100 kp)
Maximum pulling
pulling power
power -- Mainline
Mainline 10 to 70 ldf
kN 110 kN
to 280 kN 310 to 1 300
300 kN 220
220 to 550
550 kN
(1 000 to 7 100
(1 000 100 kp)
kp) (11 200
200 28 500
to 28 500 kp)
kp) 600 to
(31 600 to 132 500 kp)
132 500 kp) (22 400
400 to
to 56 100 kp)
100 kP)
Maximurn
Maximum pull1ng
pulling power -- Haulback 10 to 60 kN
leN 100 to 240 kN
240 kN 110 to
110 to 880 kN
880 kN 70 to 530 kN
70 kN !;
(1 000 to 6 100
100 kp)
kp) (10
(10 200
200 to 24 500
500 kp)
kP) (11 200 to 89 700
700 kp)
kp) (7 100 to 54 000 kp)
000 kP) I
Maximum line
Maximum line speed
speed -- Skyline
Skyline 00.5
. 5 to
to 5.0 mi.
5.0 mis 4.0 to 1000
10.0 m/smi. 4.0 to 10.0 m/s
to 10.0 m/s
Maxinru.m line
Maximum line speed
speed -- Mainline
Mainline 3.5 to
to 8.0 mi.
8.0 m/s 4.0 to 16.0 m/smi. 4.0
4 .0 to
to 13.0
13.0 mi.
m/s 4.0 to 15.0
to 15.0 mi.
m/s
Maximum line speed -- Haulbaok 4.5 to 8.0 mi.
m/s 5.0 to 16.0 mi.
mis 30.0
9.0 to 30 mi.
.0 m/s 4.0 to
to 16.0 mi.
m/s

Maximum drum capacity -- Skyline 300


300 to 800 mm 200 to 1 500 m
200 to m to 900
500 to 900 mm
drum capacity
Maximum drum capacity -- Mainline
Mainline 300
300 to 1 200 m
200 m 150
150 to 1 300 m
m 300 to 900
300 900 mm 450 to 850 mm
450
Maximum drum capacity -- Haulback 600 to 11 600 mm 300 mm
350 to 1 300 900 to 800 mm
to 11 800 700 to 1 500 mm
Tower height 4.5 to 10.0 mm 7.5 to 20.0 m
m 15.0
15.0 to
to 37.0 m
m 13.5
13.5 to 19.0 m
m

Engine power 19 to 186


19 186 kW 45 to 261 kW 224
224 to
to485
485kW kW 142
142 to 343
343 kW
kW
(25 to 250
(25 250 hp)
hpj (60 to 350 hP)
hpj (300 to 650
(300 650 hp)
hpj (190
(190 to
to 460
460 hP)
hpj
Weight (tower, carrier) 2000
(tower, yarder && carrier) 20 000 kg
to 20
2 000 to kg 14 000 kg
to 50 000 kg 30
30 000 to 120 000 kg kg 40 000 to 90 000 kg
000 to
-- 48 --

3.
3. CARRIAGES AND ACCESSORIES
ACCESSORIES

Carriages are available in


in many different designs.
many different designs. Carriage design
Carriage design must
must be
be
compatible
compatible with the
the harvesting conditions
conditions and
and requirements
requirements and with thethe cable
cable logging
logging system
system
which will be used.
used. These
These design features
features are important in
are important in the
the classification of carriages
in accordance with the types
in types of
of application
application for
for which
which the
the aarriage
carriage can
can be
be used.
used.

Some important
important factors
factors which determine
determine the
the type
type of
of application for
for aa carriage
carriage are:
are:

- whether or not the carriage can pass over intermediate


intermediate skyline
sk;yline supports

whether the
the aarriage
carriage is
is held
held in
in position
positior. on
on the
the skyline
sk;yline with
with aa carriage
carriage
stop,
stop, carriage clamp or
or operating
operating lines
lines

whether or
or not
not the
the carriage
carriage is
is dependent
dependent upon
upon gravity
gravity to
to carry
carry it
it in
in one
one
direction along the sk;yline
the skyline

- whether or
or not the aarriage
carriage has skidding
skidding capabilities
capabilities

the cable logging systems with which the


the carriage
carriage can
can be used.

Since most carriages have a combination of


of operating
operating features
features and the same
same carriage
carriage
can
can often be
be used in different
different w~, different applications and used with
ways, modified for different
different cable
different cable logging
logging systems,
systems, it
it is
is impossible
impossible to
to classify
ClaSSify each
each Garriage
carriage into
into aa single
single
oategory.
category.

The major carriage features and some


some modification possibilities are described
described below.

3.1 Single-Span Skyline Carriage

carriages cannot
Such carriages cannot pass
pass over
over intermediate
intermediate skyline
sk;yline supports
supports and
and therefore
therefore are
are
limited to single span
span usage.
usage. e:mrnples in
See the examples in Figures 37 (below), 44,
37 (below), 44, 45,
45, 46
46 and
and 47
47
on Pages 53, 54
54 and
and 56 respectively.
It
It should be noted modified for multispan
noted that some of these carriages can be modified
sk;y I ine usage.
skyline

Figure 37
37 -- Single Span
Span Carriage
Carriage

Held in pos1tion with


in position with operating
operating lines,
lines, Non--gravity,
Non-graVity, Skidding Capability.
Capability.
(Normally used with double drum Machine-mounted Winches and Small Mobile
Tower Yarders)

Skyline

Haulback _ _-yI'
Mainline
(Skidding Line
(Skidding Line)I Mainline
(Skidding Line)

Courtesy James Jones & Limited


& Sons Limited
49 -
-- 49-

3.2
3.2 Multispan Skyline Carriage

Such
Such carria<;es
carriages are designed to pass over intermediate skyline supports and therefore
can be used multispan skylines.
used on multispan skylines. See the
the examples
examples in Figures 38, 39,
in Figures 40, 41
39, 40, 41 and
and 42.
42.

Figure 38
Figure 38 -- Multispan
MultisPan Carriage
Held in
in position
position with
with operating
operating lines,
lines, Non-gravity,
Non-gravity, Skidding
Skidding Capability,
Capability,
(Normally used with Small
Small Mobile
Mobile Tower
Tower Yarders)
Yarders)

r---~Skylin.
Skyline

Haulback

Mainline _ _-'-_ __
Mainline J

ISkidding Line)
(Skidding Line) Courtesy James Jones &: Sone Ltd
& Sons Ltd

3.3ri
3.3 Carriage Stops
tosCaa

Carria<;e stops are ane


Carriage one means of holding the carriage in in position on
on the skyline.
skyline . An
An
example of aa carria<;e
carriage used with carriage
carria<;e stops is
is shown
shown in 39. Carriage
in Figure 39. Carria<;e stops
stops can
Can be
moved to any location along the skyline and locked
locked in
in place
place by
by aa man
man on
on the ground.
ground . When
When the
the
carria<;e
carriage comes into contact with the carriage
carria<;e stop
stop it
it is
is automatically
automat ically locked
locked inin place.
place. The
The
choker hook
hook can then be lowered by letting the operating
operating line
line feed
feed through
through the carriage
carria<;e (gravity
(graVity
system)
system) or byby feeding out the skidding line from an an internal
internal skidding
skidding drum (non-gravity system).
drum (non-gravity
logs is
When the turn of the logs is brought
brought into
into the
the carriage,
carriage, the
the carriage
carriage isis automatically
automatically released.
released.
39 -- Carriage Stops
Figure 39 Stops
Multispan carriage,
carria<;e, heliin
heldin position
position with
with carriage
carriage stops,
stops, Non-gravity,
Capability (Normally
Skidding Capability (Normally used
used with
with Yarders
Yarders and
and Small
Small Mobile
Mobile Tower
Tower
Yarders)
Carhage
Carriage Stop
(Landing)
ILanding) t Carriage Stop
r(Loading)
Sky line
Skyline ~_..../...:.!!..:..).......J.~::":-)---IZ~

Operating ~
Line
(Endless)
IEndless)
Skidding Internal
Line C;kidd'ina Drum
Skidding Drum

Choker
Choker
Hook

Reinh old Hinteregger


Courtesy Reinhold
-50 -
-so

3.4 Load Beam

(F~ 40) consist of


Such units (Figure of a set of
of blocks and bars which are attached to
carriages of the type shown in
in FigUres
Figures 39 and
and 41.
41.

Load beams increase of the carriage by 50 percent and allow


increase the load capacity of allow the
the
load to be transported
transported horizontally.
horizontally.

Figure 40 -- Load Beam


Beam

Multispan Carriages, held_


held in
in position
position with
with Carriage
Carriage Stops
Stops or
or
Clamps, Non-gravity or
Clamps, or Gravity,
Gravity, Limited
Limited Skidding Capability
Capability
(Normally used with Yarders)

Courtesy Reinhold
ReinhOld Hinteregger

3.5 Clamping Carriage

Such carriages employ one


one or
or more
more carriage
carriage mounted
mounted clamps
clamps to hold carriage in
hold the carriage
on the
position on the skyline.
skyline. activated by
The clamps are activated by aa timer,
timer, by
by radio
radio or
or manually
manually when
the carriage is
is stopped.
stopped. skidding line
The skidding line is
is fed
fed out
out in
in the
the manner
manner described
described above under
Stop.
Carriage Stop. of logs
When the turn of logs is
is brought up
up to
to the
the carriage
carriage the clamp
clamp is
is released
automatically or
automatically or by
by radio.
radio.

Examples of
of the most common
conmon types
types of
of clamping
clamping carriages
carriages used
used with
with yarders
yarders are
are shown
shown
in 41.
Figure 41. These
These carriages employ
employ one
one clamp.
clamp. Another clamping
Another clamping carriage
carriage construction,
construction,
is used
which is used with yarders,
yarders, is shown in Figure
Figure 42.
42. of carriage
This type of carriage uses
uses two
two clamps:
clamps:
one
one on the
the skyline and one on the haulback line.
haulback line.

'!he
The mainline,
mainline, haulback line and skidding
skidding line
line are connected
connected at a squirrel
squirrel carriage
which runs on on the
the skyline.
skyline. The lines can also be connected with a three-way swivel.swivel. The
The
clamps function in in such
such a manner
manner that
that when
when the
the · skyline
skyline clamp
clamp is
is open,
open, the
the haulback
haulback clamp
clamp isis
closed. In this situation the carriage can be moved an the skyline
moved on skyline by
by moving
moving the
the operating
operating
line. When the carriage isis positioned
positioned and
and the
the skyline
skyline clamp
clamp is
is closed,
closed, the
the haulback
haulback clamp
clamp
is
is opened and thethe skidding line can be let out and and pulled
pulled inin by moving the operating lines.
lines.
one shown
Clamping carriages such as the one shown in F~ 45 on Page 54 return to the
in Figure
operating area by gravity,
gravity, are positioned
positioned in
in the
the· skyline
skyline with
with the
the mainline,
mainline, the
the clamp
clamp is
is
activated manually or
or by radio and the skidding
skidding line
line can
can then
then be
be pulled
pulled out.
out. The type of
shown in
carriage 6hown in Figure
Figure 46 an operated in the sane
on Page 54 is operated carriage in
same manner as the carriage
Figure 45, with the
the exception of the skidding line
line which isis operated
operated by aa radio-controlled
radio-controlled
in the carriage.
motor in
_ 51 _

Figure 41 - Clamping
Clam-ping Carriages,
Carria.ges,Single
Single Clamp
Clamp Design
Design

Multispan Carriages,
Carriages, held in
in position with Carriage
Clamp,
Clamp, Skidding Capability
(Normally used
used with Yarders and Small
Small Mobile Tower
Tower
Yarders)
Yarders)

a.
a. Gravity with
with Load

Clamp

Skyline

Operating
. Line
Line /
(Skidd ing Line'
(Skidding line

Hook
Choker Hook

b. Non-gravity
b. Nongravity

Skyline

Operating
i
Line
~ (Endless
(Endless))

Internal Skidding
\Inlernal
Drum
Drum

Skidding Line
Line

Courtesy BACD Seilbahnen


BACO Seilbahnen
=.Gg01

-52 --

Figure 42 -- Clamping
Clamping Carriage
Carriage -
- Two-Clamp Design

held in
Carriage, held
Multispan Carriage, in position
position with Carriage
Carriage Clamp,
Clamp, Non-gravity,
Non-gravity,
Skidd~ Capability (Normally used with Yarders and
Skidding Capability and Small
Small Mobile
Mobile Tower
Tower
Yarders)

C.arriage L Squirrel carnage


Squirrel carriage
-Skyline

____~::~~~~~;t::::::::~H:a:u:lba::C:k::li:ne::::::::c/;1J ,
Haulback line

Clamps
Skidding line
Skidding line
r
or
or
. j Mainline

,h,SWivel
V. Swivel

'VI
, /
--
3.6
3.6 Operating Lines
Operating Lines

When carriage stops or clamps are not employed,


employed, the operating
operat:i118 lines
lines are used to hold
in position
the carriage in position on
on the Skyline.
skyline. In the examples shown in
In in Figures 37 and 38,
)8, the
is ,returned
carriage is the operating
retunied to the operating area
area with
with the
the haulback
haulback line
line and
and is
is positioned
positioned along
along
skyline with the mainline
the skyline mainline and
and haulback
haulback line.
line. In these
these examples the mainline also
serves as the skidding
skidding line.
line.

sh own in
The type of carriage shown in Figure 44
44 returns
returns to
to the
the operating
operating area
area by
by gravity and
is positioned on the
is the skyline with the mainline. Some
Some carriages of this design also
also have
have aa
clamp.
skyline clamp. SinM there are only
Since only chokers
chokers and
and no
no skidding
skidding line,
line, the
the skyline
skyline must be
in order for the chokers to
lowered in to be connected
connected around
around the
the logs.
l ogs.

Carriages
Carriages of the
the type
type shown in Figure 47 are returned to the operating
Shown in operatillg area with
with the
the
haulback line
haulback line which also
also serves
serves as
as the
the running
runnillg skyline.
skyline. The carriage isis positioned with the
haulback line.
mainlines and haulback line. skiddillg line
The skidding line shown
shown in
in Figure 47a
47a (on
(on Page 56), is
56), is
operated with the mainlines (mainline
(mainline and
and slackpulling
slackpullillg line)
line) as
as is
is the
the grapple
grapple line
line in
in
Figure 47h
47b (on
(on Page 56). The grapple line
Page 56). line opens
opens and
and closes
closes the
the grapples.
grapples. the
Since the
is attached
grapple is attached to the
the carriage
carriage and
and cannot
cannot be
be lowered,
lowered, it
it is
is necessary
necessary toto lower
lower the
the
in order
carriage in order for
for the
the grapple
grapple ,to
to grab any logs.
grab any logs. However,
However, the skidding
skiddillg line
line can usually
usually
extended out
be extended out to 40 mm or
or more
more with
with such
such carriages.
carriages.

3.7 Carriage
Gravity Carriage

Such carriages depend upon gravity


gravity to
to carry
carry the
the carriage
carriage down
down the
the skyline.
skyline. European
gravity carriages,
carriages, such
such as
as that
that shown
shown in
in Figure
Figure 41a,
41a, normally
normally use
use gravity
gravity to
to transport
transport the
the
loaded.
carriage when loaded.

The North American gravity carriages,


AmeriGan gravity carriages, such
such as
as those
those shown
shown in
in Figures 44, 45 and 46 on
Figures 44, on
and 54 normally
Pages 53 and normally use gravity
gravity to
to transport
transport the
the carriage
carriage without
without aa load.
load.
-- 53
53 --

43 -- Highlead
Figure 43 Hi/ll11ead Butt Rigging
Rigging -- Two-Choker
'l'w<r-Choker Design
Design

Single-span from Tower to Tailblook,


Tailblook, Non-gravity,
Non-gravity, Held
in
in position with
with Operating Lines;
Lines; No
No Skidding Capability
Large
(Normally used with Medium and Large Mobile Tower
Mobile Tower Yarders)
Yarders)

Haulback
Houlbock Swivel Swivel
Swivel oinline
line
line

ShocklEs
Jotc-----'- Shackles
Shack In --'---"",

Swivel
\.I;;r-- Swivel Swivel

But! hook
Butt

Chok~r
Choker

3.8 Non-gravity Carriage


Non-gravity Carriage

Such carriages use operating


operating lines
lines to
to move
move the
the carriage
carriage in either direction
in either direction along
along
the skyline.
the sXyline. The term "all-terrain"
"all-terraie isis used
usedinin the
the European
European Alps
Alps to
to describe
describe cable
cable cranes
Cranes
which do not depend upon gravity
gravity for
for transporting
transporting thethe loaded
loaded carriage.
carriage. The carriages for
(Figures 39, 40, 41b and 42) are designed
these systems (Figures designed for
for uphill oror downhill
downhill yarding asas well
as for use over
over flat
flat terrain.
terrain.

'lhe
The carriages shown inin Figures 37, 38 and 39 can be used for uphill and downhill
37, 38
operations. If aa haulback line is
is attached
attached in
in addition
addition to
to the
the mainline,
mainline, carriages
carriag"s of
of the
the
in Figures 44, 45
types shown in 45 and 46
46 can
Can also be used
used for
for uphill
uphill and
and downhill
downhill operations.
operations.

44 --
Figure 44 Single-Span Carriage,
Single-Span Carriage. No
No Skidding
Skidding Capability
Capability
Held in
Held in position
position with operating
operating lines,
lines, Gravity without
without Load
(Normally used with Medium
Medium and Large Mobile Tower
and Large Tower Yarders)
Yarders)

Skyline

- Chokers
--54
54 --

3.99
3. ~
Butt Rigging
Rigging
111iJ
Thi3 is
is not
not aa carriage but
but is actually aa set of
of gwivels
swivels and chain which isis used to
connect
connect the
the mainline and haulback line together (Figure 43). Chokers
Chokers are
are fastened
fastened to the
to the
butt rigging. 111e
The butt
butt rigging is
is returned to the
the operating area with the
the haul back line
haulback
and is positioned with the mainline and haulback
haulback line.
line. Since there is
is no
no skidding
skidding line,
line,
the butt rigging must be lowered
lowered in
in order
order for
for the
the chokers
chokers to
to be
be connected
connected around
around the
the logs.
logs.

Figure
Figure 45
45 -- Single
Single Span Carriage,
Carriage, Skidding Capability
Held
Held in position with Carriage Clamp,
Clamp, Gravity without
Load (Normally used ~ge Mobile Tower
used with Medium and Large
Yarders)
Yarders)
Clamp
Clamp

Skylire
Skyline

Main line
(skidding line

~-- Chokers

3.10
3.10 Capability
Skidding Capability
has skidding
With a carriage which has skidding (later
(later yarding)
yarding) capability
capability it
it is
is possible
possible for
for aa
skidding line
line to be extended out
out from and
and gulled
pulled into
into the
the carriage.
carriage. skidding line
The skidding line is
is
usually either an operating
operating line
line which
which is
is pulled
pulled through
through the
the carriage (Figures 37,
carriage (Figures 38, on
37, 38,
Pages 48 and 49; Figure
Figure 41a,
41a, Page
Page 51; and Figure 45, above); aa separate skidding
and Figure skidding line
line
which is
is pulled through
through the
the carriage
carriage (Figures
(Figures 42
42 and
and 47a);
47a); or a separate
separate skidding
skidding line
line
is contained on
which is carri~mounted skidding
on aa carriage-mounted skidding drum (Figure 39 on Page 49; Figure
drum (Figure Figure 41b,
41b,
Page 51;
Page51 ; and Figure 46, below).

46 -- Single-Span or
Figure 46 or Multispan Carriage,
Carriage, Radio-Controlled
Radio-Controlled
in position
Held in position with Carriage
Carriage Clamp,
Clamp, Gravity
Gravity without
without Load
Load or
or
Skidding Capability
Non-gravity, Skidding Capability (Normally
(Normally used with Medium or
Large Mobile Tower Yarders)

Skyline Clamp

Mo'" ,line
Main line

Skidding line
II---Sk,dding line

Skidding
drum
Radio Motor
r - - - Chokers
Chokers
55 --
-55

A carriage
A carriage which
lih ich can
can be used for
for skidding
skidding is o f·~en called
is often called aG\ "slaekteelling oe.rris.gell
"alackpulling earriage"
in
in North
North America.
Ameriaa.

Carriages that
Ca.rriages that have
hav e skidding cseability can
ekiddirig cs..pability be ueed
ca."'! be uEed in a.~d eartial
thimlir.g and
in thinning cuttL1'lg
pa.rl;ial outtiag
"ell as cleaI'cll.t
operations as ..well operations *
clearcat operations. Carriagea
Carriages which
which do !.loi;
not h9.vS
have akidding capabilityeapability
(Figures 44 and 4Th,
(Figures 47t, and the butt rigging shown
shown inin F;igu:re 43) are
Figure 43) s:ra decigned
Q.esil[ned for for cIearout
c lca.:!'cut
operations,
operations. '!'he
The uusese of non-skiddi~ oarriags" for
nonskidding earriages for thinning
thim!.i\'lg and
and partial
,artie.! out.,...;~ operatians
opemt iana
usually results in in unnecessary damage to
unnecessary damage ·to the
the remainiag
remainir.g trees "e
trees as wellwell as
a s a'" greater
gl'""ter nuMber
number ofof
yarding strips
s trips when
when compared
compared to
to the
the uss
use of
of skidding
skiddL'lg carriages
carri ages in in the
the ea
""""" situation.
m sitastion.

The general specifications for carriages


carriages are given in
in Table
Table 11
11 an Page 57,
on Page and some
57, and some
selected examples are ggiven
iven in
in Appendix 1.
Appendix 1.

3.11 CaITiage and Cable


Cable Logging System Combirations
Combinations

The possible carriage and cable logging


logging system
system combinations
combinat ions are
are numerous and
and appear
appear
to
to . be in number.
be infinite in ntl'Tlber . Each of
of the captions for Figures 37 through 47 includes
includee aa comment
comment
regarding the
the cable system( s) with which the
cable logging system(s) the illustrated
illustrated tyTe
type of
of carriage
carriage is
is
normally used. Taese
These areare usually the systems for which the carriages
carriages were originally
originally
designed.
aesigned. This does not,
not, however, is limited
however, mean that usage is limited to
to the
the systems
B,Ysteme mentioned.
mentioned.

The
The types of carriages shown
shown in
in Figures 37 through 42 are commonly
commonl y used
used in
in Europe.
Th.e butt rigging
The r igging shown in Figure 43 and
shown in and the
the types of carriages shown in
oarriages Shown in Figures 44 through
47 are
are commonly used in
in North America.

'ilie important carriage


The important logging system(s)
oarriage features and the cable logging system( s) with which
which these
these
features are most commanly
commonly employed
employed are
are shown
shown in
in Table
Table 12.
12.

3.12 Sk;yline Load


f.y..211.he Load Capacity
Cuacity

of carriage design
An aspect of design that
that has anan important
important influence
influenoe uponupon the
the load
load capacity
capacity
of aa live or standing skyline
skyline is
is whether
whether the
the carriage
carriage isis unclamped
unclamped or or clamped
clamped toto the
the Skyline.
skyline.
Except for a chord slope of 00 percent
percent the
the load ""-"Tying
carrying capability
capability of of ..a skyline
Skyline with
with aa
clamped carriage will be less than for for an
an unclamped
unclamped carriage.
carriage. ~is difference
This diffeI'llnoe in
in load
capability can
capability can take
take on
on important
important proportians.
proportions. steep slope
With a very steep slope andand aa large
large
deflection (refer to Figure 48), e.g.
e.g. 80 percent chord slopeslope and 15 15 pereent
percent midspan
midspan
an unclamped
deflection, an unclamped carriage
carriage can
can have
have anan allowable
allowable payload
payl9ad. that
that isis more
more than
than )D
)) peeeent
peftlent
greater than for
greater for aa clamped
clamped carriage.
carriage. 'iliis is due to the assistance that
This the skyline
that the skyli"e receives
receives
mainline when
from the mainline when the
the mainline
mainline helps
helps aapport
support the
the load.
load. 'ilia difference
The difference in in load
load carrying
carrying
capability is
capability i8 valid
valid only
only for
for the
the time
time during
during which
which the
the carriage
oa:rriage isis clamped.
clamped.

For the
For the purpose of
of describing
describing the
the effect
effect upan skyline load
upon sk;y:line load capacity, carrieges
carriages can
can be
be
into the two
divided into two following
following categories:
categories:

a) Clamped
Clamped carriages
carria02

includes all clamped


This includes clamped earriagee
carriages (carriage
(oarriage stope
stops have
have the
the same
same function
funotion as
as aa
clamp) 1<hich
clamp) an active
which do not have an active mainline
mainline pulling
pulling towards
towards the
the upper
upper end
end of
of
skyline.
the skyline. In other words,
words, the mainline inis assumed
aS ElWllBd to
to be
be slack
slack or
or pulling
pulling
lower end
toward the lower end of
of the
the skyline.
skyline .

Unolmyed carriages
b) Unclamped carrita

'iliis only unclamped


This includes not only unclamped aarriages, but aleo
carriages, but also clamped
clamped oarrieges
carriages with
with an
an
active mainline pulling
pulling toward
toward the upper
upper end
end of the akyline.
of the el:yline.
rCableCarriage Features
Carr i age Features

--
12 -
Table 12 - Carriage
Car "i"P," and

- --
Machine-

_.
Winches
cable Logging
and Cable

mounted
Maehine-mounted
;,Tjnche s
LOgging Syst em Combinations
System

Single M
Comb ina tions Commonly

Cable Logging

Yarders
Multispan
ultispan
COl1l1lonly Used Together

Loggine Systems
Syst ems

Mobile
Small
Togethe>:

I-Iobile Tower Yarders


Yarde rs
Iledium Larg
Medium Largee
--

-
Rtunling Skyline
Running
Sl<lhig
Sk;yline
Yal'ders
Swing ',Carders

Single-Span Design
Single--S!"'n Design X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X
- -
Multi-Span
I~ulti- Span Design
Design X X
X X
X X
---,,- --_._-- --I

carriage
Carriage Stop Control
Cont ro l X
X X X
- -
carriage
Carriage Cl amp Control
Clamp Con t r ol X
X X
X X
X X X
I

,
v
~
Opera ting Line Control
Operating Control A X X X X X
__ X X
J. X

Gravity
Grav ity with
with Load
Load X
X X
- -
Gravity
Grav i t y without
wi thout Load
Load X X X
X
_..
Non-gravity
N on-g ra,vi ty X
X X X X
X X X
X X
X

- ..

Load Beam
Load Attachment
Beam Attachment X
X X
X

1----
Skidding Capability
Ski dd ing Capability X
X X X
X X
X X X '
X X

--
No Skidding
No Skidding capab
Capability
ility X X
X X
X X
X

---
r--
Butt Rigging
Rigg ing
I
--
X X X
X
1
-59 --
-59

4.
4. PRODUCTIVITY
PRODUCTIVITY

4.1
401 Factors which affect
affect Productivity
Productivity

The productivity of cable logging systems


B?stems is highly diverse
diverse due
due to
to the
the great
great variability
variability
in
in the
the natural
natural and the developed (man-made)
(man-made) conditions
conditions to
to be
be found
found in
in forests
forests and
and forest
forest areas.
areas.

Generally, each harvesting plan is determined by the


Genera~ly, the prevailing natural
natural forest
forest conditions
and
and the
the silvicultural
silvicultuxal regime
regime to be practiced,
practiced, taking into consideration environmental
environmental factors.
factors.
Natural and developed conditions will affect
affect each other
other at the primary stage of harvesting
planning.

It is logical
It is logical to
to assume
assume that
that there
there are
are certain stands
stands that
that can
can best
best be
be harvested
harvested with
with
tractors, whereas
tractors, whereas others,
others, in
in more
more difficult
difficult terrain,
terrain, can
can best
best be
be harvested
harvested by
by cables.
cables. In
In
other
other words,
words, more
more than one
one system may be
be applicable
applicable for aa set
set of natural
natural conditions.
conditions. It is
It is
often aa question
question of creating the
the right
right set
set of developed conditions
conditions to
to meet
meet those in existing
those in existing
forests.

If
If the
the wrong set of developed
developed conditions
conditions is
is adopted
adopted for
for use
use in
in natural
natural forests,
forests,
productivity will never reach its
its potential level.
level. Similarly,
Similarly, aa cable
cable logging
logging system
system may be
m~ be
employed in a set
set of both existing natural and developed conditions,
conditions, even though,
though, if
if the
situation was thoroughly analyzed, it would be advantageous to change the
analyzed, it the developed conditions.
conditicns.
A change in
A change in. developed
developed conditions
conditions can
can improve
improve the
the productivity
productivity of
of the
the system
system employed,
employed, or
or can
can
allOw for the introduction of a system more suited
the introduction suited to the modified conditions.
conditions.

Although productivity is is an important


important consideration
consideration when selecting a cable logging
system,
system, the final choice must must be based primarily upon the economics of the forest forest operations
after haVing considered the environmental
having considered environmsntal impact
impact of of the
the proposed
proposed system.
system. It could be
It could be that,
that,
even though the productivity
productivity of of a cable logging
logging system
system reaches
reaches acceptable
acceptable levels,
levels, it
it still
still may
not
not bebe the appropriate
the most most appropriate or the one
or the most economical most economical
for use one for use in natural forest.
in natural forest. Because ofof
the
the great number of of variabilities which exist exist in in forest
forest areas,
"",eas, each
each case
Case must
must be judged
judged entirely
on its
an its awn merits.
own merits.

variable s are:
Important natural variables are:
Weight,
Weight, size and form of trees and logs
size and
Distribution, size and location
l ocation of
of forest
forest stands
stands
class distribution
- Size class distribution of
of trees
trees and logs within
and logs within aa stand
stand
- Volume per ha
- Topography
Length of slopes
slope s
. -- Density of obstacles and
Density of and vegetation
- Climate
Important develo.ped
ImpsTtant developed variables are:
variables are:
location, standards and spacing
Road location, spe.cing
Terrain transportation
- Terrain transportation distance
distance (a
(a function
function of
of road
road spacing)
spe.c1ng)
Lift
Lit't and deflection
CUtting, limbing,
Cutting, limbing, bucking, loading and
bucking, decking, loading and hauling
hauling conditions
Capability,
capability, experience and organization.of
organization . of personnel
- Type
Type of harvest, i.e. silvicultural
harveet, i.e. silvicultural treatment:
treatment: clearaut,
clearcut, partial
partial cut,
cut, thinning
thinning etc.
eto.
_ 60 _
_60

The above variables not only


only influence
influence productivity
productivity but are also instrumental
instrumental in
in
determining which cable logging
logging system
system should
should be selected
selected for harvesting a forest
forest resource.
resource.
Only after an appropriate system
system (or
(or systems) haz
has been selected,
selected, with consideration to the
the
variables, is
above variables, is it
it possible
possible to
to forecast
forecast the
the levels
levels ofof productivity
productivity which
which can
can be expected
expected
conditions and
under the existing natural conditions and under
under the
the conditions
conditions to
to be
be created
created inin the
de,·elopment forest.
development of the forest. '

4.2
4.2 Mechanical
Mechanical Specifications
SpeCifications
According to
According to the
the natural
natural and
and developed
developed conditions,
conditions, an
an appropriate
appropriate cable
cable logging
logging system
system
(or systems)
systems) would be selected.
selected. Each system generally consists of
of aa power
power supply,
supply, wire
wire rope,
rope,
carriage and other
other accessories.
accessories. One or Should be selected from amongst the
or more machines should the
ones.
available ones.

machine has both


Each madhine both mechanical
mechanical and/or
and/or economical
economical advantages
advantages and disadvantages.
and disadvantages.
Therefore, the mechanioal
Therefore, the specifications of
mechanical specifications of each
each machine are important
impOrtant as
as factors
factors which must
correspond to the natural and developed
developed conditions.
Important
Important mechanical specifications
speoifications are:
are:
- Maximum pulling power
power of
of each
each operating
operating line
line
-- Maximum line speed
speed of
of eaoh
eaoh operating
operating line
line
- Maximwn of each operating
Maximum drum capacity of operating line
line
- Engine power
power (or
(or engine
engine power
power required)
required)
- Number and
and type
type of
of drums
drums (including
(including options)
opt ions)
- Tawer
Tower hei8ht
height
- Weight (of complete unit)
unit)
4.3
4.3 Available Productivity
Productivity Data
Data

A
A great deal has been written
haz been written about
about the
the productivity
productivity ofof cable
cable logging
logging operatione.
operations.
only aa very
Unfo~unately, anly
Unfortunately, very small portion
~mall port information contains
ion of the available information contains enough
enough of
of the
the
important background
important background data ·whioh is necessary to make
which is comparisons with other
maJoa meaningful comparisons other cable
cable
logging operations.
legging operations. When the
When the important
important variables
variables are
are not
not known,
known, comparisons
comparisons can
can be
be mis-
mis-
leading,
leading, and oan
can lead to incorrect
inoorrect conclusions
oonclusions and thus increased
increased costs,
oosts, especially
especially when the
oable logging system chosen
cable chosen is
is not the
the most
most appropriate
appropriate for
for the
the existing
existing forest
forest conditions.
conditions.
'1!le prodllotivity data
The only produotivity data presented in this
presented in this report
report isi.that
that 10hioh derived
haa been derived
which has
from studies and analysis of of cable
oable logging
logging operations
operations conducted
conducted inin different
different parts
parts of
of the
the
world.
world. This is only a small portion
port ion of
of the productivity
produotivi ty data
data which
which has
has been
been published
published
throughout the
the world. Even though there
there is
is much
much more
more available,
aVailable, very
very little
little of
of it
it meets
meets
the established for this report.
the data criteria established report. criteria are:
These criteria are:
- The data must be based
based upan
upon field
field measurements
measurements
- As many measurements as possible
possible must
must be taken,
taken, over
over aa sufficient
sufficient period
period of
of time,
time,
in
in order
order to
to arrive
arrive at
at tolerable average results,
results, i.e.
i.e. the data
data presented
presented must be
for average produotion T<lsults,
average production exceptional production
results, not exceptional production results
results
- Data must be given
given on
on the
the variables
variables listed
listed below:
below:
- Volume per ha
- Number of pieces per ha
-
- Volume per
per piece
pieoe
- Harvesting
Harvest ing system
system (full-tree,
(full-tree, tree-length
tree-length or
or shortwood)
shortwood)
(olearcu,t, partial
- Type of cut (olearout, partial cut,
cut, thinning,
thinning, etc.)
etc.)
- Uphill or
or downhill
- Average yarding
yarding distance
distance in
in mainline
mainline and
and lateral
lateral
_ 61 -_
_61

- Useful data on
Us~ful data on the
the variables would
would be:
- Area
Topography
- Density of obstacles and vegetation
temperature
Weather and temperature

Indispensable mechanical
mechanical and
and operational
operational data
data must
must be:
be:
- Maximum pulling power of the mainline
mainl ine
TYPe of cable configuration
Type

- Useful mechanical
mechanical and.
and operational
operational data would
would be:
be:
- Capability,
Capability, experience
experience and
and organization of personnel
personnel

Data should
should be
be presented
presented as
as slioWn
shown below,
below, or
or in
in such
such aa manner that it
it can be
converted into
converted into this form
form for
for comparative
comparative parooses:
purposes:

-- Volume in
in solid cubic metres
metres
- Productivity
Productivity per
per 8-hour
8-hour shift
shift
- Number
Number of
of yarding
yarding cycles/turns
oycles/turns per
per 8-hour
8-hour shift
shift
- Moving, times
l~oving, set-up and take-down times

The data presented in


in Table 13 gives the average productivity
product ivity in
in cubic
oubic metres
metres (solid)
(solid)
per 8-hour shift,
shift, segregated
segregated within
within each
each category
category of
of cable
cable logging
logging system
system according
according to
to the
the
maximum pulling
maximum pulling power
power of
of the
the mainline.
mainline.

It is important
It is important to note that over shorter periods
periods of
of time,
time, for example
example one
one day,
day, there
can and
can and will
will be
be great deviations
devi&tions from
from average
average productivity.
produotivity. There are exceptional
Thel~
in which production
daye in
operating days production can
can be much
much more
more or
or less
less than
than the
the average
average productivity.
productivity.
Suoh exoeptional days
Such exceptional days cannot be used
used as
as aa guide
guide to
to the
the productivity
productivity that
that Should
should be
be expected
expected
from a cable
cable logging
logging system.
system.

4.4 LOgg ll1g Operations


4. 4 Productivity of Different Cable Logging

Productivity will vary greatly from region to to region


region and
and from
from logging
logging unit toto logging
l ogging
unit. The information
information presented
presented here
here gives
gives aa fairly.
fairly' representative picture of of the
variations which
variations which occur
occur in average production.
in average production. The reasons for these variations are many
better understood
and can be better understood by
by examining
examining thethe data
data given
given for
for each
each example
example in
in Table
Table 13 (on(on
68).
Page 68). Figure 49, given at the endend of
of Table
Table 13, shows productivity related
related toto pulling
pulling
logging system
power for all the cable logging system examples
examples given
given in
in Table
Table 13.
13. It
It should be noted
average maximum
that the average maximum yarding
yarding di~tance
diOance hashas been
been rounded
rounded to
to the nearest 5
the nearest 5 mm and productivity
been rounded
has been rounded to
to the nearest 5
the nearest m in
5 mi 13.
in Table 13.

III productivity
Variability in productivity is
is described,
described, by
by cable
cable logging
logging system,
system, in
in the
the following
following
sections:

4.4.1
4. 4 .1 Independent Bunchll1g Winohes
:S_nd_.edentBunchina. Winches

The
The productivity of independent
independent bunching
bunohing winches
winches varies primarily
primarily with:
with:
power
Pulling power
- Yarding distance
- Terrain conditions (i.e.
(i.e. boulders)
Piece size
- Piece size
Volume per ha
z

- _ - ---.5

-- 62
62 --

These are usually used in ground lead


These winches are lead and
and are
are mainly
mainly designed
designed for
for use
use in
in
thinnings where
thinnings where the
the logs
l ogs may
may be
be quite
quite small.
small. In forest stands
In forest stands with
with larger
larger tree
tree and
and log
log
sizes,
sizes, bunching is
is of
of less
less importance.
importance.
Productivity can also
Productivity can also be
be improved
improved by
by hanging
hanging the
the blocks
blocks at
at aa height
height that
that will
will give
give
some lift
some lift to
to the leading end of the turn.
the leading turn.
'ilie maximum
The maximum yarding
yarding distance
distance is
is quite short -- usually
quite short usually between
between 10
10 and
and 50
50 m.
m.

Table 13
Table presents data
13 presents data from
from some
some operations in which the productivity
productivity of
of independent
independent
bunching winches
winches was
was measured.
measured.

Table 13 indicates
Table 13 indicates that
that the
the correlation between mainline
correlat ion between mainline pulling
pulling power and
power and
productivity is relatively
productivity is relatively consistent, which indicates
consistent, which indicates that
that the
the winches
winches in
in these
these examples
examples
are rather
are rather well suited to
well suited to the
the conditions
conditions in
in which
which they
they were
were used,
used, and
and were
were .employed in
employed in
aa relatively efficient manner.
relatively efficient manner. For example, in the 8 kN
in the kN class
class the
the small
small volume
volume per
per piece
piece
and per
and per turn
turn in one operation
in one operat ion was compensated for
was compensated by increasing
for by increasing the
the number
number of
of turns.
turns.
Th is indicates
This indicates that
that the
the ability to yard
ability to faster with
yard faster with aa smaller
smaller turn
turn was
was utilized.
utilized.

Whether
Whether the machines are
the machines are radio-controlled
radio-controlled or
or not is not
not is not directly related to the
the
productivity. In other words,
words, the volume
volume per turn is not
not affected
affected by
by the
the number
number of
of
productivity.
operators. Costs due
Costs due to
to the
the machine
machine prices (depreciation), wages,
prices (depreciation), wages, or
or other
other costs
costs would
would
operators.
dec ide which
decide which type is better
type is better in
in each
each case.
case. Radio-controlled machines
Radio-controlled machines are
are usually
usually more
more
expensive.
expensive.

4.4.2 Machine-Mounted Winches


lolachine-mounted un i que among the cable logging
Machine-mounted winches are unique logging systems
syste ms in
in that,
that, other than
for some special
for some special exceptions,
exceptions, their productivity is is directly related to the capacity and
tothe and travel
travel
speed of
speed of the
the base machine
machine upon
upon which
which the
the winch
winch is
is mounted.
mounted. This isis due to
to the fact
fact that
that the
the
terrain transportation isis done
done primarily
primarily with
with the
the machine,
machine, and
and the
the winch
winch is
is normally
normally only
only usel
usel
for short distance
for short distance movement
movement of
of logs.
logs. Consequently, pulling
Consequently, pulling power
power and
and productivity
productivity are
are not
not
directly related for machine-mounted
machine-mounted winches.
winches.
4.4.3 Yarders

The
The productivity of
of yarders varies
varies primarily
primarily with:
with:
- Pull ing power
Pulling powe r
- Line
Line speed
- Mainline
Mainline load capacity (for non-skyline configurations)
configurations)
Skyline load
load capacity
capaCity (for
(for skyline
skyline configurations)
configurations)
- Yarding distance (for
(for highlead;
highlead; skyline
skyline length
length and
and lateral
lateral skidding
skidding distance)
distance)
- Piece size
- Volume
Volume per ha
- Number of pieces per ha
ha
- Type
Type of harvest (clearcut
(clearcut etc.)
etc.)
- Harvesting system
system (full-tree
(full-tree etc.)
etc.)
- Cable
Cable configuration
In aa skyline
In skyline configuration,
configuration, an increase in line
an increase line speed will increase product
will increase ivity;
productivity;
however,
however, this
this gene rally requires an increase
generally increase in
in engine power.
power. In highlead
In othe r cable
highlead or other
configurations in which
configurations in which llogs
ogs are
are dragged along the
the ground, line speed
ground, line speed may have less effect
on productivity than in the
than in the skyline configuration, since ground obstacles
configuration, since obstacles might prevent
prevent
smooth yarding.
yarding. Therefore in highlead, pulling power
highlead, pulling power is
is more important
important than
than line speed
speed
since it is
since it is necessary
necessary to pull more
more load at slower speeds.
speeds. In other words,
words, the
the productivity
productivity
in
in aa skyline
skyline configuration
configuration will
will be
be due
due to
to both
both the
the pulling
pulling power
power and
and the
the line
line speed;
speed; the
the
former
former affects
affects the
the size
size of the
the turn and the latter affects the
the number of turns;
turns; however,
productivity Unin the
the highlead system will be mostly pulling power
due to pulling power since
since the line
line speed
speed
will
will be
be slow and the number of turns will be more or
and the or less
less constant.
constant.
- 63
63 -

increase in
An increase load capacity
in load capacity will allow
allow an
an increase
increase in load size,
in load size, but the number of
turns per
turns per productive
productive hour
hour may decrease since the
decrease since the time
time required toto assemble
assemble an
an adequate
adequate load
~ tncrease.
may increase. Log size
size and
and weight
weight are
are an important function
an important function of
of productivity
productivity along
along with
with pre-
treatment such as topping, limbing
limbing and bucking (i.e.
(i.e. harvesting system).
system).
As yarding distance
distance increases,
increases, productivity
productivity per shift decreases.
per shift However, as the
However, the
yarding distance increases
increases and the productivity
productivity decreases,
decreases, the number of hours available for
production will increase,
production increase, since
since less
les8 time
time is
is spent
spent on Betting~up.
on setting-up. cases, higher
In normal cases,
productivity ie obtained
productivity'is
I obtained from
from shorter
shorter yarding;
yard.ing; however, m~ not be reduced if
however, overall costs may if
additional road costs are taken into
into account.

speaking skyline
Generally speaking skyline configurations
configurations are
are used for longer
longer yarding distances
rather than highlead.
rather than highlead. Optimal yarding distances are in
in the
the order of 200
200 to 250
250 m
m in
highlead and 400 to
to 600
600 mm in
in skyline
skyline configurations.
configurations. A cable configuration
A copfiguration which is
is
suitable for
suitable for the
the yarding distance
distance should
should be
be Selected.
selected.

lateral yarding
As lateral yarding distance
distance increases,
increases, productivity
productivity will
will decrease,
decrease, and
and this
this will be
even greater when the lateral yarding (skidding)
(skidding) is
is done in
in thinnings or partial
partial cuts.
cuts. One
One
of lateral
advantage of lateral yarding
yarding is
is that
that it
it increases
increases the
the effective
effective width
width of
of each
each road
road with aa
resultant decrease in are required to harvest an area.
in the number of roads which are area. lhis means
This
that aa smaller
that smaller proportion
proportion of
of the
the time
time will
will be
be spent
spent for
for moving.
moving.

longer lateral
However, longer lateral distances
distances generally
generally require
require a more
more complex
complex cable
cable configuration
configuration
consumes more
which therefore consumes more time
time in
in installation and removing.
installation and removing. simple cable
With simple cable
configurations, for instance
configurations, for instance highlead, longer lateral
highlead, longer lateral distances
distances will
will lower
lower productivity,
productiVity, due
due
to the
to the likelihood
likelihood of
of more
more hang-ups;
hang-ups; therefore the
the advantage
advantage of
of wider
wider roads
roads will
will be
be diminished
diminished
becallse of
because of the
the short
short setting-up
setting-up and
and taking-down
taking-down time
time of
of the
the system.
system.

The higher the


the skyline
skyline or
or mainline,
mainline, the
the easier
easier the
the lateral yarding, because
late~al yarding, because of
of the
the
lift.
added lift.

When log size is


is small,
small, more time will be required
required to collect thethe logs
logs required for
an adequate
an adequate load.
load. The same thing is
The same is true when
when tha
the. volume
volume per
per ha
ha is
is low.
low. In such cases,
if
if the
the logs
logs toto be
be harvested
harvested are
are not
not pre-bunched,
pre-bunched, itit will be
be necessary to collect
collect the
the logs
logs
with the cable logging
logging system
system in
in order
order to
to get
get large
large enough
enough loads.
loads. If logs are not pre-
bunched, loads will be undersized
bunched, either loads undersized oror too
too much
much time
time will
will be
be spent
spent assembling
assembling an
an .
adequate one .
adequate one. In either case productivity
productivity will
will decrease.
decrease.

In such situations productivity


productivity can
can be improved
improved by complementing
complementing the
the system
system with the
use of independent
independent bunching winches.
winches. This is espeCially
This is especially applicable in situations
applicable in situations where
where the
the
log
log size
size is smaller and the volume per haha is
is lower
lower than is
is desirable for the equipment being
used.

In thinning and partial cut operations


operations productivity
productivity is
is lower
lower than
than for
for clearauts
clearcuts since
since
lateral
lateral yarding slow, due to the need to negotiate the logs
yarding is slow, logs between the standing
standing trees.
In addit ion, the
addition, the volume
volume per ha removed in
in thinnings and
and partial
part ial cuts is
is lees
less than the volumes
in clearcuts.
removed in clearcuta.

yarding distances
Maximum yarder yarding distances vary
vary from
from 300
):)0 to
to 11 500
500 mm depending
depending upon
upon drum
drum
capaCity, type of
capacity, of yarder,
yarder, and cable configuration.
configuration.

Table
Table 13 presents data from some
some operations
operations in
in which the
the produativity
productivity of
of yarders
was measured.
mea.sured.
-64
- 64 --

4.4.4
4.4.4 Yarding Trailers
T::-ailers for
f or Continuous
Continuous Mainline Systems
IIIai n l irie Systems

The productivity of yarding trailers


The trailers for
for continuous
continuous mainline systems varies
mainline systems varies
primaril y with:
primarily

- Yarding distance
distance
- Terrain
- Piece size
- Volume per ha removed
- NUmb>ar of pieces
Number of pieces per hha
a
Thi s system
This is designed
syste~ is designed forfor use
use in
in thinning
thinning operations.
operations. At present
present there is
is only
onl y
one manufaoture r which
one commercial manufacturer wh i ch produces
produces only ~ne model
only rne model of
of this
this system.
system.

vlhen the tree size


When size and volume per r emoved remain
per ha removed re main fairly constant,
constant, and~'1d the
the system
is
is ope rated at
operated the recommended maximum
at the maximum yarding
yarding distance
distance of
of 250
250 to
to 350
350 m,
m, productivity
pr oductivity will
will
nnot
ot show
show much variation.
~uch variation. \fuen
When the yarding distance is short
distance is short or the
the volume
volume per ha re moved
removed
is low, aa large
is 1m-I, large propo rti on of the time
proportion t i me will
will be
be spent
spent in moving the
in moving the system
system and
and productivity
product ivity
'v/ill decrease.
will decrease .

so~e operations
Table 13 presents data from some operations in
in which the productivity of yar ding
yarding
trailers
trailers continu ous mainline
continuous mainline system was
was measur ed (see Page
measured 68).
Page 68 ).

Product ivity is
Productivity is strongly influenced
i nfluenced by the
the vvolume
olume per
per piece since
since this is usual l y the
usually the
same
same as volume per
per turn.
turn.

44.4.5
. 4. 5 Small Mobile
I-Iobile Tower Yarders

The productivity
product ivity for
for small
emaI l mobile
mob i le tower
tower yarders
yarders varies p r i~rily with:
varies primarily with:

- Pull ing power


Pulling
- Line
Line speed
- f~ainlin
Mainline e or
or skyline/carriage
skyl me/carriage load
l oad capacity
- Yard i ng distance
Yarding distonce (skyline
(skyline and
and lateral)
lateral)
- Piece size
size
- Volume per ha
- Number of pieces
p iece s per hha
a
- T-Jpe hll.rve st
Type of harvest
- Harvest i ng system
Harvesting
- Cable
Cable configuration

Sinc
Sincee small mobile
mobil e tower yarders
yarde r s are
a r e designed
designen for the same
same type of
of single
single and multi-
mult i -
span
span skyline
skyline yard ing as
yarding as yarders, product ivity varies in the
yarders, productivity same manner as
the mame is de
as is scribed in
described in
the section
the sect ion for
for yarders. mrl.,in difference
The main difference between
beth'een these two
tw o systems
systems is
i s that a9. small mobile
mobile
tower
tower yarder
yarder iiss mounte
mountedd on aa carr i er with
carrier with aa tower
tower ffor
or quick setting-up
setting- up and
and taking-down
taking-down times
times
and is
i s nnormally
ormally used for
for shorter
shorter yarding
yarding distances.
distances.

Table
Table 13 ((on
on Page 68) presents
Page 68) presents data
data from
from some
s ome operations
operat i ons in
in which
wh i ch the
t he productivity
productivity of
small
small mob ile tcwer
mobile tower yarders measured .
yardcrs was measured.

An examination
An examination ofof the data
data in
in Table
Tab le 13
13 reveals
reveals the
the fact
fact that
that the
the correlation
c orrelat ion between
between
mai.nl ine pulling
mainline pull ing power
power and
and productivity
pr oductivity for
for these
these different
different operations
operations isis not
n ot very
very consistent.
consistent.
This
This indicates
ind,cates that
that othe r factors
other factors oror conditions
conditions have
have had an important
i mportant influence
i nfluence uuponpon
product ivity.
productivity. This
This also ind i cates that
also indicates that the capabilities
capabilit i es of
of these systems
systems are not n ot always
a hlay5 well
well
matched
matched tto o the
the forest
forest conditions or that these capabilities are nnot
that these ot fully utilized.
utilized.
-- 65-
65-

~'he of the system capabilities in


The apparent good utilization of in the 15 kN
the 15 kN class
class is greatly
influenced by the short
influencei short yarding
yarding distance.
distance.

The two operations


operations in thc 49 kN class which produced
in the produced 20 m3 in
20 m3 in an
an 8-hour
8-hour shift
shift were
were
influenced by the relatively
relatively long
long yarding
yarding distances.
distances. productivity would
The productivity would be
be 14igher with
~igher with
a shorter yarding
yarding distance.
distance. operation in
The operation in the same
same class which produced 55 mm was was greatly
influenced by the fact that
that aa clearcut
clearcut was
was made
made within
within aa relatively
relat i vely short
short yarding
yarding distance
distance .
from the machine.

f or the
Except for the operations
operations which have been commented upon, productivity
com~ented upon, productivity is
is relatively
for the
consisten ~ for
consisteni the operations
operations presented
presented here.
here.

4.4.6
4.4.6 ~!obi le Tcwer
Medium Mobile Tower Yarders

The productivity of
The productivity of medium
medium mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders varies
varies primarily
primarily with:
with:
- Pulling powe r
Pull w.g power
- Line speed
speed
- Load capacity
capacity
- Yarding distance
distance
- Piece size
size
- Volume per
per ha
- Number
number of
of pieces
pieces per ha
Type of harvest
harve s t
aystem
Harvesting aystem
-- Cable
Cable configuration
configuration
When using a skyline configuration,
configuration, line
line speed
speed will affect productivity.
productivity. When uaing
using
aa highlea:i (non-skyline) configuration, line
highlead (non-skyline) line speed
speed will have less
leas effect on
on productivity
productivity than
akylinea since
with skylines since the
the turns
turns of
of logs
logs will
will often
often encounter
encounter obstacles
obstacles onon the
the ground
ground which
which will
will
stop the
slow or even stop the yarding
yarding process.
process. logs which
In addition, logs which are
are being
being dragged
dragged an
on the
the
ground can
ground can break
break ifi f they
they are
are dragged
dragged too
too fast.
faat. equipment and the
To avoid damaging the equipment the logs
i t is necessary to pull the load
it load at aa reasonably
reasonably slow
slow speed.
speed. Consequently,
Consequently, with the highlead
cconfiguration,
onfiguration, where pulling power is is more important
important than
than line
line speed,
speed, the turn will usually
~sually
be pulled
pulled at aa speed
speed which
which is
i s far
far below
below the
the capability
capability of
of the
the yarder.
yarder.

PullL~ is a key factor with a highlead configuration,


Pulling power is configuration, since
since to counteract the
Bpe~dB mentioned above,
slow speeds it is
above, it is necessar,y pull as
necessary to pull as large
large aa load
load as possible.
possible. The
larger and heavier the load,
load, the greater the likelihood
likelihood .that the load
that the load will encounter Obstacles
obstacles
on the ground. i t is
Therefore it is important that the
the pulling
pulling power
power ia
is great
great enough
enough to
to pull
pull the
the
load through or
or over
over Obstacles.
obstacles . For skyline
skyline configurations the load
load capacity ofof the skyline
skyline
and carriage
carr iage are important.
important.

Yarding distanee
distance has the sane
same basic effect
effect upon
upon skyline
skyline configurations
configurations as
as is
is described
described
under yarders. However, in
However, clearcutting operations
in clearcutting operations side
side blocking
blocking is
is sometimes
sometimes used
used to
to
increase
increase the
the effective width of the yarding road.
yardL~ road. in highlead as well as
Thia can be used in
This as
operations.
live skyline operations. Increased
Increased yarding
yerding distance
distance has an additional
additional negative
negative effect
effect upon
upon
a highlead configuration in
in that
that lift
lift is
is reduced
reduced and
and the
the loads
loads will
will encounter
encounter more
more obstacles.
obstacles.
This is the main reason
reason why highlead
highlead yarding
yarding distance
distance does
does not
not normally
normally exceed
exceed 300
)00 m.
m.

ha have the
Log size and volume per ha the same
same effect
effect upon
upon productivity
productivity as
as is
is deseribed
descri~ed
unde r yarders.
under yarde rs.

13 presents
Table 13 presents data
data from
from some
aome operutions
operations in
in which
which the
the productivity
productivity of
of medium
medium mobile
mobile
tower (aee Page 68).
tcwer yarders was measured (see
_66-
_ 66 _

Table t hat the correlation between mainline


Tab l e 13 shows that mainline pulling power and productivity
productivity
fo
forr these different
diff erent operations
operations is
is not
not very
very consistent.
consistent. One key factor is
is that
that although
although a
power ful yarder
powerful is needed to handle
yarder is large and
handle large and heavy pieces,
pieces, this
this capability is
is not
not always
always
needed and therefore
therefore cannot
cannot always
always be
be utilized.
utilized. Consequently the yarder
Consequently the yarder is,
is, and
and must
must be,
be,
overpowered for its
its average use.
use. Another key factor isis that there is
is more than one type
type
of cable configuration employed
employed in the examples
in the examples given
given here.
here. Since there are (as explained
above) different
above) differ ent factors
fac t ors that affect
affect the
.t he productivity
productivity of these different configurations,
configurations, it
it
is
is to
to be
be expected
expected that productivity
pr oductivity will
will bebe different.
different.

The
The figures
figures for the highlead
highlead configurations
configurations given
given inin Table
Table 13 13 show
Show much lower
l ower levels
of pr oductivity than the various skyline
productivity skyline configurations.
configurations. As described
described above,
above, one
one main
main
is because
reason is becau se skyline
skyline systems
systems operate
operate at
at faster
faster line
line speeds.
speeds. A factor is
A compensating factor is
that the
that the setting-up
setting-up and
and taking-down
taking-down time
time is
is normally
normally greater
greater for
f or aa skyline-
skylin& system than for
a highlead
a highlead system.
system. Moving in,
in, setting-up and taking-down times are not included in the
not included the
productivity data for medium
medium mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders.
yarders.

The volume skyline operations was usually considerably larger than


in these skyline
volume per turn in
fo
forr the
the highlead operations.
operations. This, together with the
This, the travel speed of the
the ttun,
turn, resulted
in
in much
much higher
higher productivity
productivity ffor
or the
the skyline
skyline configurations,
configurations, even
even when
when yarding
yarding distance
distance was
was
considerably greater than for the operations
operations which used a highlead configuration.
configuration.

It is of
It is interest to
of interest ncte that
to note that the
the maximum yarding distances used in the
the operations
operations
shown here
here are
are considerably less than the
the capabilities of the
the yarders.
yarders.

4.4.7 Large
Large Mobile
Mobile Tower Yarders
Yarders

The
The productivity of large
large mobile
mobile tower yarders varies primarily with the sa.me
the same
factors as for medium mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders.
yarders. These
These variables
variables affe c t the
affect the productivity
productivity of
of
large mobile
large mobile tower yarders in the
the same way as they affect medium mobile tower yarders.
yarders.
This is explained in the
the previous section on medium mobile tower yarders.
yarders.

Table 13 on Page 6868, presents data from some


some operations in
in which the productivity
mob i le tower yarders
of large mobile yarders was
was measured.
measured.

The
The correlat ion between mainline pulling power and productivity for these
correlation these different
different
is similar to the correlation for medium mobile tower .yarders.
operations is yarders. This is to be
j.B Lo
expected since
since these
these two categories have the same
same operating characteristics.
characteristics.

The
The 377 kN yarders were employed
employed in
in operations
operations where
where mahogany
mahogany was
was selectively
selectively logged
logged
from the forest.
forest. The volume per
per ha removed
removed in these operations
in these operations is
is considerably
considerably leas
lees than
in the
in the other large
large mobile tower yarder
yarder operations.
operations. distances are
The yarding distances are also much
longer than for the
the other highlead operations. operations used
These two operations used wooden
wooden spars.
spars .

The 364 kN operation is interesting in in that the productivity


produativity was high even though
the maxi~~
maximum yarding distance was greater than the other
other operations.
operations. This operation
employed aa gravity line system which,
which, with the high speed
speed with which the
the carriage
carriage can
re turn to the
return the operating area,
area, compensates for the relatively
relatively long
long yarding
yarding distance.
distance.
the large
Additionally, the large volume per
per turn
turn is
is clearly
clearly an
an important
important factor
factor in
in achieving
achieving this
this
level of
high level of productivity.
pr oductivity.

4.4.8 Running Skyline


Skyline Swing Yarders

The skyline swing


The productivity of running skyline swing yarders varies primarily
primarily with:
with:

- Pull ing power


Pulling powe r
- Line
Line speed
- Load capacity
- Yarding distance
distance
_67
- 67 -._.

Deflection
- Piece size
- Volume per ha

These variables affect the


the productivity
productivity of
of running
running skyline
skyline swing
swing yarders
yarders in
in the
the same
same
as they
way as they affect
affect medium
medium mobile
mobile tower
tower yarders
yarders and
and large
larg~ _mobile tower yarders.
mobile tower yarders. In addition,
l og size can have a dramatic
log dramatic impact
impact upon productivity
productivity when
when aa grapple
grapple carriage
carriage is
is being
being used.
used.
This is due to the fact that,
that, when
when a grapple is
is used,
used, each
each turn
turn will
will usually
usually consist
consist of
of only
only
log.
one log.

deflection is
Adequate deflection is imnortant
important inin order
order that
that the
the turn
turn of
of logs
logs being
being yarded
yarded into
into
the landing are
the landing are not
not slowed
slowed down<
downc If
If the
the carriage
carriage or logs
logs come into contact
come into contact with the
the ground
or obstacles on the ground, the line
line speed
speed must
must be reduced
reduced with
with aa direct
direct negative
negative effect
effect
upon production. Deflection is
is especially
especially important
important when
when using
using aa grapple carriage.
carriage.
Without cannot be positioned
Without proper deflection the grapple cannot positioned over
over the
the logs.
logs.

Table 13 presents data


data from
from some
some operations
operations in
in which
which the
the productivity
productivity of
of running
running
swing yarders
skyline swing yarders was
was measured.
measured.

In Table (Page 68),


Table 13 (Page 68), the
the correlat i on between
correlation between mainline
mainline pulling
pulling power
power and
and product ivity
productivity
for
for tthese
hese different operations isis relatively
relatively consistent,
consistent, with
with the
the exception
exception of
of the
the 428
428 kN
kN
produced only
yarder which produced only 140 m3 per
140 m3 per 88 hour
hour shift.
shift. Even so,
so, the increase in in productivity
productivity
is not
is not proportionate to the increase
increase in
in the pulling
pulling power.
power. The capabilities
capabilities of
of the
the more
more
powerful
powerful yarders cannot always be utilized
utilized with the
the result
result that
that they
they are
are quite
quite often
often less
less
productive than could
could be
be expected.
expected. This situation is
is somewhat evident in v olume per
in the volume per
piece
piece for these running skyling
skyling swing
swing yarder
yarder operations.
operations.

The
The 249 kN yarder with a productivity
productivity ofof 155 m3 is
m3 is interesting in that
that productivity
was good even though it
it was operating in
in aa partial
partial cut
cut with
with aa relatively
relatively long
long yarding
yarding
(as compared
distance (as compared to
to the
the other
other 249
249 kN
kN yarder).
yarder). The ability to average two logs per
per
using chokers
turn when using chokers is
is advantageous
advantageous as as compared
c ompared to
to an
an average
average of
of aa little
little more
more than
than one
one
log per turn for the grapple
grapple operation.
opeI""dotion.

kN yarders
The two 428 kN yarders were
were operated
operated on
on the
the basis
basis of
of two
two shifts
shifts per
per day
day with
with the
the
result that approximately half of their operating time
result time was· at night.
wagat night. The yarder
The yarder with
with the
the
140 m
140 3 productivity had,
m3 smaller volume
in addition to the smaller
had, in volume per
per piece,
piece, aa relatively
relatively large
large
amount of mechanical problems.
problems.

The maximum yarding distances for the skyline swing


the running skyline swing yarder
yarder operations
operations shown
shown
here are,
are, as is
is also
also common
common for
for most
most of
of the
the other
other cable
cable logging
logg ing systems,
systems, considerably
considerably less
lese
capabilities of
than the capabilities of these
these yarders.
yarders.

Figure 49 (on Page 7 2 ), gives a comparison


72), comparison of
of productivity
productivity related
related to
to pulling
pulling power
power
for each of the operations
operations shown
shown in
in Table
Table 13.
13.
Table
Table 13 -- Comparison
Comparison of Product ivi ty Data
Productivity

Average Maximum
Average Maximum
Mainline Pul- Yarding Distance
Distance Volume/ H~ctare
Z;ctare VolUlfle/
Volume/ Turns/ VOlwne/
Volume/ Productivi ty/
Productivity/
lin,&;!
ling Power Mainline Lateral
Lateral ~
Total Re:noved
Removed Piece ~
Shift Turn
Turn 8 Hour
8 Hour Shift
Shift Location ~
Notes
3 33 33 3 3
KN m m
m3 m
m m
m m3
m m
m3
'"
INDEPE%iIlE2lT BUIICHING WINCHES
INDEPENDENT BUNCHING WINCHES I
8 50 270 58 0.20 45 0.38 15 Scandinavia T
50 130 36
36 0.14 55 0.29 15
15 " T
15 50 70 0.30 20
20 " T
40 25 495 178 0.45 79 0.59 45
45 North America
North America T
T
West Coast
West Coast

YAIUlERS
YARDMS N
N

20 700
700 _ _ _ _ 39
39 1.3
1.3 50
50 European Alps CD I

700
700 _ _ - _ 49 1.2
1.2 60
60 t,
" CD
CD '"
())

300
300 _ _ - 45
45 0.9
0.9 40 " CU
Cu

39 1000 - _ _ 0.18 _ _ 20
20 Scandinavia CDCu
_ 0.36 31 103
900
900 - 0,36 31 1.3 45 "
i,
CDCu
1200 50 - 200 0.60 16
16 1.8
1.8 30
30 Asia PD

49
49 900
900 15 - - - 33
33 1.5
1.5 50
50 European Alps
Alps CD
CD

80 1200 75
73 233
233 233
233 1034
1.34 21
21 4.0
4.0 85 North America
North America CD
CD
\iest Coast
West Coast

YARDING
YARDING TRAILERS FOR CONTINUOUS
TRAILERS FOR CONTINUOUS MAINLINE SYSTEM
SYSTEM II
59 300 - - - 0.2 150
150 0.2
0.2 30
10 European Alps
European Alps TU
It
250 - - - 0.05 320
320 0.05
0.05 15 " TU
TABLE
TABLE 13.
13: Cont'd
Contad

Average
Average 'Maximum
Maximum
Mainline Pul- Yarding
Yarding Distance Volume/Hectare Volume/ Turns/
Turns/ Volume/
Volume/ Productivi ty /
Productivity/
linR' Power
1111E_E2Yer Mainline Lateral Total Removed
~ Piece Shift
Shift Turn 8 Hour
Hour Shift
Shift Location
Location Notes
Notes

m 33 3
3 33 33 33
KN
KM m m
m mm m
m m
m m
m

SMALL MOBILE TOWER YARDERS N


N

15
15 80 15 97 97 102 0.5 45 European Alps
European Alps CU
CU
165 20 ,81
181 181 89 0.9 80 IV
"I/ CU
CU
205 15
15 273 273 66 0.7 45 " CU
CU

21 280 320 30 0.60


0. 80 31
37 1.3 50 ":I TU
TU

39 300 15 0.5 30 United Kingdom


United Kingdom TIm
TUT

49 555 510 510 0.62 19 1.0


1.0 20 Scandinavia CUD
CUD
530 09
2209 209 0.55 9 2.1 20 II
" CUD
CUD
240 30 0,43
0.43 55 North America
North America CTU
CTU
1

West Coast
West Coast
0,
300
300 0.55 - 40 "II '"
\o
300
300 25 150 38 1.0
1.0 40
40 Central
TU
D
D
""
I
1

America
Americz:
300 20 503 503 1.27 24
24 1.7
1.7 40 European Alps
Alps CU
CU

MEDIUM
MEDIUM MOBILE
MOBILE TOWER
TOWER YARllEllS
YARDMS N
N

111 115 238 238 0.62 68 1.2


1.2 100
100 North America
North Arneri ca CUH
CUR
West Interior
Interior
152 220 40 1.9
1.9 52
52 3.1
3. 1 160 European Alps CUL
251 85 252 252 0.79 45
45 1.9
1. 9 85 North America
North America CUH
CUM
West Interior
West Interior
125 210 210 0.86 2.5 loo
100 It CUH
35 " CUM

276 260 490-1050 490-1050 1.2 105


105 2.6 280 North America
North America CUR
CUR
West Coast
West Coast
299 160
160 490-1050 490-1050 0.7 88 1.6 145
145 " CUH
CDH
120 490-1050 490-1050 1,4
1.4 90 2.8 265
265 " CUS
CUB
TABLE 13:
TABLE 13: Cont'd

AverageMaximum
Average llaximum
MainlinePul-
Jlainline Pul Yarding Distance
Yarding Volume/Hectare
VOlume/Hectare Volume/ Turns/ Volume/ Productivity/
Producti vi tY/
ling
lingPower
Power Mainline lateral
Jlaj.nliJ,e Lateral Total
~ Removed Piece Shift Turn 8 Hour Shift
Hour Shift Location Notes
!21!!!
KIf
1LN . m m
m
33
m
3
m3 m
3
m3 m
m
33
m
m
33

LARGE MOBILE
LARGE XOBILE TOWER
TOIlER YARDERS
naIlERS Ii
N

364 460 490-1050 490-1050


490-1050 1.96 66 3.8
3. 8 250 North America
America CUG
QUO
West
West Coast
311
377 400 86 55 Southeast Asia
Asia SeH
Sell
400 130
130 120 "If SeH
Sell

428 120 560 560 · 1.08 39 2.8 110


110 North America
America CUH
CUH
West Interior
West Interior
0.79 70 1.6
1. 6 115 it CUH
135 378 378
378 "
717
717 230 - 200-1000 200-1000
200-1000 200-1000 0.83 180 North America
America CUH
CUH
West Coast
West
cl
I!UIIlfm
RUNNING a SKILmE WmG YJ.RDE!lS
SINE WING YARD= I

234 150 402 402 0.88 135 North America


America CUDGr
West Interior
West Interior

249 185 10 879 0.92 87 1.8 155 North America


America: PUCh
West Coast
West
100
100 420 420 0.85 191 0.98 190 North America
America CUDGr
CUTGr
West Interior
West Interior
428 180 250-950 250-950 0.97 215 North
NQrth America
America CUDGrNi
West Coast
West
170
170 250-950 250-950 0.74
0074 140 If
" CUDGrNi
--71
71 --

Explanation of
Explanation of "Notes"
"Notes" Abbreviations in
in Table 13
13

II -. Including moving time within the operating unit

N -- including moving, set-up


Not including set-up and
and take-down
ta.k&-down time
time
T
T = Thinning

P -= Partial Cut
Cut
Se . Selective Cut
C
C = Clearcut

u
U =
= Uphill yarding
UPhill

D •- Downhill
Downhill yarding
yarding
. Highlaad
Highlead
H -
R Running skyline
Running skyline
R -=
SS •= Standing skyline
Standing skyline
L = Live skyline

G =
. Live skyline (Gravity)
(Gravity)
Ch
Ch •= Chokers
Gr •= Grapple
Grapple

Ni •
s. in about 50
Night logging included in %
50 % of
of shifts
shifts
Cu
Cu = Cutting and limbing are included
Cutting included in
in the
the operations
operations
(cutting and limbing are not
not included in other examples)
ElWlPLES OF CABLE
EXAMPLES Cjj!LE LOGGING
LOGGiliG EQUIPMENT
EJ;<UIPIIE2IT

Ciusification.
Classification: INTEPENDENT BUliCHiliG
IInlEPEJlIlDI'l' BUNCHING WllICHES
WINCHES

llanufactur8r:
Manufacturer: KJIlI' Egger
KMF Egger GmBH Kolpe-Patent
Kolpe-Patent Kolpe-Patent
Kolpe-Patent Nordfor
110481:
Model: Ackja
Ack'a 421
21 Radio-Tir
Radio-Tir 740
0 Radio-Tir Alpin
Radio-Tir Al in Flying
Fi in Saucer

lIaxillWD Pulling Power-Skyline


Maximum PUlling Pow8l'-Sk;yline

"
.. -Jlainlino
"" -Mainline 81a1
8 kN 81a1
8 kV 12 kN
12 klI 15 ldI
15 kW

(800 kp)
(80o kp) (800 kp)
(800 (1 200J(p)
(1 200K0) (1 500
(1 500 kp)
kp)
.. .. ..
" -Hanlb!1.Ck
-Haulback -

llazimum Line Speed


Maximum Line Speed -Sk;yline
-Skyline

" " " -Jlainline


-Mainline 0.8 m/s
0.8 m/s m/s
0.6 m/s m/s
0.6 m/s m/s
0.6 m/s
..
n u .. "n -Haulback - -
lIaxillll1ll Drum
fl


n
n

u
eapaci ty-Sk;yline
. Drwa.. Capacity-Skyline
Maximum
n
" -IIaWine
-Mainline
.. .." -Baulback
-Haulback
-
120m xx 7.5-
_
7.5mm 150m x 6.0mm
6.Omm
-
165m xz 7.0mm
7.0_ 125m x 6.5mm
....
.

'l'ower
Tower Hei!ht
Height -

Engine
Ehgine Power 404ldl (6hp)
4.4kW (6hp) 4.4kl1 (6hp)
4.4a (6hp) 6Jd1 (8hp)
6kW (8hp) 12kl1 (16hp)
12iM (16hp)

Weight of
of Complete
Complete Unit
Unit 70 kg 150 kg
150 270 kg 450 kg
450 .

Radio control
control Radio control Radio control
control
OF CABLE
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGING
LOGGlllG EQUIPMENT
:;J;<UIPMmT
Classification: lllDEPENDENT
INDEPENDENT BUNCHlllG WlllCIill3
BUNCHING WINCHES

lle.nufacturer:
Manufacturer: Theissen Modern Logging

Model: TW 70

Kaximum
Maximum Pulling Power-Skyline

" " "" -Mainline 15 Jcli


kN la
40 kN
(1
(1 500 kp)
500 kp) (4 100 kp)
(4 kp)

" " "


" -Haulback -

Maximum Line Speed - Skyline


-

" " " -llainline


-Mainline 1.5
1.5 mla
m/s m/s
0.6 m/s
.. . " -Haulback
Maximum Drum
Maximum Capacity-Skyline
Drum Capacity-Skyline

" P'
" " -Mainline 250m xx 6.0mm 96m x 9.5mm

" " .. -Haulback


-Haulback ...
VI

Tower Height

Engine Power l1k'tl (15hp)


11kW (15hp) 35k"'W (47hp)
3501 (471P)

Weight of Complete Unit 170 kg 730


730 kg

Radio control
EXAMP~ OF
EXAMPLES OF CABLE
CABLE LOoomG
LOGGING EQIIIPMENT
EUIPMENT

Classification: IlACHINE-KOUNTED
MACHINE-MOUNTED WmCHlli
WINCHES

Jlanufacturer:
Manufacturer: Reinhardt Kolps-Patent
Kolpe-Patent Nordfor OS!
OSA

Kodel:
Model: Drabant Winch Hinch
Tractor Vinch Tilt Winch 81G
81G

- Skyline
Pulling Power -
liaxilllUDl Pulling
Maximum Sk;yline

" " H
-- Mainline
lIainline 12 l<!N
kW 15 Jc:N
kN l<!N
15 kN Jc:N
18 kN
.t; kp)
(1 200 kp)
(1 (1 500 kp)
(1 kp)
(1 500 kp)
(1 (1 kp)
(1 800 kp)
I/
"
.. /I
" -- Haulback opt. 44 kN
opt. kN
(400 kp)
(400 kP)

iIal:imum Line Speed


Maximum Speed. -- Skyline
Sk;yline
. " " - ilainline
Mainline - 1.0 mls
m/s m/s
1.2 m/s mls
1.2 m/s 1.8 m/B
mls
- Haulback opt. 5.0 m/B
mls ....,
" " " opt.
'"
Drum Capacity
Maximiza Drum
lIaxillWD Capacity -- Sk;yline
Skyline
..
II
"tQ
"n -'.. lIainline
Mainline 4Omx8mm
40m x 8 mm 165m :x
m 7.0 mm
mm 250m x 7.0 mm 50 or 250m x 8 mm
u
"
u
"
..
u -- Haulback _ - opt. 800m x 4.0 mm
opt.800m
x
x)
Tover Height
Tower - - 3.2 m
3.2 m variable )

Engine Power
Ehgine Pover required 13.41<14 (18hp)
13.4kW (18hp) (40h p)
29kW (40bp) 22kW (30hp)
(30hp) lleg (15hp)
11kl1

Weight of Complete Unit (Winch)


(Winch) 140 kg 900 kg
900 kg 300 or
300 or 370
370 kg

Number of Drums 1
1 1 1 or 2 11
Radio control
control Radio control Radio control

x) mounted on forwarder crane


I) arm
EXAMPLES LOGCDlG EqUIPMENT
EXANPIRS OF CABLE LOGGING EJ;j1JIPMENT

Classification:
Classification: MACHINE-MOUNTED
MACH1NE-MOUNTED WDiCHES
WINCHES

Model:101
Manufacturer :
Manufacturer:

lIodel:

Maxi mum Pulling


Maximum Pulling Power -- Skyline
Skyline
I gl and
Igland

Special
S 4000/4
ecial 4000/4 _
OSA
OSA

101
I gland
Igland

Compa"t 5000 / 9H
Compact 2H
Gafner
Gafner

lhni-Skidder
Mini-Skidder

"
!I
" " -- Mainl i ne
Mainline 39 lCN
kN 44 0
44k1l kJI
49 01
49 56 k1l
01
(4 000
(4 000 kp )x)
kP)x) ( 4 500 kp)
(4 kp) (5 000 kp )x)
000 kp)x) (5
( 5 700
700 kp)

" " " - Haulback


Maximum Line Speed - Skyline
-

" II
" - Mainline
- 1.2 m/s x) 1.6 mls 1.8 mls x) 1.0 m/s
" II II
19
- Haulback
Maximum Drum Capacity
Masimum »ruin Capacity -- Skyline
Skyline ...,...
x x
x) I
"
II II U
II
-- Mainline 30m x 11 mm ) 75m x 10 mm
mm 250m 8mm )
250m x 8mm 38m x 14.3mm
38m
U
"
n II
" -- Haulback - - - -

Tower Height variable - variable . -

Engine
Eagine Power required 71~ (95hp)
to 711eW
up to 30ldl (41hp)
30kW (4hp) 67kW (90hP)
up to 67kW (90hp) 341a (45hP)
34.kW (45hp)
Weight
Weight of Complete
Complet e Unit
Unit (Winch)
(Winch) 360 kg
360 170
170 kg 300
300 kg
kg

Number of Drums
Drums 4 11 22 11
optional Radio
Radio control
control

x ) each
x) ea ch drum
~UIPIWIT
LOGGDlG EQUIPMENT
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGING

Classification:
Classification: MlCHINE-MOUNTED
MACHINE-MOUNTED WINCHES

Jlanufacturer:
Manufacturer: Sepson Clark Caterpillar
Caterpillar Timberjack
Kodel:
Model: 18-20
18-20 6648
664B Skidder 518 Skidder 550 Skidder
550 Skidder

Pulling Power -- Skyline


Maximum Pulling Skyline

"
11
"
PI
..If -
- lIainline
Mainline 88 kN
ldI 89k
89 ldI 142 kN
ldI 179ldI
179 0
(9 000 kp )x)
000 kp)x) (9 100
100 kp)
kp) (14
(14 500 kp)
kP) (18 200 kp)

"
.1
"t. "u - Haulback - - - -

Maximum Line
Maximum Line Speed
Speed - Skyline
Skyline - - - -
x)
"u "
v1
"
111
Mainline
.... Mainline mls x)
1.3 m/s 2.0 m/smls 1.2 m/s
mls 1.4
1.4 mls
m/s

lo
" "
11
" - Haulback - - - -

Maximum Drum Capacity


Maximum Drum Capacity -- Skyline
Skyline - - - -
x
x)
n
" "
11
" -_ Xainline
Mainline 50m x 16 mm )
50m 150m xx 12.7
12.7 mm 72m x 16
72m 16mm
mm
;

" -- Haul back - - _ .....


-4
1.
" "
to
Haulback 00

Tover Height
Tower Height - - - -
'"1

Engine Power
Engine Paver required
required up to 121
up 121 kll
kW (165hp) 67kW (9Qhp)
67klf (90hp) 89kW (120hp)
89kl1 (120hp) 138kli (185hp)
138kW (185hp)
of Complete
Weight of Complete Unit
Unit (Winch)
(Winch) 785 kg
Number of
Number of Drums
Drums 2
2 1
1 1
1 1
1

x} each drum
x)
EXAKPLES
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGING ~UIPMmT
EQUIPMENT

Classification: MACHINE-MOUNTED
MACHINE-MOUNTED WINCHES
WINCHES

Manufacturer: Clark Komatsu Caterpillar Komatsu


Komatsu

Model: 880 Skidder D60E Crawler


D6OE Crawler D9H Crawler
Crawler D155A Crawler
D155A Crawler

Maximum Pulling Power -- Skyline


ti
" "
11
"If -- Mainline
Mainline 307 klI
307 leN 449kN
449 kN 503 ItN
kN 693 kN
¡N

(31
(31 300 kp) (50 900
900 kp) 51 300 kp)
51 300 kp) (70
(70 600 kp)
600 kp)

"ii "
71
" -- Haulback
Maximum Line Speed -- Skyline
Skyline

" "
ii
" -- Mainline 1.7 m/s 0.9 m/s
0.9 m/s 0.6 m/s
m/s 0.7 m/s
ti
" "ii " -- Haulback
Maximum Drum Capacity -- Skyline
.....
'D
" " " -- Mainline 55m x 28.6 mm 90m x 26 mm 69m x 28 mm 90m xx 26
90m 26 mm
mm I

" "
ii .. -- Haulback -

Tower Height -

Engine Power required kW (307hp)


229 kW (307hp) 116lC1i (155hp)
1165( (155hp) 306k11 (410hP)
306kW (410hp) 239kW (320hp)
239kW (320hp)
Weight of Complete
Complete Unit
Unit (Winch)
(Winch) 280 kg
1 280 1 520 kg 1 850
1 kg
850 kg

Number of
Number of Drums
Drums 11 1
1 1
1 11
EX.UIPLES LOGGING ~1JIPJWiT
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGIliG EQUIPMENT

Classification: YARDERS
Manufacturer:
Manufacturer: !>fate-Fuji
Nate-Fuji Vinje Wyssen Hinteregger
Model:
Model: Y-12E
7.-12E K-12oo
K-1200 li-20
W-20 Universal Winch
-FS'tI 700
-FSW 700

Matimwn Load Capacity


Maximum - 2 000 kg kg
2 500 kg -

12 x
Maximwn Pulling Power-Skyline
Maximum Power-Skylins kNx))
12 kN 39 kN
39 kN IdI
43 kN 49 kN

(1 200 kp)
(1 kp) (4 000
000 kp)
kP) (4400 kP)
(4 400 kP) (5
(5 000 kp)
kP)

"u " "" -Mainline 12 kN 20 kN Skyline


same as Skyline Skyline
same as Skyline

(1
(1 200 kp)
kP) (2 000 kp)
(2 kP)
u
" "" -Haulback 12 }(N
kN
"
(1
(1 200 kP)
kp) I

-
g>
Maximwn Line Speed
Maximum Speed -Skyline 3.5 m/sx)
m/sx) - -

-J!ainlins
-Mainline 3.5 m/s 3.8 m/s 4.4 m/s 6.0
6.0 M/S
m/s
" " ""
" " "" -Haulback 3.5 m/s
_x) 2 400m x 10mm
Maximwn
Maximum Drum Capacity-Skyline 11 200m x 18mm
18mm

"" -Mainline 820m xx 8mm 2 500m x 10mm 1 800m x 9.5mm


" "
-Haulback 820m xx 8mm -
" " ""
Tower Height
Engine Power 9k"ll (12hp)
9kW (12hp) 44 to 74k"ll
74kW 12kW(16hp) 38 or 51kW
51ldi
(60 to 100hp)
1OOhp) (52 or 70hp)
(52

Weight of Complete Unit 850 kg 4000


4 000 kg 860 kg 2 200 kg
(engine not included)

Application Gravity + All-Terrain Gravity + Gravity +


All-Terrain All-Terrain·
All-Terrain All-Terrain

Carrier Skids Trailer


Trailer Skids
Skids Skids
Skids

x)
x) Endless
Ehdless Drum
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGiliG ~UIPMmT
LOGGING EQUIPMENT

Classification: YARDERS
YARDERS

Manufacturer: l_te Fuji


Iwate Nesler Baco
Baco Wyssen

Model:
Model: Y-::!2E
Y-52E IISA~
MSA 4 SW and SWU BOL
80L 11-200
W-200

Maximum Load Capacity - - - 12 000 kg


Maximum Pulling
Pulling Power-Skyline
Power-Sk;yline 50 kN
klI 69 klI
kN 9B
98 kN 147 kN
147 kll
(5 100 kp)x)
(5100 kp)x) (7 000
000 kp)
kp) (10 000 kp) (15
(15 000 kp)
Il 50 kN Bame
same as Skyline
Sk;yline same as Skyline
Sk;y line same as
as Skyline
Sk;y line
" " If
" -Mainline kN sane
(5 100 kp)
(5100 kp)
Il " -Haulback 40 kll - - -
" " 40 kN
(4
(4 100 kp)

Maximum Line Speed -Sk;yline


-Skyline 7.3 m/s
7.3 mjsx) - -
it " -Mainline B.2 m/s
mjs 10.0 mjs 9.5 m/s
mjs
" " " mjs
7.3 m/s 8.2 m/s
1

"
Ti
" " -Haulback mjs
9.2 m/s - - - OJ
co
_s
~

x)
x)
_ _ _
Maximum Drum Capacity-Skyline
Capacity-Sk;yline - 1

" " -Mainline


" 1 530m x 12mm 2 200m x 14mm OOOm x 16mm
2 000m 200m x 16mm
4 200m 16mm
IF
"
" " "" -Haulback 2 050m x 12mm - - -

Tower Height - - - -

Engine Power 69kW (92hp)


69kW (92hP) 14904 (200hp)
149kW 110kW
110kW (1504)
(150hp) 149kW (200hp)
149kW (200hp)
Weight of
Weight of Complete
Complete Unit
Unit 5 000 kg 4 700
4 700 kg
kg 4 500
500 kg 6 800
BOO kg
Application Gravity + Gravity + Gravity + Gravity +
All-Terrain All-Terrain All-Terrain All-Terrain
Carrier Skids Skids Skids
Skids Skids
Skids

x) Endless Drum
ElWIPLES
F/AMPLES OF CABLE LOGGING ~llIPImiT
EQUIPMENT

Classification:
Classification: YARDING TRAILERS FOR CONTINUOUS MAINLINE
MAINLINE SYSTEM

Manufacturer: Steyr
Model:
Model: Timber-veyor

Maximum Load Capacity

Maximum Pulling Power-Skyline

" " "" -Mainline


-Mainline 59 kN
59 kr
(6
(6 OOOkp)
000kp)
/I -Haulback
" " ""
Maximum Line Speed -Skyline

" " "" -Mainline 1.4 m/s


1.4 m/s

" " "" -Haulback -


CIO
Maximum. Yarding
Maximum Yarding Distance
Distance m
400 m '"
Height
"Tower" Height 4 mm
4
Engine Power
Engine Power 88kW (120hp)
88kW (120hp)
of Complete
Weight of Complete Unit
Unit 14 000 kg
Carrier Truck
Track
EUJlPLES
EXAMPLES Oli'
OF CABLE LOGG IlfG ~IJII'ImiT
LOGGING EQUIPMENT

Claasif icatian:
Classification: JIOBILE TOWER
MOBILE TOWER IIMENS-Small:
URllERS-Small: UP
Up to 100 leN (10 200
kN (10 200 kp) pulling power ou
ou mainline
mainline
Jlanutac~er:
Manufacturarg Hinteregger 19land
Igland' Jones
James Jones Hinteregger
Hinteregger

Kodel:
Model: 1-lIini-Urus
I-Mini-Urus All! Winch
Als Hi!l!!!and Alp
Highland All! lV-Urus Gigant
IV-Urus Gigant
llaxi8lll Load Capacity
Maximum Cl\paci ty 600 kg
600 1 000
000 kg
kg 1 500
500 kg
kg 2 000 kg
Maximum Pulling Powel'-Skyline
IlaxiIllUlll Power-Skyline 98 kN
9S leN 49 kN
leN 196 kN
leN
(10 000
(10 000 kp) (5 000
(5 000 kp) (20 000 kp)
"
11 ..
'13

"" -llainline
-Mainline 15 kN 49 leN
kN 49 kN
(1 500 kp)
(1 (5 000
(5 kp)
000 kp) kp)
(5 000 kp)

"
11
"
11
"" -liaulback
-Haulback 15 kN
kN 49 kN
kN 49 kN
kN
(1 500 kp)
(1 (5 000
(5 000 kp)
kp) (5 000 kp)
(5 000

IlaxiIllUlll Line Speed


Maximum -Sk;yline
-Skyline
M
11 .. "
11
-Mainline 8.0 m/s
S.o mls 5.0 m/s
mls 4.6 m/s
mls 7.6 mls
1.6 m/s
" " ..
It -Haulback
-liaulback 5.0 m/s
m/s 4.6
406 m/s
mls
llaxilllUlll Cl\paci ty-Sk;yline
Maximum Drum Capacity-Skyline 330m x 13.Omm
13.0mm 800m xx 18mm
SOOm 1Smm 650m
650m xx 16mm
16mm 530m xx 25mm
25mm ....co
I
"" -Mainline 350m xx 6.5mm
350m 6.5;"" 800m x~ 8mm
. SOOm SIIIII 800m xx 9mm
SOOm 9mm 500m x 14mm
500m 14mm
"
11
"
800m x 8mm plus 800m xx 9mm 1 050m
050m xx14mm
14mm
"
11
" "" -Haulback 650m x 6.5mm
650m 6.5mm SOOm Smm plus SOOm 9mm
800mx1Omm=1
SOOm x IOmm-1 600m
600m

Tower Height 4.7


401m 8.0 mm 7.2 mm
1.2 9.6 mm
9.6

Engine power 19 to
to 30
30kW
kW up to
to5656kW
kW 37 to
31 to 60
60kW
krl 112 to
112 to186
186kW
kW
(25 to 40 hp)
(25 to hP) (75 hP)
(15 hp) (50 to 80
(50 80 hp)
hp) (150 to 250 hp)

Cogplete Unit
Weight of Complete 22 200 kg
kg 4 200 kg
kg 4 200 kg 11
17 100
700 kg
(without engine)
carrier )x Trailer Trailer Trailer Truck
Carriarx)

x) 'l'rIlck: Self-propelled
Track: Self-propelled
Trailer:
Trailer: ....
Must10 be
be pulled by another
pulled by another machine (trailer is
machine (trailer is on
on rubber
rubber tires)
tires)
EXJIIPLES LOGG INC EQUIPMENT
EXAMPLES OF CABLE LOGGING ElQUIPJlUiT

Cl&llsification, IIOBILE
Classification: TOIlER U1UlERS-Small,
MOBILE TOMMR TA2DERS-Small: Up to 10ORN
100 klI (10 kp) pulling
(10 200 kp) pulling power
power on
on mainline
mainline
Jlanufacturer:
Manufacturer: Koller
Koller Koller
Koller

Kodel,
Model: Modif. K 800
Kodif. K800

Maximum
Maximum Load Capaci t;y
Load Capacity 2 500 kg

Maximum Pulling Powe1'-Sk;yline


lla:dmum Pulling Power-Skyline 97kN
97 kN 98 kN
(9
(9 900 kp)
ko) (10000 kp)
(10 000 kp)
. .. n
" -Xainline
-Mainline 53 kN
kN 58 kN
(5 400 kp)
(5 400 kP) (5 900
900 kp)
kp)
n .." -Haulback 53 kN kN
" -ffiallback kN 36 kN
(5 400 kp)
(5 400 kP) (3 kp)
( 3 700 kp)

Maximua Line
Maximum Line Speed
Speed -Skyline m/s
2.0 m/s Is
..
1.0 m/s
..
H ..
n "It -Mainline
-Mainline 6.2 m/s 4.8 ..Is
4-8 m/s
nti ..
of
".. -Haulback 6.2 m/s 7.5 m/s
7.5
I
Capaci t;y-3k;rline
llrum Capacity-Skyline
Maximum Drum 750m xx 24 mm x 24mm
750m s g'
..
IC ..
II "
II -Mainline
-Mainline 750m xx 12
12 mm 11 150m
150m '"
x 12mm
12mm
.. nPI .." -Haulback
-Haulback 750m xa 12 IIID
mm 750ui 12mm
750m x 12mm

Tower Height
Tower Height m
10.0 m 10.0 m
m

Engine Power 111kW (149hp)


111kW (149hP) 150kW (205hp)
(205hp)
Weight of Complete Unit
Unit 10000
10 000 kg
Kg 10000
10 000 kg
x)
Carrier x)
Carrier Tr-..
Truckck Truck
Track

x) Truck,
Truck: Self-propelled
Trailer,
Trailer: IIwIt
Must be
be pulled
pulled by
by another
another machine
machine (trailer
(trailer is
is on
on rubber
rubber tires)
ttres)
ElWIPLES ~UIPMENT
LOGGDiG EQUIPMENT
EXAMPIRS OF CABLE LOGGING

Classification: MOBILE TOWER


Classification: YARDERS -- Medium:
roWER YAIWERS Medium: over 100 kl< (10 200 kp) and up to 300 kU
kN (10 (30 600
kN (30 600 kp)
pulling power
pulling power on
on mainline
mainline
Kanufacturer:
Manufacturer: Rosedale
Rosedale Steyr
Steyr Forestraljunitec
Forestral/Unitec Rosedale
Model: EcoI
Eco KSK 16
16 Little Giant
Little Giant Sidewinder
Sidewinder

Maximum Pulling Power-Skyline


Pulling Power-Skyline 270 kU
kN opt. 178 kU
opt. 178 kN 481 kN
481 kU
(27 500
(27 kp)
500 kp) (18 100
(18 kp)
100 kp) (49 000
(49 000 )
)

10 10 10
" -Mainline 111
111 kU
kN 152 kU
kN 178 kN
178 kU 178 kU
kN
(11 300 kp)
(11 (15 500
(15 kp)
500 kp) (18 100
(18 kp)
100 kp) (18 100 kp)
n 10
-Haulback 111
111 kU 102 kU kU 178 kU
" " kN kN 156 kN kN
(11 300
(11 kp)
300 kp) 350 kp)
(10 350 900 kp)
(15 900
(15 kp) (18 100
(18 kp)
100 kp)
~~imum Line Speed
Maximum -Skyline
-Sk;yline - 9.7 m/s opt.
opte 4.4 m/s
4.4 m/B m/s
8.6 m/s
..
TT n
TI It
10
-Mainline 5.1
5.1 m/s 9.9 m/s
m/s 4.4 m/s
m/s 15.2 m/s
m/s
!I
10 10 10
-Haulback 5.1 mls
5.1 m/s 9.9 mls
9.9 m/s 5.2 m/s
5.2 m/s 15.2 m/smls
Maximum Drum Capacity-Skyline 1 450m x 16mm opt. 240m x 17.5mm
opt.240m 910m xx 25.4mm
910m 25.4mm 0>
v-
10 10 10
" -Mainline 380m xx 17. 5mm
17.5mm 10mm
250m x 10mm 240m x 17.5mm 790m x 19.0mm
19.0mm r

niv
" -Haul back
-Haulback 550m x 14.3mm 1 250m
250m Xx 10mm
10mm 15.91111!1
610m x 15.9mm 1 200m x 19.0mm
19.0mm
" " 1

Tower Height 12.8


12.8 m
m m
16-20 m 12.8 mm 13.7 mm
Engine Power up to 104kW (140hp)
(140hp) 186kl1 (250hp)
186kW (250hp) 9O kl1
90kW (120hp) 239kl1 (320hp)
239kli (320hp)

of Complete
Weight of Complete Unit 14 100 kg 28 500 kg 14 500 kg 47 200 kg
x)
Carrier
Carrier x) Skidder,
Skidder, Track Truck Skidder or Track Track
or Truck
opt.
opt. Radio control Radio control Swing Yarder

x) Truck:
Truck: Self-propelled

Skidder:
Skidder: Self-propelled
Track: crawler tracks)
Track: Self-propelled (can be tank or crawler tracks)
EXAMPLES OF CABLE
EXAMPLRS OF CABLE LOGGING
LOGGDlG EQUIPMENT
~UIPMF.2IT

Classification:
Classification: MOBILE TOWER
TOWER YARDERS-Medium:
YARDEllS-Medium: over
over 100kN
100 kN (10 kp) and
200 kp)
(10 200 and up
up to
to 300 (30 600 kp)
300 kN (30600 pulling power
kp) pulling power
on mainline
mainline
Manufacturer:
Manufacturer: Madill
Madill Forestral/Unitec
Model:
Model: Coast Tower
West Coast Tower Little Giant
Little Giant

Maximum Pulling
Maximum Pulling Power-Skyline
Power-Skyline 391 kll
391 kll kN
opt.267 kN
(39 900
900 kp) (27 200
(27 kp)
200 kp)
.. .
It "II -Mainline 251 kN
251 kll 267 kN
(25
(25 600 kp) (27 200
(27 kp)
200 kp)
un ..
Il .." -Haulback
-Haulback 221 kN
221 200 kN
(22
(22 500 kp) (20 400
(20 kp)
: 11:1)

Line Speed
Maximum Line Speed -Skyline opt. mls
opt. 5.1 m/s
. ..
u "
It -lfainline
-Mainline 7.2
7.2 mls
m/s 5.1 mls
5.1 m/s
..
u .
u .." -Haulback 8.3 mls
m/s 7.1
7.1 mls
m/s
0>
Maximum Drum Capacity-Skyline
Capacity-Skyline 590m
590m xx 25.4mm opt. 270m x 23.8mm
opt.270m
'"
. .
Il " -Mainline
II 820m xx 15.9mm 270m x 23.8mm
II il -Haulback
-Haulback 1 280m x 12.7mm 550m x 20.6mm
"
IC
" II

Tower Height 14.6 m


m 16.3 m
Engine Power 212kl"l
212kW (284hp)
(284hP) 138kH (185hp)
138kN (185hp)
of Complete
Weight of Complete Unit
Unit 33 300
33 300 kg
kg
x)
Carrier
Carrier x) Track Skidder or Track
Radio control

x) Truck: Self-propelled
Truck: Self-propelled

Skidder: Self-propelled
Track:
Track: Self-propelled (can
(can be tank
tank or
or crawler
crawler tracks)
tracks)
ElWIPLES OF
EXAMPLES ~LELOGGING
OF CABLE ~U11'II.I§I'l'
LOOOIliGEqUIPME/ITT

Cl ...ifica,\ionl KOBILE
Classification: TOWER ~Large:
MOBILE TOWER YARDERS-Large: over 300 kN (30600
kN (30' kp) pulling
600 kp) pulling power on
on mainline
mainlin..
Jlanufac'turer I
Manufacturer: Skagi
Skagitt Berger
Berger Berger
Berger Skookum
Skoolrum
Kodell
Model: BlJ-nl~9Q
BU- T- _ _._ ~c I.U
Marc II R Marcc II
Ma.r K-1 414D5+K10
_K-1 D +M10
IlaxiIlWl Power-Slqline
Maximum Pulling Power-Skyline 542 kN
kN 667
661 kN
kN 534 kN
kN
(55 200
(55 200 kp) (68
(68 000 kp)
kp) (54 kp)
(54 400 kP)
4
" i" It
, ".
It' -llainline
-Mainline opt.
opt. 349 kN))
349 kN 373 kN
kN 378 kN
318 kN 378
318 kN
kN
(35 600
(35 kp)--
600 kp)xx (38
(38 000
000 kp) (38 500
500 kp)
kp) (38 500
(38 500 kp)

" " "" -Haulback kN


422 kN 3