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J. Kuhnert, S.

Tiwari

Finite pointset method based on the


projection method for simulations of
the incompressible Navier-Stokes
equations

Berichte des Fraunhofer ITWM, Nr. 30 (2001)


© Fraunhofer-Institut für Techno- und
Wirtschaftsmathematik ITWM 2001

ISSN 1434-9973

Bericht 30 (2001)

Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Ohne ausdrückliche, schriftliche Genehmigung


des Herausgebers ist es nicht gestattet, das Buch oder Teile daraus in
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reproduzieren oder in eine für Maschinen, insbesondere Datenverarbei-
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Recht der öffentlichen Wiedergabe.

Warennamen werden ohne Gewährleistung der freien Verwendbarkeit


benutzt.

Die Veröffentlichungen in der Berichtsreihe des Fraunhofer ITWM


können bezogen werden über:

Fraunhofer-Institut für Techno- und


Wirtschaftsmathematik ITWM
Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße, Geb. 49

67663 Kaiserslautern

Telefon: +49 (0) 6 31/2 05-32 42


Telefax: +49 (0) 6 31/2 05-41 39
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Vorwort

Das Tätigkeitsfeld des Fraunhofer Instituts für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik


ITWM umfasst anwendungsnahe Grundlagenforschung, angewandte Forschung
sowie Beratung und kundenspezifische Lösungen auf allen Gebieten, die für
Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik bedeutsam sind.

In der Reihe »Berichte des Fraunhofer ITWM« soll die Arbeit des Instituts kontinu-
ierlich einer interessierten Öffentlichkeit in Industrie, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft
vorgestellt werden. Durch die enge Verzahnung mit dem Fachbereich Mathema-
tik der Universität Kaiserslautern sowie durch zahlreiche Kooperationen mit inter-
nationalen Institutionen und Hochschulen in den Bereichen Ausbildung und For-
schung ist ein großes Potenzial für Forschungsberichte vorhanden. In die Bericht-
reihe sollen sowohl hervorragende Diplom- und Projektarbeiten und Dissertatio-
nen als auch Forschungsberichte der Institutsmitarbeiter und Institutsgäste zu
aktuellen Fragen der Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik aufgenommen werden.

Darüberhinaus bietet die Reihe ein Forum für die Berichterstattung über die zahlrei-
chen Kooperationsprojekte des Instituts mit Partnern aus Industrie und Wirtschaft.

Berichterstattung heißt hier Dokumentation darüber, wie aktuelle Ergebnisse aus


mathematischer Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeit in industrielle Anwendungen
und Softwareprodukte transferiert werden, und wie umgekehrt Probleme der Pra-
xis neue interessante mathematische Fragestellungen generieren.

Prof. Dr. Dieter Prätzel-Wolters


Institutsleiter

Kaiserslautern, im Juni 2001


   

      

           


 
   


   
   
   
   
 
 
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Bisher erschienene Berichte
des Fraunhofer ITWM

Die PDF-Files der folgenden Berichte 4. F.-Th. Lentes, N. Siedow 7. I. Choquet


finden Sie unter: Three-dimensional Radiative Heat Transfer Heterogeneous catalysis modelling and
in Glass Cooling Processes numerical simulation in rarified gas flows
www.itwm.fhg.de/zentral/berichte.html Part I: Coverage locally at equilibrium
For the numerical simulation of 3D radiative heat transfer
in glasses and glass melts, practically applicable mathe- A new approach is proposed to model and simulate nu-
1. D. Hietel, K. Steiner, J. Struckmeier
matical methods are needed to handle such problems merically heterogeneous catalysis in rarefied gas flows. It
A Finite - Volume Particle Method for optimal using workstation class computers. Since the is developed to satisfy all together the following points:
Compressible Flows exact solution would require super-computer capabilities 1) describe the gas phase at the microscopic scale, as
we concentrate on approximate solutions with a high required in rarefied flows,
We derive a new class of particle methods for conserva- degree of accuracy. The following approaches are stud- 2) describe the wall at the macroscopic scale, to avoid
tion laws, which are based on numerical flux functions to ied: 3D diffusion approximations and 3D ray-tracing prohibitive computational costs and consider not only
model the interactions between moving particles. The methods. crystalline but also amorphous surfaces,
derivation is similar to that of classical Finite-Volume (23 S., 1998) 3) reproduce on average macroscopic laws correlated
methods; except that the fixed grid structure in the Fi-
with experimental results and
nite-Volume method is substituted by so-called mass
4) derive analytic models in a systematic and exact way.
packets of particles. We give some numerical results on a
5. A. Klar, R. Wegener The problem is stated in the general framework of a non
shock wave solution for Burgers equation as well as the
static flow in the vicinity of a catalytic and non porous
well-known one-dimensional shock tube problem. A hierarchy of models for multilane
surface (without aging). It is shown that the exact and
(19 S., 1998) vehicular traffic systematic resolution method based on the Laplace trans-
Part I: Modeling form, introduced previously by the author to model colli-
sions in the gas phase, can be extended to the present
2. M. Feldmann, S. Seibold In the present paper multilane models for vehicular traffic problem. The proposed approach is applied to the mod-
Damage Diagnosis of Rotors: Application are considered. A microscopic multilane model based on elling of the Eley-Rideal and Langmuir-Hinshelwood
of Hilbert Transform and Multi-Hypothesis reaction thresholds is developed. Based on this model an recombinations, assuming that the coverage is locally at
Enskog like kinetic model is developed. In particular, care equilibrium. The models are developed considering one
Testing
is taken to incorporate the correlations between the vehi- atomic species and extended to the general case of sev-
In this paper, a combined approach to damage diagnosis cles. From the kinetic model a fluid dynamic model is eral atomic species. Numerical calculations show that the
of rotors is proposed. The intention is to employ signal- derived. The macroscopic coefficients are deduced from models derived in this way reproduce with accuracy be-
based as well as model-based procedures for an im- the underlying kinetic model. Numerical simulations are haviors observed experimentally.
proved detection of size and location of the damage. In a presented for all three levels of description in [10]. More- (24 S., 1998)
first step, Hilbert transform signal processing techniques over, a comparison of the results is given there.
allow for a computation of the signal envelope and the (23 S., 1998)
instantaneous frequency, so that various types of non- 8. J. Ohser, B. Steinbach, C. Lang
linearities due to a damage may be identified and classi-
Efficient Texture Analysis of Binary Images
fied based on measured response data. In a second step, Part II: Numerical and stochastic
a multi-hypothesis bank of Kalman Filters is employed for A new method of determining some characteristics of
investigations
the detection of the size and location of the damage binary images is proposed based on a special linear filter-
based on the information of the type of damage provid- In this paper the work presented in [6] is continued. The ing. This technique enables the estimation of the area
ed by the results of the Hilbert transform. present paper contains detailed numerical investigations fraction, the specific line length, and the specific integral
Keywords: of the models developed there. A numerical method to of curvature. Furthermore, the specific length of the total
Hilbert transform, damage diagnosis, Kalman filtering, treat the kinetic equations obtained in [6] are presented projection is obtained, which gives detailed information
non-linear dynamics and results of the simulations are shown. Moreover, the about the texture of the image. The influence of lateral
(23 S., 1998) stochastic correlation model used in [6] is described and and directional resolution depending on the size of the
investigated in more detail. applied filter mask is discussed in detail. The technique
(17 S., 1998) includes a method of increasing directional resolution for
3. Y. Ben-Haim, S. Seibold texture analysis while keeping lateral resolution as high
as possible.
Robust Reliability of Diagnostic Multi-
6. A. Klar, N. Siedow (17 S., 1998)
Hypothesis Algorithms: Application to
Rotating Machinery Boundary Layers and Domain Decomposi-
tion for Radiative Heat Transfer and Diffu-
Damage diagnosis based on a bank of Kalman filters, 9. J. Orlik
sion Equations: Applications to Glass Manu-
each one conditioned on a specific hypothesized system Homogenization for viscoelasticity of the
condition, is a well recognized and powerful diagnostic facturing Processes
integral type with aging and shrinkage
tool. This multi-hypothesis approach can be applied to a In this paper domain decomposition methods for radia-
wide range of damage conditions. In this paper, we will tive transfer problems including conductive heat transfer A multi-phase composite with periodic distributed inclu-
focus on the diagnosis of cracks in rotating machinery. are treated. The paper focuses on semi-transparent ma- sions with a smooth boundary is considered in this con-
The question we address is: how to optimize the multi- terials, like glass, and the associated conditions at the tribution. The composite component materials are sup-
hypothesis algorithm with respect to the uncertainty of interface between the materials. Using asymptotic analy- posed to be linear viscoelastic and aging (of the
the spatial form and location of cracks and their resulting sis we derive conditions for the coupling of the radiative non-convolution integral type, for which the Laplace
dynamic effects. First, we formulate a measure of the transfer equations and a diffusion approximation. Several transform with respect to time is not effectively applica-
reliability of the diagnostic algorithm, and then we dis- test cases are treated and a problem appearing in glass ble) and are subjected to isotropic shrinkage. The free
cuss modifications of the diagnostic algorithm for the manufacturing processes is computed. The results clearly shrinkage deformation can be considered as a fictitious
maximization of the reliability. The reliability of a diagnos- show the advantages of a domain decomposition ap- temperature deformation in the behavior law. The proce-
tic algorithm is measured by the amount of uncertainty proach. Accuracy equivalent to the solution of the global dure presented in this paper proposes a way to deter-
consistent with no-failure of the diagnosis. Uncertainty is radiative transfer solution is achieved, whereas computa- mine average (effective homogenized) viscoelastic and
quantitatively represented with convex models. tion time is strongly reduced. shrinkage (temperature) composite properties and the
Keywords: (24 S., 1998) homogenized stress-field from known properties of the
Robust reliability, convex models, Kalman filtering, multi-
hypothesis diagnosis, rotating machinery, crack diagnosis
(24 S., 1998)
components. This is done by the extension of the asymp- rectangles for small cardinalities such that the center cy- pressible Navier-Stokes equations.
totic homogenization technique known for pure elastic cle problem in grid graphs is in these cases completely (24 S., 1999)
non-homogeneous bodies to the non-homogeneous solved.
thermo-viscoelasticity of the integral non-convolution (15 S., 1998)
type. Up to now, the homogenization theory has not 15. M. Junk, S. V. Raghurame Rao
covered viscoelasticity of the integral type.
Sanchez-Palencia (1980), Francfort & Suquet (1987) (see A new discrete velocity method for Navier-
12. H. W. Hamacher, K.-H. Küfer
[2], [9]) have considered homogenization for viscoelastici- Stokes equations
ty of the differential form and only up to the first deriva- Inverse radiation therapy planning -
a multiple objective optimisation approach The relation between the Lattice Boltzmann Method,
tive order. The integral-modeled viscoelasticity is more
which has recently become popular, and the Kinetic
general then the differential one and includes almost all
For some decades radiation therapy has been proved Schemes, which are routinely used in Computational Flu-
known differential models. The homogenization proce-
successful in cancer treatment. It is the major task of clin- id Dynamics, is explored. A new discrete velocity model
dure is based on the construction of an asymptotic solu-
ical radiation treatment planning to realize on the one for the numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for
tion with respect to a period of the composite structure.
hand a high level dose of radiation in the cancer tissue in incompressible fluid flow is presented by combining both
This reduces the original problem to some auxiliary
order to obtain maximum tumor control. On the other the approaches. The new scheme can be interpreted as a
boundary value problems of elasticity and viscoelasticity
hand it is obvious that it is absolutely necessary to keep pseudo-compressibility method and, for a particular
on the unit periodic cell, of the same type as the original
in the tissue outside the tumor, particularly in organs at choice of parameters, this interpretation carries over to
non-homogeneous problem. The existence and unique-
risk, the unavoidable radiation as low as possible. the Lattice Boltzmann Method.
ness results for such problems were obtained for kernels
No doubt, these two objectives of treatment planning - (20 S., 1999)
satisfying some constrain conditions. This is done by the
high level dose in the tumor, low radiation outside the
extension of the Volterra integral operator theory to the
tumor - have a basically contradictory nature. Therefore,
Volterra operators with respect to the time, whose 1 ker-
it is no surprise that inverse mathematical models with 16. H. Neunzert
nels are space linear operators for any fixed time vari-
dose distribution bounds tend to be infeasible in most
ables. Some ideas of such approach were proposed in
cases. Thus, there is need for approximations compromis- Mathematics as a Key to Key Technologies
[11] and [12], where the Volterra operators with kernels
ing between overdosing the organs at risk and underdos- The main part of this paper will consist of examples, how
depending additionally on parameter were considered.
ing the target volume. mathematics really helps to solve industrial problems;
This manuscript delivers results of the same nature for
Differing from the currently used time consuming itera- these examples are taken from our Institute for Industrial
the case of the space-operator kernels.
tive approach, which measures deviation from an ideal Mathematics, from research in the Technomathematics
(20 S., 1998)
(non-achievable) treatment plan using recursively trial- group at my university, but also from ECMI groups and a
and-error weights for the organs of interest, we go a company called TecMath, which originated 10 years ago
new way trying to avoid a priori weight choices and con- from my university group and has already a very success-
10. J. Mohring sider the treatment planning problem as a multiple ob- ful history.
Helmholtz Resonators with Large Aperture jective linear programming problem: with each organ of (39 S. (vier PDF-Files), 1999)
interest, target tissue as well as organs at risk, we associ-
The lowest resonant frequency of a cavity resonator is ate an objective function measuring the maximal devia-
usually approximated by the classical Helmholtz formula. tion from the prescribed doses.
However, if the opening is rather large and the front wall We build up a data base of relatively few efficient solu-
17. J. Ohser, K. Sandau
is narrow this formula is no longer valid. Here we present tions representing and approximating the variety of Pare- Considerations about the Estimation of the
a correction which is of third order in the ratio of the di- to solutions of the multiple objective linear programming Size Distribution in Wicksell’s Corpuscle
ameters of aperture and cavity. In addition to the high problem. This data base can be easily scanned by physi- Problem
accuracy it allows to estimate the damping due to radia- cians looking for an adequate treatment plan with the
tion. The result is found by applying the method of aid of an appropriate online tool. Wicksell’s corpuscle problem deals with the estimation of
matched asymptotic expansions. The correction contains (14 S., 1999) the size distribution of a population of particles, all hav-
form factors describing the shapes of opening and cavity. ing the same shape, using a lower dimensional sampling
They are computed for a number of standard geometries. probe. This problem was originary formulated for particle
Results are compared with numerical computations. systems occurring in life sciences but its solution is of
13. C. Lang, J. Ohser, R. Hilfer
(21 S., 1998) actual and increasing interest in materials science. From a
On the Analysis of Spatial Binary Images mathematical point of view, Wicksell’s problem is an in-
verse problem where the interesting size distribution is
This paper deals with the characterization of microscopi-
11. H. W. Hamacher, A. Schöbel the unknown part of a Volterra equation. The problem is
cally heterogeneous, but macroscopically homogeneous
often regarded ill-posed, because the structure of the
On Center Cycles in Grid Graphs spatial structures. A new method is presented which is
integrand implies unstable numerical solutions. The accu-
strictly based on integral-geometric formulae such as
Finding "good" cycles in graphs is a problem of great racy of the numerical solutions is considered here using
Crofton’s intersection formulae and Hadwiger’s recursive
interest in graph theory as well as in locational analysis. the condition number, which allows to compare different
definition of the Euler number. The corresponding algo-
We show that the center and median problems are NP numerical methods with different (equidistant) class sizes
rithms have clear advantages over other techniques. As
hard in general graphs. This result holds both for the vari- and which indicates, as one result, that a finite section
an example of application we consider the analysis of
able cardinality case (i.e. all cycles of the graph are con- thickness of the probe reduces the numerical problems.
spatial digital images produced by means of Computer
sidered) and the fixed cardinality case (i.e. only cycles Furthermore, the relative error of estimation is computed
Assisted Tomography.
with a given cardinality p are feasible). Hence it is of in- which can be split into two parts. One part consists of
(20 S., 1999)
terest to investigate special cases where the problem is the relative discretization error that increases for increas-
solvable in polynomial time. ing class size, and the second part is related to the rela-
In grid graphs, the variable cardinality case is, for in- tive statistical error which increases with decreasing class
14. M. Junk size. For both parts, upper bounds can be given and the
stance, trivially solvable if the shape of the cycle can be
chosen freely. On the Construction of Discrete Equilibrium sum of them indicates an optimal class width depending
If the shape is fixed to be a rectangle one can analyze Distributions for Kinetic Schemes on some specific constants.
rectangles in grid graphs with, in sequence, fixed dimen- (18 S., 1999)
A general approach to the construction of discrete equi-
sion, fixed cardinality, and variable cardinality. In all cases
librium distributions is presented. Such distribution func-
a complete characterization of the optimal cycles and
tions can be used to set up Kinetic Schemes as well as
closed form expressions of the optimal objective values
Lattice Boltzmann methods. The general principles are
are given, yielding polynomial time algorithms for all cas-
also applied to the construction of Chapman Enskog dis-
es of center rectangle problems.
tributions which are used in Kinetic Schemes for com-
Finally, it is shown that center cycles can be chosen as
18. E. Carrizosa, H. W. Hamacher, R. Klein, 21. H. W. Hamacher, A. Schöbel graphical information system (GIS) and the details of the
S. Nickel combined functionality are described in the paper. Finally,
Design of Zone Tariff Systems in Public
there is a wide group of practitioners who need to solve
Solving nonconvex planar location problems Transportation large problems and require special purpose software with
by finite dominating sets a good data interface. Many of such users can be found,
Given a public transportation system represented by its
stops and direct connections between stops, we consider for example, in the area of supply chain management
It is well-known that some of the classical location prob-
two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: (SCM). Logistics activities involved in strategic SCM in-
lems with polyhedral gauges can be solved in polynomial
The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already clude, among others, facility location planning. In this
time by finding a finite dominating set, i. e. a finite set of
aggregated to zones and “good” tariffs have to be paper, the development of a commercial location soft-
candidates guaranteed to contain at least one optimal
found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions ware tool is also described. The too is embedded in the
location.
for the fare problem are presented for three objective Advanced Planner and Optimizer SCM software devel-
In this paper it is first established that this result holds for
functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is oped by SAP AG, Walldorf, Germany. The paper ends
a much larger class of problems than currently considered
part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we with some conclusions and an outlook to future activi-
in the literature. The model for which this result can be
therefore propose three heuristics which prove to be very ties.
proven includes, for instance, location problems with at-
successful in the redesign of one of Germany’s transpor- Keywords:
traction and repulsion, and location-allocation problems.
tation systems. facility location, software development, geographical
Next, it is shown that the approximation of general gaug-
(30 S., 2001) information systems, supply chain management.
es by polyhedral ones in the objective function of our
(48 S., 2001)
general model can be analyzed with regard to the subse-
quent error in the optimal objective value. For the approx-
imation problem two different approaches are described, 22. D. Hietel, M. Junk, R. Keck, D. Teleaga:
the sandwich procedure and the greedy algorithm. Both 24. H. W. Hamacher, S. A. Tjandra
The Finite-Volume-Particle Method for
of these approaches lead - for fixed epsilon - to polyno- Mathematical Modelling of Evacuation
mial approximation algorithms with accuracy epsilon for
Conservation Laws
Problems: A State of Art
solving the general model considered in this paper. In the Finite-Volume-Particle Method (FVPM), the weak
Keywords: formulation of a hyperbolic conservation law is dis- This paper details models and algorithms which can be
Continuous Location, Polyhedral Gauges, Finite Dominat- cretized by restricting it to a discrete set of test functions. applied to evacuation problems. While it concentrates on
ing Sets, Approximation, Sandwich Algorithm, Greedy In contrast to the usual Finite-Volume approach, the test building evacuation many of the results are applicable
Algorithm functions are not taken as characteristic functions of the also to regional evacuation. All models consider the time
(19 S., 2000) control volumes in a spatial grid, but are chosen from a as main parameter, where the travel time between com-
partition of unity with smooth and overlapping partition ponents of the building is part of the input and the over-
functions (the particles), which can even move along pre- all evacuation time is the output. The paper distinguishes
19. A. Becker scribed velocity fields. The information exchange be- between macroscopic and microscopic evacuation mod-
tween particles is based on standard numerical flux func- els both of which are able to capture the evacuees’
A Review on Image Distortion Measures movement over time.
tions. Geometrical information, similar to the surface
Within this paper we review image distortion measures. area of the cell faces in the Finite-Volume Method and Macroscopic models are mainly used to produce good
A distortion measure is a criterion that assigns a “quality the corresponding normal directions are given as integral lower bounds for the evacuation time and do not consid-
number” to an image. We distinguish between mathe- quantities of the partition functions. er any individual behavior during the emergency situa-
matical distortion measures and those distortion mea- After a brief derivation of the Finite-Volume-Particle tion. These bounds can be used to analyze existing build-
sures in-cooperating a priori knowledge about the imag- Method, this work focuses on the role of the geometric ings or help in the design phase of planning a building.
ing devices ( e. g. satellite images), image processing al- coefficients in the scheme. Macroscopic approaches which are based on dynamic
gorithms or the human physiology. We will consider rep- (16 S., 2001) network flow models (minimum cost dynamic flow, maxi-
resentative examples of different kinds of distortion mum dynamic flow, universal maximum flow, quickest
measures and are going to discuss them. path and quickest flow) are described. A special feature
Keywords: of the presented approach is the fact, that travel times of
23. T. Bender, H. Hennes, J. Kalcsics, evacuees are not restricted to be constant, but may be
Distortion measure, human visual system M. T. Melo, S. Nickel
(26 S., 2000) density dependent. Using multicriteria optimization prior-
Location Software and Interface with GIS ity regions and blockage due to fire or smoke may be
and Supply Chain Management considered. It is shown how the modelling can be done
using time parameter either as discrete or continuous
20. H. W. Hamacher, M. Labbé, S. Nickel, The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between parameter.
T. Sonneborn location theory and practice. To meet this objective focus Microscopic models are able to model the individual
Polyhedral Properties of the Uncapacitated is given to the development of software capable of ad- evacuee’s characteristics and the interaction among evac-
Multiple Allocation Hub Location Problem dressing the different needs of a wide group of users. uees which influence their movement. Due to the corre-
There is a very active community on location theory en- sponding huge amount of data one uses simulation ap-
We examine the feasibility polyhedron of the uncapaci- compassing many research fields such as operations re- proaches. Some probabilistic laws for individual evacuee’s
tated hub location problem (UHL) with multiple alloca- search, computer science, mathematics, engineering, movement are presented. Moreover ideas to model the
tion, which has applications in the fields of air passenger geography, economics and marketing. As a result, people evacuee’s movement using cellular automata (CA) and
and cargo transportation, telecommunication and postal working on facility location problems have a very diverse resulting software are presented.
delivery services. In particular we determine the dimen- background and also different needs regarding the soft- In this paper we will focus on macroscopic models and
sion and derive some classes of facets of this polyhedron. ware to solve these problems. For those interested in only summarize some of the results of the microscopic
We develop some general rules about lifting facets from non-commercial applications (e. g. students and re- approach. While most of the results are applicable to
the uncapacitated facility location (UFL) for UHL and pro- searchers), the library of location algorithms (LoLA can be general evacuation situations, we concentrate on build-
jecting facets from UHL to UFL. By applying these rules of considerable assistance. LoLA contains a collection of ing evacuation.
we get a new class of facets for UHL which dominates efficient algorithms for solving planar, network and dis- (44 S., 2001)
the inequalities in the original formulation. Thus we get a crete facility location problems. In this paper, a detailed
new formulation of UHL whose constraints are all facet– description of the functionality of LoLA is presented. In
defining. We show its superior computational perfor- the fields of geography and marketing, for instance, solv-
mance by benchmarking it on a well known data set. ing facility location problems requires using large
Keywords: amounts of demographic data. Hence, members of these
integer programming, hub location, facility location, valid groups (e. g. urban planners and sales managers) often
inequalities, facets, branch and cut work with geographical information too s. To address the
(21 S., 2000) specific needs of these users, LoLA was inked to a geo-
25. J. Kuhnert, S. Tiwari 28. I. Ginzburg, K. Steiner for stationary as well as instationary cases and are com-
Grid free method for solving the Poisson Free surface lattice-Boltzmann method to pared with the analytical solutions for channel flows.
Finally, the driven cavity in a unit square is considered
equation model the filling of expanding cavities by
and the stationary solution obtained from this scheme is
Bingham Fluids compared with that from the finite element method.
A Grid free method for solving the Poisson equation is
presented. This is an iterative method. The method is The filling process of viscoplastic metal alloys and plastics Keywords:
based on the weighted least squares approximation in in expanding cavities is modelled using the lattice Boltz- Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, Meshfree
which the Poisson equation is enforced to be satisfied in mann method in two and three dimensions. These mod- method, Projection method, Particle scheme, Least
every iterations. The boundary conditions can also be els combine the regularized Bingham model for visco- squares approximation
enforced in the iteration process. This is a local approxi- plastic with a free-interface algorithm. The latter is based AMS subject classification:
mation procedure. The Dirichlet, Neumann and mixed on a modified immiscible lattice Boltzmann model in 76D05, 76M28
boundary value problems on a unit square are presented which one species is the fluid and the other one is con- (25 S., 2001)
and the analytical solutions are compared with the exact sidered as vacuum. The boundary conditions at the
solutions. Both solutions matched perfectly. curved liquid-vacuum interface are met without any geo-
Keywords: metrical front reconstruction from a first-order Chapman-
Poisson equation, Least squares method, Enskog expansion. The numerical results obtained with
Grid free method these models are found in good agreement with avail-
(19 S., 2001) able theoretical and numerical analysis.
Keywords:
Generalized LBE, free-surface phenomena, interface
26. T. Götz, H. Rave, D. Reinel-Bitzer, boundary conditions, filling processes, Bingham visco-
K. Steiner, H. Tiemeier plastic model, regularized models
(22 S., 2001)
Simulation of the fiber spinning process
To simulate the influence of process parameters to the
melt spinning process a fiber model is used and coupled 29. H. Neunzert
with CFD calculations of the quench air flow. In the fiber »Denn nichts ist für den Menschen als
model energy, momentum and mass balance are solved
Menschen etwas wert, was er nicht mit
for the polymer mass flow. To calculate the quench air
the Lattice Boltzmann method is used. Simulations and
Leidenschaft tun kann«
experiments for different process parameters and hole Vortrag anlässlich der Verleihung des Akademie-
configurations are compared and show a good agree- preises des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz am 21.11.2001
ment.
Was macht einen guten Hochschullehrer aus? Auf diese
Keywords:
Frage gibt es sicher viele verschiedene, fachbezogene
Melt spinning, fiber model, Lattice Boltzmann, CFD
Antworten, aber auch ein paar allgemeine Gesichtspunk-
(19 S., 2001)
te: es bedarf der »Leidenschaft« für die Forschung (Max
Weber), aus der dann auch die Begeisterung für die Leh-
re erwächst. Forschung und Lehre gehören zusammen,
27. A. Zemitis um die Wissenschaft als lebendiges Tun vermitteln zu
On interaction of a liquid film with an können. Der Vortrag gibt Beispiele dafür, wie in ange-
obstacle wandter Mathematik Forschungsaufgaben aus prakti-
schen Alltagsproblemstellungen erwachsen, die in die
In this paper mathematical models for liquid films gener- Lehre auf verschiedenen Stufen (Gymnasium bis Gradu-
ated by impinging jets are discussed. Attention is stressed iertenkolleg) einfließen; er leitet damit auch zu einem
to the interaction of the liquid film with some obstacle. aktuellen Forschungsgebiet, der Mehrskalenanalyse mit
S. G. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 313 (1959)] ihren vielfältigen Anwendungen in Bildverarbeitung,
found that the liquid film generated by impinging jets is Materialentwicklung und Strömungsmechanik über, was
very sensitive to properties of the wire which was used as aber nur kurz gestreift wird. Mathematik erscheint hier
an obstacle. The aim of this presentation is to propose a als eine moderne Schlüsseltechnologie, die aber auch
modification of the Taylor’s model, which allows to simu- enge Beziehungen zu den Geistes- und Sozialwissen-
late the film shape in cases, when the angle between jets schaften hat.
is different from 180°. Numerical results obtained by dis- Keywords:
cussed models give two different shapes of the liquid Lehre, Forschung, angewandte Mathematik, Mehrskalen-
film similar as in Taylors experiments. These two shapes analyse, Strömungsmechanik
depend on the regime: either droplets are produced close (18 S., 2001)
to the obstacle or not. The difference between two re-
gimes becomes larger if the angle between jets decreas-
es. Existence of such two regimes can be very essential
30. J. Kuhnert, S. Tiwari
for some applications of impinging jets, if the generated
liquid film can have a contact with obstacles. Finite pointset method based on the projec-
Keywords: tion method for simulations of the incom-
impinging jets, liquid film, models, numerical solution, pressible Navier-Stokes equations
shape
(22 S., 2001) A Lagrangian particle scheme is applied to the projection
method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
The approximation of spatial derivatives is obtained by
the weighted least squares method. The pressure Poisson
equation is solved by a local iterative procedure with the
help of the least squares method. Numerical tests are
performed for two dimensional cases. The Couette flow,
Poiseuelle flow, decaying shear flow and the driven cavity
flow are presented. The numerical solutions are obtained Stand: Dezember 2001