Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.

2
Squat and Interaction
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0031 Rev. Nbr : 0000
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 04/01/10 Page : 1 of 4

0031 SQUAT AND INTERACTION

1. SQUAT
The resistance of a ship is sensitive to the effects of shallow water. In this context
shallow water has to be defined rather widely, because bottom effects can already be
noticeable in water depths several times the ship’s draft.

If the ship is considered as being at rest in a flowing stream of restricted depth, but
unrestricted width, the water passing between the ship and the bottom has to “squeeze”
through a narrower opening than if the water depth was unlimited.

This means the water must speed up to pass through, with a consequent reduction in
pressure. This reduction in pressure causes the ship to sink/trim and experience greater
resistance, similar to a sucking effect.

If, in addition, the water is restricted in width, as in a river, canal or dredged channel,
these effects are further exaggerated. The sinkage and trim in very shallow water may
set a limit to the speed at which ships can proceed without touching bottom or
experience banking effects whereby the ship is suddenly thrown off course.

A second effect is, changes in the wave pattern which occur in passing from deep to
shallow water, which can cause the ship to yaw or heave and, when in shallow water,
to further change trim.

The reduction in pressure generally results in the ship dropping vertically in the water.

Due to the change in pressure distribution around the hull, the ship will trim at the
same time – the total decrease in Under Keel Clearance due to both effects is called
SQUAT – and is a distance measured in length units. (metres, feet, and inches)

Full hull forms such as Tankers or Bulk Carriers, usually with high block
coefficients and low speed, tend to trim by the bow due to squat. Slender hull
forms such as container vessels, with low block coefficients and high speed, tend
to trim by the stern due to squat.

The main factors affecting squat are the depth-draft ratio, the Ship’s Hull
Characteristics and the Ship’s Speed. Again, shallow water is only a relative term – the
Depth/ Draft ratio (h/T) below which the sea bottom begins to influence the Vessel’s
resistance can be estimated from the following formula:

h/T = 4.96 + 52.68 (1-Cw)

Where Cw is the water-plane area coefficient


Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Squat and Interaction
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0031 Rev. Nbr : 0000
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 04/01/10 Page : 2 of 4

Cw = Area of the water-plane


LxB

L = Length on the water line B= Breadth moulded

For example for a full tanker of some 100,000 DWT h/T is 5.5 and for an 1800 TEU
container vessel h/T is 7.5.

In general for values on h/T of less than 3.5 the bottom influence becomes
considerable.

It has been estimated that the squat varies with the square of the ship’s speed. A small
reduction in speed will therefore result in a considerable reduction of squat.

There are several squat prediction formulas and ALL OF THEM ARE EMPIRICAL.
None of the formulas give exact values and squat figures calculated with these
formulas give an indication only.

Here we give the Barras formula, which is applicable for water depth to hull draft
ratios of 1.10 to 1.40. This is to get an indication of ship’s squat in very shallow water
such as dredged channels, passing sand bars, sailing at low tide etc.

The maximum squat can be estimated as follows:

Squat Max in Metres = 1 x Cb x S2 2/3 x V 2.08


30

V = Ship’s speed in knots Cb = Block coefficient

S2 = Velocity return factor = S.


1-S
S = Blockage factor =
As (0.1 to 0.3)
Ac
As = Midship immersed cross sectional area = B x T

Ac = Cross sectional area of the channel = h x W

B = Breadth moulded T = Draft

h = Water depth W = Channel width (or canal width)

Obviously the above formula takes into consideration the width of the channel. If the
ship is in shallow water, but not in a dredged channel or canal, there is an imaginary
width of water which is influenced by the ship’s movement.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Squat and Interaction
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0031 Rev. Nbr : 0000
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 04/01/10 Page : 3 of 4

The imaginary width or “width of influence” W/B (with h/T is still between 1.10 and
1.40) varies between 8.0 for tankers/bulk carriers and 10.5 for container ships and
passenger vessels (W/B = 8 to 10.5)
To get a quick estimate of the maximum squat which can be expected in shallow
water, the following approximation can be used:

Squat in metres = 0.01 x V2 x Cb

V = Ship’s speed in knots Cb = Block coefficient

Ship specific Squat Tables using applicable block co-efficient are to be prepared and
displayed at prominent places in the Wheel House for both Loaded and Ballast Passages
for speeds ranging over various manoeuvring and Full Sea speed as per sample in below
table (with Squat information duly filled up).

MAXIMUM ESTIMATED SQUAT IN METRES – LOADED


PASSAGE
SPEED SQUAT SPEED SQUAT SPEED SQUAT
KNOTS METRES KNOTS METRES KNOTS METRES
5.00 8.50 12.00
5.50 9.00 12.50
6.00 9.50 13.00
6.50 10.00 13.50
7.00 10.50 14.00
7.50 11.00 14.50
8.00 11.50 15.00

MAXIMUM ESTIMATED SQUAT IN METRES – BALLAST


PASSAGE
SPEED SQUAT SPEED SQUAT SPEED SQUAT
KNOTS METRES KNOTS METRES KNOTS METRES
5.00 8.50 12.00
5.50 9.00 12.50
6.00 9.50 13.00
6.50 10.00 13.50
7.00 10.50 14.00
7.50 11.00 14.50
8.00 11.50 15.00
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Squat and Interaction
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0031 Rev. Nbr : 0000
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 04/01/10 Page : 4 of 4

The ship behaviour in shallow water differs substantially from the normal behaviour in
deep water, signs which usually indicate that the ship is experiencing bottom or side
effects.

 The vessel responds much slower to manoeuvres and the behaviour of the ship
may be contrary to intuition.
 A considerable reduction of speed and propeller rpm for a similar output of
power. The vessel behaves as if it is being held back or as if it moves through a
viscous mass.
 Bow wave increases in height.
 Vibrations will most likely start due to water induced exciting forces.
 Manoeuvrability will be affected: larger turning circle, longer stopping distance
and time, larger overshoot angle when zigzagging.

THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF PREVENTING EXCESSIVE SQUAT AND


IT’S EFFECTS IS TO REDUCE SPEED.

2. INTERACTION
Masters and Deck Officers must be aware of the possible effects of interaction. The
phenomena of interaction can occur between vessels when they are passing close to
each other, between a vessel and shore, as when in canal transits etc. or between a
vessel and a tug when operating together.

The phenomenon is due to unequal pressure areas around the hull such that when close
to other vessels or the shore, various forces exist.

As with Squat the effects of interaction are increased with an increase in speed –
thus Masters and Deck Officers must be fully aware of these dangers.

Particular caution is to be exercised when:


 Passing moored/ stationary vessels or dredgers in enclosed waterways.
 Overtaking vessels in enclosed waterways.
 Passing shore line irregularities in enclosed waterways.
 Two vessels pass in opposite directions in a closed quarters situation, particularly
if the vessels are of widely different sizes.
 Tugs are operating around the vessel, particularly crossing bow or stern areas.

3. RELATED DOCUMENTS
Form B118: Passage Plan
VIQ – 4.2: Operator’s Guidance on Squat