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Tutorial 11

September 21, 2017

1. Calculate the mutual information of a binary symmetric channel (BSC) with a proba-
bility of error = p.
Solution
Let us assume that the source X generates a symbol x1 with probability α and x2 with
probability 1 - α.
We know mutual information between the input X and output Y of a channel is given
as
I(X; Y ) = H(Y ) − H(Y |X) (1)
where, H(Y |X) is
XX
H(Y |X) = − p(x, y)log2 p(y|x)
y x

= −p(x1 , y1 )log2 p(y1 |x1 ) − p(x1 , y2 )log2 p(y2 |x1 ) − p(x2 , y1 )log2 p(y1 |x2 )
− p(x2 , y2 )log2 p(y2 |x2 )
= −αplog2 (1 − p) − αplog2 p − (1 − α)(1 − p)log2 (1 − p) − (1 − α)plog2 p
= −log2 (1 − p)[α(1 − p) + (1 − α)(1 − p)] − log2 p[αp + (1 − α)p]
= −(1 − p)log2 (1 − p) − plog2 (p)
= H(p) (2)
So mutual information I(X; Y ) is given as
I(X; Y ) = H(Y ) − H(p) (3)

2. Calculate the capacity of the BSC described in problem 1.

Solution
Capacity is the maximum possible value of mutual information. It has been already
shown that mutual information of a BSC is given as I(X; Y ) = H(Y ) − H(p).
Clearly, to maximize I(X; Y ) we need to maximize H(Y ), we cannot do anything about
H(p) as it is dependent only on p and p is the property of channel, which is not in
designers control. Let us assume p(y = y1 ) = α and p(y = y2 ) = 1 − α. Then
H(Y ) = −αlog2 α − (1 − α)log2 (1 − α) = H(α) (4)

1
which is maximized when
dH(α)
=0

d[(1 − α)log2 (1 − α) − αlog2 (α)]
or, − =0

d[(1 − α)ln(1 − α) − αln(α)]
or, (log2 e) =0

d[(1 − α)ln(1 − α) − αln(α)]
or, =0

or, ln(α) − ln(1 − α) = 0
1
or, α =
2
So the capacity is given as
1
C = H( ) − H(p) = 1 − H(p) bits per channel use (5)
2
3. Show that the capacity of an ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with
P
infinite bandwidth is given by ln(2)N0
, where P is the received signal power and N20 is
noise spectral density.
Solution:
Let us assume bandwidth to be W Hz (W → ∞).
So capacity is given by
P
C∞ = lim W log2 (1 + )
W →∞ N0 W
P
= (log2 e) lim W ln(1 + )
W →∞ N0 W
P
= (log2 e) lim W
W →∞ N0 W
P
= (6)
ln(2)N0
This is because as x → 0, ln(1 + x) → x.
4. A communication channel of bandwidth 75 kHz is required to transmit binary data at a
symbol rate of 0.1 Mbauds/s using raised cosine pulses. Determine the roll-off factor α.
Solution:

1
Ts = 6
= 10−5 s
0.1 × 10
fB = 75 kHz (7)
Now, we know 1 + α = 2fB Ts .
So, α = 0.5

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5. The bit duration of a BPSK signal is 0.647 µs. Find the minimum transmission band-
width for roll-off factors α = 0 and 1
Solution:
1
Nyquist bandwidth W0 = = 772 kHz
2Tb
Transmission bandwidth for α =0 is W = (1 + α)W0 = 772 kHz
and for α = 1 is W = (1 + α)W0 = 1.544 MHz

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