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STEADY-STATE AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE MODEL OF MULTI-WINDING

LAYERS TRANSFORMER DUE TO LIGHTNING SURGE

K. Denno

New Jersey Institute of Technology


Newark, New Jersey 07102 U.S.A.

Abstract. Modeling of multi-layers winding transformer has been developed by


this author in three dimensional system which took into consideration space
variations of electromagnetic components along a transverse axis with re-
spect to the two dimensional plane used before as the approximate model for
the transformer in calculating the operational performance parameters.

SOLUTION OF THE INDUCED VOLTAGE SURGE


.
----.
- ’ EC (X,S) = A2
(4)
The following 4th order differential The total solution for E (X, S):
represents theproper vehicle tosolve for the
E(X.S) = A2 + A3 IlcV(X.S)
induced voltage surge:

A_& a2.+ywA__= kc 2x_ (1)


ax2 at* ax2at2 at* =(X.t) - A2 6(t) + A3 (AC+ [ t - “(t-t+] f(X)
where,
where, (5)
Y = transformer inter-turn capacitance/unit length
f(X) is the associative space function of v(X.t)
c - transformer external capacitance to ground
A,, each represent the conductive and the
I = transformer self-inductance/unit,length . Acs
W = one complete turn length of conductor. convective amplitude of the lightning current
e = the induced voltage surge. storke
v = the inducing incident voltage surge. t is the time delay for the singularity function
1
Taking the Laplace transform of equation (1) wit included for v(X.t)

To find A2 and A3, the followingsinitial


&- fc S2E + ,Qlf*S* a2E_ I= 52 " (2)
ax* ax* and boundary conditions are

where, e(X,t) +OasX +m


(6)
e(X.t) + E. at t - 0, X - 0 (7)
E is a function of S. X
V is a function of S. X E. is the nominal transformer terminal voltage.
S is Laplace Transform Variable
Values of A2 and A3 are expressed below:
The complementary solution of eq. (2):
-aX A2 - E 6(t)-U,(C-t,)-U,$) af +t
gc (X.S) = A2e 0 (8)
6(t) -lll(t-tl) + t

where and
go
A3' A,-AV (9)
where
(3) 6(t) is the impulse Delta Dirac function
a= z& Ul(t-tl) is the delayed step function by tl

However since fc <<yu


SOLUTION OF INDUCED SURGE CURRENT
u = inter-turn mutual inductance implying that
From the solution of the induced voltage surge
a '0

478
TRANSIENT RRSPCIRSE MODEL 479

expressed in equation (81, the induced current CONCLUSIONS


surge could be obtained fromthe following:
Mathematical models in the form of closed form
i(x.t) = +
I edt
.- s&,tio"s have bee" secured Successfully resulting
from the incidence of propagating inducing Voltage
1 produced by lightning conductive return stroke and
A2IJ(t) + A3'A,-Av' +t' - t IJ(t-t1)
-r the convective time varying bound charges in the
I
ground terrain.
Jc(t)-J,(t) ] +’ -$& ( E?-$? The f01lOwi"g are secured:
I
1. Distribution of the induced voltage surge
taking into account, effectsof the transformer
self inductance and the external capacitance to
x"-l -jnX
-2
"+%

I" R I
,"-k e-jnX dX+k
."
3 2.
ground.
Distribution of the induced current transm
itted surge.
3. Time pattern of the surge impedance imposed 0"
n_l Xn-2 e-jnX dx + J'2"-l (n-l)! x 2
2 the transformer StTUCture. It is established
j" J 3fl that at the instant of voltage surge incidence,
the surge impedance is a" impulse, while the
where, (10) steady-state value approaches the total nom
R - Rc for conductive state inal self-inductance of the transformer.

- R, for convective State REFERENCES

Jc - Act , 0 < t < t1


- Ac(t-t1) IJ1(t-t1), for t > tl (11) Denno, Khalil. "Dynamic Modeling for the Process

of Inducing and Indiced Voltage Surges Due to


t,o<t<t Lightning", 3. of Electrostatics, No. 13.
J" = A" 1
pp. 55-69. 1982.
- Av(t-tl) Ul(t-tl). for t > tl (12) Denno, KhaliJ, "Mathematical Modelling of PruP+g
ati"g Inducing and Induced Power Due to a" Act
ual Pulse Shape of Lightning Surge",
J of Electrostatics, No. 15, pp. 43-51, 1984.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURGE IMPEDANCE
-- Denno, KhLhalil."Three Dimensional Electromagnetic
g(X,t) - e(x.t)!i(x,t) (13) Field Model of Power Transformer with Multi-
Layers Winding", will appear soon in the
:. from equations 8 and 11

Garabedian, P. R. Partial Differential Equat


A26(t)+A3(Ac-A,)[t-U(t-tl)]
wx,tj = L ions, John Wiley, 1984.
A2U(t)+A3(Ac-A&t2-tU(t-tl)] Harrington, Roger, Time-Harmonic Electromagne
tic Fields, McGraw-Hill. N.Y., 1961.
+ (14)
Att-0 Rudenberg, P., Electric ihocks in Power Syst
ems, Harvard Press. 1968.
g + L6(t) (15)
Wood, Allen, . and Wollenberg, b.f., power Gene
and at t + - ratio", Operation and Control, John Wiley 6
2 +. l zero Sons. 1984.
(16)

.'. Distribution of imposed surge impedance as


a result of lightning voltage incidence on a
transformer. could be represented as show" in the
figure

“f Lb(t)

Surge Impedance Distribution