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BUILDING STRUCTURES

LATERAL STABILITY

BUILDING STIFFENED WITH R.C. SHEAR WALLS

Contents

1.
Introduction
............................................................................................................................
3

2.
Forces
acting
on
each
shear
wall
..............................................................................................
5

3.
Base
reinforcement
design
for
the
wall
F1x
...........................................................................
12

3.1
Longitudinal
reinforcement
..........................................................................................................
12

3.2
Shear
reinforcement
.....................................................................................................................
16

4.
Maximum
horizontal
displacements
and
twist
due
to
wind
load
...........................................
22

5.
Check
for
the
non-‐sway
condition
..........................................................................................
25

6.
Conclusions
...........................................................................................................................
27

1.
Introduction

The aim of this document is to analyse the effects generated by wind on a relatively high building.

For this purpose, an equivalent wind total load equal to 1,2 kN/m2 acting on the surface

perpendicular to the wind direction is assumed. The effects of wind will be considered in two

different situations, i.e. when wind is blowing from west to east (X-direction) and when it is blowing

from south to north (Y-direction). A plane view of a generic floor of the building is shown in the

figure below. The measures are expressed in centimeters.

The floor of the building under consideration is 30m x 20m wide and it is characterized by a system

of reinforced concrete shear walls in order to resist the horizontal actions. The arrangement of the

walls is a result of the architectural design: they all have a thickness of 40 cm and different lengths.

Four of them are oriented along Y direction, they are disposed symmetrically with respect to the Y

axis passing across the centroid of the plan and they are all 540 cm long. On the other hand, three

of them are oriented along X direction and do not respect any symmetry rule: two of them are

located along one external side of the floor and they are both 400 cm long, while the third one is

located at the centroid of the plan and it is 475 cm long. In the following table the shear walls

dimensions measured along their plane major axis are resumed.

X-oriented shear walls

F1x 4,75 m

F2x 4 m

F3x 4 m

Y-oriented shear walls

F1y 5,4 m

F2y 5,4 m

F3y 5,4 m

F4y 5,4 m

The height between the stories of the building is constant and equal to 3 meters. This value

corresponds to the vertical distance between the mid-surface of the floor slabs. The total amount

of stories is equal to 21. In the following table the geometric features of the building are resumed.

X-oriented sides length LX 30 m

Y-oriented sides length LY 20 m

height of single storey h 3 m

total height of the building H 63 m

thickness of the shear walls t 0,4 m

Position of the centroid with respect to the left lowest external corner of the floor plan

along X-axis XG 15 m

along Y-axis YG 10 m

The gravity loads on the building are the self-weight (i.e. floor slabs with self-weight equal to 5

kN/m2), the pavement and the partition walls (1,5 kN/m2) and a distributed live load equal to 3

kN/m2.

Vertical Loads

g1 5 kN/m2

g2 1,5 kN/m2

q 3 kN/m2

The legislative reference adopted for this analysis is the Spanish Code EHE-08.

2.
Forces
acting
on
each
shear
wall

Firstly, the actions generated by wind lateral load on each shear wall have to be computed. The

two different directions (i.e. X and Y) are considered separately. In order to simplify the problem,

the so-called “Stiffness Planes General Method” is adopted. It is based on the assumption that the

building can be seen as a system of three families of planes, composed of two perpendicular families

of vertical elements and one additional family of horizontal planes (i.e. floors). The floors are

assumed to be infinitely rigid in their own plane, while the vertical planes only present flexural

stiffness with respect to their stronger plane axis.

The main basic hypotheses are the following ones:

• all the horizontal stiffness is concentrated in a series of frames organised according to two

perpendicular families;

• each frame has stiffness in its own plane, while its transversal stiffness is neglected;

• the floors are monolithic and infinitely rigid in their own plane, i.e. they do not experience

any deformation in their own plane.

In the case under consideration the problem is further simplified since the horizontal stability is

guaranteed by a simple system of vertical walls, which are constant in elevation and arranged

according to two orthogonal directions X and Y. For a system of this type, it is possible to obtain

the centre of rigidity (XC , YC) so that the external forces applied on it do not generate torsion and

twist. It is quite straightforward that the centre of rigidity of the whole system does not coincides

with the centroid because of the non-symmetric distribution of the shear walls. Moreover, the

horizontal loads are assumed to be proportional along all the floors: specifically, the wind action is

transformed in an equivalent distributed and constant load acting on the surfaces perpendicular to

the air flow.

Therefore, in such a case, the following relations hold to compute the centre of rigidity (with

respect to the centroid reference system):

% 𝑥% 𝐾'(

𝑋" =

% 𝐾'(

+ 𝑦+ 𝐾,-

𝑌" =

+ 𝐾,-

where:

𝑥% is the coordinate, along X direction, of the i-th shear wall’s centre of gravity;

𝐾'( is the stiffness around X direction of the i-th Y-oriented shear wall;

𝑦+ is the coordinate, along Y direction, of the j-th shear wall’s centre of gravity;

𝐾,- is the stiffness around Y direction of the j-th X-oriented shear wall.

In the following table are resumed the values of the various walls’ inertias.

X-oriented

IyF1x 3,572395833 m4

SHEAR WALL F2x-F3x

X-oriented

IyF2x 2,133333333 m4

IyF3x 2,133333333 m4

SHEAR WALL F1y-F2y-F3y-F4y

Y-oriented

IxF1y 5,2488 m4

IxF2y 5,2488 m4

IxF3y 5,2488 m4

IxF4y 5,2488 m4

Every moment of inertia has been computed by means of the simple following formula associated

to the rectangular section:

1 3

𝐼= 𝑡𝐿

12

where:

𝑡 is the thickness of the wall, i.e. its minor planar dimension;

𝐿 is the length of the wall, i.e. its major planar dimension.

IxTOT 20,9952 m4

IyTOT 7,8390625 m4

As one could expect, the inertia given by the Y-oriented walls is larger because they are more than

the X-oriented walls and they are larger too.

By applying the previous formulae, the following position of the centre of rigidity is computed:

CENTRE OF RIGIDITY

XC 0 m

YC 5,4428277 m

Obviously, the centre of rigidity belongs to Y axis, as Y-oriented shear walls are distributed

symmetrically with respect to that. The same thing does not occur with regards to X-oriented walls.

Considering the centre of rigidity as the origin of the new coordinate system, it is possible to

compute directly the forces that the various walls have to resist. The following formulae hold:

𝐹,( = 𝐹, + 𝑀'

% 𝐾'( 𝐼9

𝐾,- 𝑦+8 𝐾,-

5'6

𝐹'- = 𝐹' − 𝑀,5'6

+ 𝐾,- 𝐼9

where:

𝐼9 is the polar moment of inertia. It is calculated as follows:

< <

𝐼9 = 𝐾'( 𝑥%8 + 𝐾,- 𝑦+8 = 4918,3594
𝑚E

% +

𝑥%8 and 𝑦+8 are the walls relevant coordinates with respect to the centre of rigidity;

𝐹,5'6 is the external force acting along Y direction;

𝐹'5'6 is the external force acting along X direction;

𝑀'5'6 is the moment produced by the eccentricity of 𝐹,5'6 with respect to the centre of rigidity;

𝑀,5'6 is the moment produced by the eccentricity of 𝐹'5'6 with respect to the centre of rigidity.

In this case, the symmetry of the Y-oriented shear walls does not imply any eccentricity of the

external force 𝐹,5'6 , therefore 𝑀'5'6 = 0. On the other hand, the external force 𝐹'5'6 produces a

torsional moment 𝑀,5'6 = 𝐹'5'6 ∙ 𝑌" . In the following table the external actions due to wind on each

floor are resumed. Both X and Y directions are considered separately.

𝐹'5'6 qI ∙ LK ∙ h 72 kN

𝐹,5'6 qI ∙ LM ∙ h 108 kN

𝑀'5'6 𝐹,5'6 ∙ 𝑋" 0 kNm

𝑀,5'6 𝐹'5'6 ∙ 𝑌" 391,88 kNm

According to the previous formulae, each shear wall experience the following forces when the wind

blows along Y direction, from south to north.

wind force along Y direction

F1y (Fy) 27 kN

F2y (Fy) 27 kN

F3y (Fy) 27 kN

F4y (Fy) 27 kN

F1x(Mx) 0,000 kN

F2x(Mx) 0,000 kN

F3x(Mx) 0,000 kN

F1y(Mx) 0,000 kN

F2y(Mx) 0,000 kN

F3y(Mx) 0,000 kN

F4y(Mx) 0,000 kN

RESULTANTS

F1x 0,000 kN 0 %

F2x 0,000 kN 0 %

F3x 0,000 kN 0 %

F1y 27,000 kN 25 %

F2y 27,000 kN 25 %

F3y 27,000 kN 25 %

F4y 27,000 kN 25 %

In the same way, each shear wall experience the following forces when the wind blows along X

direction, from west to east.

wind force along X direction

F1x(Fx) 32,812 kN

F2x(Fx) 19,594 kN

F3x(Fx) 19,594 kN

F1x(My) 1,549 kN

F2x(My) -0,775 kN

F3x(My) -0,775 kN

F1y(My) -6,273 kN

F2y(My) -6,273 kN

F3y(My) 6,273 kN

F4y(My) 6,273 kN

RESULTANTS

F1x 34,361 kN 47,72345637 %

F2x 18,820 kN 26,13827182 %

F3x 18,820 kN 26,13827182 %

F1y -6,273 kN -8,712757272 %

F2y -6,273 kN -8,712757272 %

F3y 6,273 kN 8,712757272 %

F4y 6,273 kN 8,712757272 %

Further comments on these results will be given later. For the moment, it is just important to note

that this shear walls distribution make the central X-oriented wall to take almost a half of the

external actions when the wind blows from west to east. Therefore, this wall will need a particular

reinforcement to bear such a load.

Finally, the global equilibrium of the system can be verified. Namely, the reactions given by the

walls should be equal to the external forces and should balance any external moment applied on

the building. By means of simple equilibrium equations, this global check is satisfied.

GLOBAL CHECK

ΣRy 108,000 kN OK

ΣRx 0,000 kN OK

ΣM 0,000 kNm OK

GLOBAL CHECK

ΣRx 72,000 kN OK

ΣRy 0,000 kN OK

ΣM 391,88 kNm OK

In the following, the two different loading conditions are represented. It should be noted that, if

the wind blows in opposite directions, i.e. or from north to south, either from east to west, the

forces here depicted change their directions as well, keeping the same absolute values.

Wind blowing from south to north

Wind blowing from west to east

3.
Base
reinforcement
design
for
the
wall
F1x

The reinforcement of the shear wall F1x should be properly design because of the significant share

of the external actions carried on. It should be taken into account that the wall supports a weight

corresponding to a surface of 60 m2 per each floor slab.

Firstly, the design loads should be computed. In addition to the horizontal wind load, there are the

vertical permanent and live loads. As pointed out in Article 12 of EHE-08, the partial safety factors

corresponding to a persistent situation should be considered. Specifically, the following values are

chosen in order to minimize the favourable effect of gravity loads under horizontal actions

situations.

γg 1

γq 0

Nsd computation

g1 5 kN/m2

g2 1,5 kN/m2

q 3 kN/m2

A 60 m2

qult per floor 6,5 kN/m2

number of floors 21 [-]

Nsd 8190 kN

Once computed the axial load, the bending moment and shear force acting at the base of the

column should be evaluated. These values can be obtained by distributing along the height of the

column the design wind load and, then, by simply enforcing the equilibrium of the cantilever wall.

Msd computation

PQP

𝐹NO 51,541 kN

𝛾S 1,5 [-]

PQP

𝑄U%VW,W 𝐹NO ∙ 𝛾S 51,541 kN

t 0,4 m

h 3 m

A 1,2 m2

𝑞YZ5Y,U%VW,W 𝑄U%VW,W /𝐴 42,95111073 kN/m2

𝑞U = 𝑞]%V5YZ,U%VW,W 𝑞YZ5Y,U%VW,W ∙ 𝑡 17,18044429 kN/m

H 63 m

<

Msd 𝑞U 𝐻 /2 34094,5917 kNm

Vsd 𝑞U 𝐻 1082,36799 kN

First of all, its important to define the properties of the used materials and their constitutive laws.

Applying the criteria explained in Article 38 and 39 of EHE-08 code, one obtains the following

results. In this case, also the long-term effects on concrete strength are taken into account by

adopting the coefficient acc=0,85.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Reinforcement Steel Concrete

B 500 S HA 30

2

fyk 500 N/mm fck 30 N/mm2

𝛾s 1,15 [-] 𝛾c 1,5 [-]

2

fyd 434,7826087 N/mm fcd 17 N/mm2

2

Es 210000 N/mm fct,m 2,896468154 N/mm2

fct,k 2,027527708 N/mm2

fctd 1,351685138 N/mm2

Regarding the concrete section, the rectangular stress-strain diagram will be adopted, according to

what is described in paragraph 39.5 of the code. Because of the fact that I am dealing with a

concrete whose characteristic strength fck is lower than 50 N/mm2, the values l=0,8 and h=1 will

be used.

The basic hypothesis for design is that the concrete subjected to compression stresses fails at its

maximum deformation, i.e. ecu=0,0035. The steel bars have to be checked if they are in yielding

field or still in the elastic range.

The loading condition, for which the reinforcement is computed, is represented in the figure below.

The base cross-section is indeed designed to resist the effects of wind bending the cantilever wall

in both possible ways. Obviously, each of them cannot occur simultaneously with the other one.

By computing the resultants of the stresses and by imposing the translational and rotational

equilibrium of the section subjected to bending and axial load, one can calculate the position x of

the neutral axis in the section and the amount of reinforcement As needed to resist the external

actions. An equal amount of reinforcement As is employed on both cross-section edges. For design

purpose, I get the maximum exploitation of the mechanical characteristics of materials by imposing

the ultimate deformation 𝜀ef = 0,0035 on the upper extreme fibre of concrete and the yielding

deformation 𝜀,W on steel reinforcement.

Through the implementation of this simple iterative procedure on an Excel worksheet, I get values

that bring me to choose 5 layers of 5f24 as the reinforcement of just one edge of the base wall

cross-section. The same choice is adopted for the opposite edge.

In the following table are resumed the quantities I got with this reinforcement choice. Later, a

sketch of the base cross-section reinforcement will be provided.

number of layers 5 [-]

number of bars per layer 5 [-]

f of each bar 24 mm

2

As 11309,73355 mm

x (from the top edge) 1505,514706 mm

NRd 8190 kN

MRd 36401,05961 kNm

MRd/ MSd 106,7649084 %

It is clear that a uniform longitudinal distribution of longitudinal bars has been employed for design

purpose and simplicity of installation.

Moreover, a certain amount of longitudinal reinforcement is needed in the central area of the cross-

section, outside the strata of principal reinforcement. Such amount can be equal to the minimum

proposed by EHE-08 in the Article 42. Specifically, at subsection 42.3.5 the following table is

provided.

For the case under consideration, a geometric ratio equal to 0,0009 is chosen. In the following table

the computations for the minimum longitudinal reinforcement design are developed.

minimum geometric ratio 0,9 ‰ 0,0009 #

total area of concrete section 1,9 m2

length (of central area to be reinforced) 4250 mm 4,25 m

total area of concrete (central area) 1,7 m2 1700000 mm2

minimum reinforcement area 1530 mm2

minimum reinforcement area / 2 765 mm2

Φ 12 mm

theoretical amount of bars per side 6,764085081

design amount of bars per side 7

Step between consecutive bars 680 mm

distance between principal reinforcement

85 mm

and minimum reinforcement of central zone

Actually the base cross-section of the wall under consideration has also to withstand the shear

action previously computed, i.e. 𝑉`W = 1082,4
𝑘𝑁. According to what is described in Article 44 of

the EHE-08 code, the Limit State of Failure due to shear will be reached when either the

compressive strength of the web or its tensile strength is exhausted. It is consequently necessary to

verify that both the following conditions are simultaneously satisfied:

𝑉ZW ≤ 𝑉fN

𝑉ZW ≤ 𝑉f<

where:

𝑉ZW is the design value of the effective shear force;

𝑉fN is the ultimate shear force failure due to diagonal compression in the web;

𝑉f< is the ultimate shear force failure due to tension in the web.

As a first hypothesis, it is considered the case of lack of any shear reinforcement. In such a case the

failure due to diagonal compression will not need to be verified. Moreover, it can be simply verified

that the acting bending moment is larger than Mfis,d , so the cracked section should be considered

hereafter.

Following what is described in the paragraph 44.2.3.2.1.2 of EHE-08, one gets the following values

for the computation of Vu2.

fcv 30 N/mm2

rl 0,006146594 [-]

x 1,208514414 [-]

Vu2 704,9681648 kN

Vu2,min 669,4624255 kN

It is evident that the wall under consideration can not bear the maximum external shear stresses

without any appropriate shear reinforcement. So, considering the case of members with shear

reinforcement, the ultimate shear force failure due to tensile force in the web shall be equivalent

to:

where:

𝑉ef is the contribution of the concrete to shear strength.

At this point the first thing to do is to evaluate the ratio between the total amount of transversal

reinforcement 𝐴`` and the inter-axis between the stirrups 𝑒` through the following relation:

𝐴``

𝑐𝑜𝑡𝑔𝜃
𝑓
0,9𝑑 = 𝑉ZW

𝑒` ,W

where:

𝜃 is the angle between the concrete’s compressed struts and the axis of member; in this case an

angle 𝜃 = 45° is considered;

𝑓,W is the design strength of the reinforcement i.e. the yielding stress;

qrr ttu

Eventually one gets = 0,60131555 .

5r tt

Then choosing a f8 diameter for 2-legs-stirrups, an inter-axis distance of about 167 mm can be

obtained.

Eventually I chose 2-legs-stirrups f8 / 200 mm (i.e. 𝑒` = 200
𝑚𝑚) for the total cross section, while

a more refined distribution of stirrups will be placed around the principal longitudinal

reinforcement bars on the edges of the cross-section.

Following what is described in the paragraph 44.2.3.2.2 of EHE-08, one gets the following values

for the computation of Vsu and Vcu.

Computation of Vsu

d 4600 mm

z 4140 mm

a 90 °

q 45 °

cotgq 1

å Aa 0,502654825 mm2/mm

Vsu 904,7786842 kN

Computation of Vcu

Md 34094,592 kNm

Vrd 1082,36799 kN

As 11309,73355 mm2

ex 1,961600802

qe 42,73120562 °

cotgqe 1,082506061 > cotgq

b 0,858360167

Vcu 504,2638266 kN

Therefore it results 𝑉f< = 𝑉ef + 𝑉`f = 1409,0425
𝑘𝑁 so one compulsory verification is satisfied.

Now, following what is described in the paragraph 44.2.3.1 of EHE-08, one gets the following

values for the computation of 𝑉fN .

K 1

2

flcd 10,2 N/mm

Vu1 9384 kN

It is evident that the other compulsory verification is satisfied: 𝑉ZW = 1082,4
𝑘𝑁 ≪ 𝑉fN =

9384
𝑘𝑁.

By adopting this shear reinforcement choice, also the minimum transversal reinforcement check

explained in subsection 44.2.3.4.1 of EHE-08 is satisfied.

In the enclosed drawing the reinforcement distribution employed for the base cross-section of the

analysed shear wall is illustrated.

4.
Maximum
horizontal
displacements
and
twist
due
to
wind
load

A good simplification to study this structural condition is the case of the cantilever clamped at one

edge and free to move on the opposite one, and subjected to a constant load distributed along its

length. If the total inertia of the building is concentrated on a line running along its height, the

structure under consideration can be therefore analysed as it behaves like a cantilever. In such a

case, the maximum horizontal displacement occurs on the top of the cantilever and can be

evaluated by means of the following expression:

1 𝑞𝐻y

𝑣xqO =

8 𝐸𝐼

where:

𝑞 is the intensity of the distributed load, representing the wind action in this case;

𝐻 is the length of the cantilever, i.e. the height of the building in this case;

𝐸𝐼 is the flexural rigidity of the cantilever. It should be noted that for slender structural walls the

shear flexibility can be neglected.

As a consequence, the bending stiffness provided by each wall, whose static scheme is a cantilever

laterally loaded by wind, is the following:

{
|}~ •€(

𝐾'( = for Y-oriented shear walls;

•‚

{
|}~ •ƒ-

𝐾,- = for X-oriented shear walls.

•‚

Since the centroid of the building does not coincide with the centre of rigidity, when wind blows

along X direction a certain distributed torsional moment m appears. It can be evaluated as follows:

Being the top of the cantilever free to move, it will experience the maximum torque effect, namely:

𝑀 =𝑚∙𝐻

Once M has been defined, the following relations hold in order to compute the maximum twist:

𝑀 = 𝐹' ∙ 𝑌" = 𝑅% 𝑟%

%

𝑅% = 𝐾% ∙ 𝛿% = 𝐾% ∙ 𝜑 ∙ 𝑟%

where:

𝑅% is the reaction provided by the i-th wall;

𝛿% is the planar displacement experienced by the i-th wall;

𝑟% is the distance of the i-th wall’s centroid from the centre of rigidity of the system;

𝜑 is the twist experienced by the whole floor, since the diaphragm action is assumed.

𝑀

𝜑= <

% 𝐾% 𝑟%

According to the previous expressions, this last denominator reads:

y 3

8
𝐸et

𝐾% 𝑟%< = 𝐾'( 𝑥%< + 𝐾,- 𝑦+< = 𝐼'( 𝑥%< + 𝐼,- 𝑦+<

𝐻3

% %ˆN +ˆN % +

These formulae can be simply applied in the case under consideration, reminding that the centre

of rigidity of each floor is assumed to represent the behaviour of the whole floor, according to the

initial assumption. In the following table are resumed the results concerning the situation in which

the wind blows along X direction. It should be noted that “u” refers to the displacements along X

direction, while “v” refers to the ones along Y direction.

only X-oriented forces

q 24 kN/m

vCR 0 m

uCR 0,210962793 m

m 130,6278653 kN

M 8229,555511 kNm

𝜑 0,001830098 rad

The same path of reasoning has to be applied or the case of wind blowing along Y direction.

However, in such a case the loads do not imply any rotation since there are no eccentricities,

therefore each floor will experience only a rigid movement along Y direction. Here below the

relevant results are resumed.

only Y-oriented forces

q 36 kN/m

vCR 0,118152044 m

uCR 0 m

m 0 kN

M 0 kNm

𝜑 0 rad

Since each floor behaves like a rigid diaphragm and since a certain amount of rotations occurs, the

various walls do not experience the same displacement. Specifically, in addition to the rigid

translations equal for every wall, the displacements caused by the rigid rotation around the centre

of rigidity must be taken into account. In the case under consideration, the point affected by

maximum displacement significance is the one located at the right-low corner, as pointed out in

the figure below.

Here below the computation of the maximum displacements on the top floor are resumed.

v_max 0,118152044 m

u_max 0 m

v_max 0,027451469 m

u_max 0,23922468 m

A common limit value for displacements is H/500=0,126m. It is evident that when the wind blows

along X direction, this limit value is overcome.

5.
Check
for
the
non-‐sway
condition

Once designed the main shear wall of the building and computed the maximum movements, it is

necessary to check if the building under consideration can be considered as non-sway in any

direction, according to the article 43.1.1 of the Spanish code EHE-08. Here below can be seen

what the code prescribes:

k1ULS 0,31 -

n 21 -

h 63 m

E 28576790,96 kN/m2

g1 5 kN/m2

g2 1,5 kN/m2

q 3 kN/m2

qult 13,275 kN/m2

Nd 167265 kN

NrULS 16258,07174 kN

Nr/Nd 9,719948427 %

NrULS 43543,65943 kN

Nr/Nd 26,03273813 %

It is clear that the building under consideration cannot be regarded as a non-sway structure.

6.
Conclusions

Once concluded the computations and the designs, some comments on the analysed case should

be done.

As pointed out at the end of chapter 4, the common limit value for lateral displacements equal to

H/500 is respected only when the wind hits the building on his longer side.

It is quite reasonable to pay a special care when the larger façade of the building is hit by the wind,

but the same attention should be paid for the other side too. In fact, the limit value for

displacements is almost doubled when wind blows along X direction, hitting the shortest side of

the building. This is mainly due to the bad arrangement of the X-oriented shear walls: in fact, they

are all concentrated in the upper part of the plane. In addition, they are also fewer and smaller than

the Y-oriented shear walls.

Such bad arrangement results in a non-coincidence between the centroid of the building and its

centre of rigidity: this implies an eccentricity of the resultant X-oriented wind force with respect to

the centre of rigidity, which cause a torsional moment on each floor.

The largest effect of such a torque is experienced by the top floor of the building: here the sum all

the rigid body motions results in a X-oriented displacement of the lowest edge of the right-low

corner wall equal to about 24 cm.

distribution similar to the one along Y direction could be adopted for the X-oriented walls,

removing the central and overloaded wall.

Alternatively, if architectural requirements do not allow the presence of external shear walls, an

other kind of lateral bearing loads solution should be employed, for instance an internal core made

up of a closed profile: in such a way torsional and warping effects would be significantly reduced.

The simple final computation according to what is explained in the Spanish code about the

instability Ultimate Limit State shows that the building under consideration cannot be regarded as

a non-sway structure: therefore, if any change can be made on the arrangement of the walls, a

particular care to instability problems should be paid. Taking into account the relevant geometric

non-linearity effects, such as global and local P-D effects, some more refined and time-consuming

analyses are therefore needed.

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