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International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

Face Identification using Local Gradient Patterns

B.Grace Jemimah1, Sreeja Reddy2, Soumya3, C.Nagaraju4


academic cunsultent1, scholar2, scholar3,Assoc.proffessor4
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
YSR Engineering College of Yogi Vemana University, Proddatur

Abstract: Interaction between man and machine can be obtained by detecting and classifying faces. The challenges for
practical face detection and categorization are less light conditions and noise. LBP is the best technique for face
classification and detection because LBP is a non-parametric descriptor which capably summarizes the local structure of
images. Due to dependability of LBP, various LBP techniques are established as well as demonstrated for the
improvement of face recognition performance. To overcome this drawback here Local gradient pattern technique is
proposed. The local Gradient pattern (LGP) achieves good performance in face recognition to show the efficiency of
ordinal information and relations between adjacent pixels. LGP in center pixel was represented by two 2-bit binary
patterns instead of one 1-bit pattern like LBP. This technique is insensitive to noise and low contrasted faces. The results
demonstrated that this technique produced better result than LBP and its derivative techniques.

Keywords: LBP, RLBP, DRLBP, CRLBP, LGXORP, LGP

1. Introduction
Recognizing face has become an interesting aspect because every human being face conveys some
information like identity and their state of emotion. Face recognition impacts crucial applications in various
areas like assimilation of law enforcement, security access in banking sector, self-identification among others
[1]. The Fuzzy rule DRLBP is presented. It is high robust to noisy, low contrast, it is uneven in low light,
variation in expressions differs and rotation variation images. It is more complex and time complexity is more
when compared to the other methods of local binary patterns [2]. Face recognizing is implemented in network
model by using the principle component analysis (PCA) [3]. Texture analysis is used to recognize face in
Vigorous local binary pattern [4]. In [5] an extension of LBP which is robust is presented. In [6] based on
frontal still images different color channels with different region selections for face recognition is studied.
This has 2 steps mainly, one is the feature mining depends on LBP and other one is feature classification
depends on super vector machine (SVM). In [7] by combining local orientation gradient XOR patterns and
Local gradient XOR patterns a new unique real time face recognition system is proposed. This new technique
consists of three steps 1) local gradient XOR patterns are calculated 2) Local Oriented Gradient XOR patterns
are calculated and 3)feature vector is found by adding the histograms of LGXORP and LOGXORP. This
method tested on Standard databases and discovered that the recognized rate is very effective and accurate
compared to Local Binary Pattern technique and its variants. Many achievements are made by using Fisher
Face(FF) [8], Gabor Feature(GF) [9], Scale Invariant Feature Transform [10], Principal Component Analysis
(PCA) [11], Sparse Depicted-based Classification algorithm(SDC) [12], Nearest Features Line based
Subspace Analysis(NFL) [13], Neural Networks(NN) [14], Wavelets(w)[15], Fast Independent Component
Analysis [16] and kernel methods(KM) [17], Soft local ternary patterns(SLT)[18], the local Binary
patterns[19], Q-Matrix(QM)[20],Robust LTP[21], Robust multi gradient entropy method(RME)[22], Local
Binary Patterns With ENI Features[23].In [24] automatic recognition and detection of facial features is
explained. Automatic face detection and high recognition is obtained by using the orientation values. In this
method truthful database images are taken and successfully recognized to get various features, appearance and
types.

222 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju


International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences
IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

2. Local Binary Patterns


LBP is one of the face detection techniques. LBP codes which are also known as image pixel values are
labeled by LBP operator. These codes change the local structure around for pixel each. Local binary pattern of
3X3 sample size is calculated by
LBP = ,
G(X) =
Where is a mid pixel and is neighborhood pixel. By comparing relative value with its neighborhood
values the binary code is computed. The disadvantage of this method is mainly it is complex to noise and
small variations of pixel values.

Pattern=01000111, LBP=1+2+4+64=71
Fig1: LBP

3. Robust Local Binary Patterns


The intra class variance is increased with dim features for bright face. By considering the minimum
value of LBP code RLBP code can be calculated. When the intensities of face features are reversed the LBP
code becomes more robust.
RLBP=min (LBP, )
Where LBP one’s complement is 1/LBP. Disadvantage is weak divergence pattern and strong divergence
pattern cannot be differentiated by using RLBP. Facial features accuracy is not ensured.

LBP=11100010,
1/LBP=00011101, RLBP=min (1+2+4+64, 128+8+32+16)
Fig2: RLBP

4. Circular Local Binary Patterns


In this method the mid pixel is rearranged by average local gray level. It is robust to noise and low
light variants. Then it was extended to use neighborhoods of different sizes by using LBP operator. The radius
R from mid pixel is taken from the circle.
P neighbors ( , ) on the edge of the circle with radius R are calculated by sinus and cosines:
= + Rcos(2 p/P )
= + Rsin(2 p/P )
is the gray value, is the neighbor value, with p=0... p-1, than the texture T in the local neighborhood of
pixel ( can be defined as:

If a point is greater or equal to the center pixel, a one is assigned to that point, and else zero:

223 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju


International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences
IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

To produce the LBP for pixel ( , ) a binomial weight is assigned to each sign .
Circular LBP is calculated as follows:

5. Local Directional Pattern (LDP)


LDP is developed to obtain enhanced performance in existence of noise and illumination. To attain 8 mask
values, eight Kirsch masks of size 3×3 are rotated with regions of size 3×3 image. In these given marks, the
top three are initialized with one and remaining with zero. The decimal value which is obtained to the binary
code is the LDP value for the selected 3×3 image region. The generated LDP image is separated into blocks.
The LDP feature for the image is produced by integrating the histograms of block.

Fig5 : Pixel values corresponding to LDP

6. Local Gradient Pattern


In this, more concern will be on the ordinal information between the midpoint and its neighbors. As it takes
the ordinal information among the neighboring pixels it is very effective to face recognition and it ignores the
ordinal relationship. The Local Gradient Pattern method is based on facial color gradient differences of a local
3x3 pixels region.

Fig6: Local 3×3 Pixels region


The LGP operates on gray scale face images. The center pixel C in above figure is represented by two 2-bit
binary patterns. This paper proposed to abuse the ordinal relationship of gradient response rather than image
intensity. For this large number of discriminant and robust representation is achieved. At first horizontal and
the vertical gradient responses are computed for the taken face. After that, in non-descending order its
neighbors are sampled and sorted for each pixel. Fig. 6 shows the process of LGP extraction. The pixels from
a1 to a4 and b1 to b4 represent the gray color intensity of the corresponding pixels. In pattern -1 for Bit-1 the
value is 0 if 1≤ 3 else it is 1. In the same way the remaining bits are also calculated by using the formula
shown in fig3. Four bins are needed to represent the different combinations in patteren-1 e.g.,00,01,10 and 11.
In the same way pattern-2 is calculated. This type of representation is known as LGP.The local Gradient
pattern (LGP) achieved good performance in face recognition and classification. It tells the efficiency of the
original information and original relations among neighboring pixels.

224 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju


International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences
IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

7. Experimental Results
The performance of the LGP technique was done experimentally on different databases and compared with
LBP and its derivatives. Seven parameters like mean, standard-deviation, logarithmic-values, hist values,
jaccord formula, PSNR values and chi-square values are evaluated on ten different databases with each seven
face images. Image in fig9 has been considered as query image. In Fig10 images are output of images of LBP,
RLBP, DRLBP, CLBP, LDP, and LGP respectively. For seven parameters tables and graphs have been drawn.
LGP gives better results on CK, FERET, LFW, CAS-FEAL, FIE databases and the database created by me for
my DST funding projects. Minimum value in mean and chi-square graphs and tables specifies the recognition
of query image and remaining graphs and tables show the maximum value specifying recognition of query
image.

Fig9 : Query image

Fig10:1th row database images,2st row LBP,3nd row RLBP,4rd row DRLBP, 5th row CLBP 6th row LDP and 7th row LGP
Tables:

1: Hist 2:Log 3 : chi 4: Mean 5: STDV 6 : Jaccord 7.PSNR

225 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju


International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences
IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

Graphs:

Graph 1: HIST Graph 2: LOG Graph 3: Chi Graph 4: Mean

Graph 5: STDV Graph 6: Jaccord Graph 7: PSNR

8. Conclusions
In this paper, local gradient patterns (LGP) technique is presented for face detection and classification by
incorporating benefits of gradient retorts. To fill local neighborhood regions discriminate and robust face
descriptors are derived. This method has been compared with LBP and its derivative methods. To deploy the
useful ample facial information different pattern samplings are adopted.The LGP shows it is an effective
descriptor to detect the face under constrained and unconstrained conditions. However, this technique is failed
to retain small important features like sticker on forehead and moles on face which carry useful information.
Like sticker on forehead and moles on face which carry useful information.

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226 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju


International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences
IJCMS
ISSN 2347 – 8527
Volume 6, Issue 11
November 2017

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227 B.Grace Jemimah, sreejareddy, Soumya, C.Nagaraju