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Water  and  Wastewater  Management  –


Removal  of  Suspended  Solids
A  Conventional  Wastewater  
Raw  Wastewater  Influent Treatment  System
Screens
Preliminary  Treatment
(Removal  o f  Solids)
Grit
Chamber
Primary  Treatment
Preliminary  Residuals (Removal  o f  SS)
(e.g.  g rit,  rags,  etc.)  
Primary  Settling  Tank
Secondary  Treatment
Biological
Primary  Sludge Treatment (Attached  Growth  System)
For System
Disposal
Tertiary  Treatment
Wetland (Constructed  Wetland)

Disinfection  (selective)

Treated  Wastewater  Effluent


Discharge  to  receiving  Rivers
Sedimentation  
• Most  wastewaters  and   • In  many  treatment  
waters  contain   processes  solids  are  
suspended  solids generated  e.g.,  
phosphate  precipitation,  
• Particles  in  water  and   coagulation   and  activated  
sludge  bioxidation.  
wastewater  that  will  settle  
by  gravity  within  a  
reasonable   period  of  time   • “Settleable” doesn’t  
can  be  removed  by   necessarily  mean  that  
"sedimentation"  in   these  particles  will  settle  
sedimentation  basins   easily  by  gravity.  
(also  known  as  
"clarifiers").  
Sedimentation…
• “Settleable” doesn’t   • Because  of  the  high  
necessarily  mean  that   volumetric  flow  rates  
these  particles  will  settle   associated  with  water  and  
easily  by  gravity.   wastewater  treatment  
systems,  gravity  
sedimentation  is  the  one  
• In  many  cases  they  must  
of  the  most  practical,  
be  coaxed  out  of  
suspension  or  “solution”   economical  method  to  
by  the  addition  of   remove  these  solids.  i.e.,  
chemicals  or  increased   processes  such  as  
centrifugation  are  not  
gravity  (centrifugation  or  
economical,  in  most  
filtration).  
cases.  
Type  of  Settling

• Type I  (Discrete  sedimentation)

• Occurs  in  dilute  suspensions,  particles  which  have  very  


little  interaction  with  each  other  as  they  settle

• Particles  settle  according  to  Stokes  law

• Design  parameter  is  surface  overflow  rate  (Q/As)  


Type  II  (flocculent  sedimentation)  

• Particles  flocculate  as  they  settle  


• Floc  particle  velocity  increase  with  time  

• Design  parameters:  
– Surface  overflow  rate  
– Depth  of  tank  
– Hydraulic  retention  time  
Zone  Settling  &Compression  (Type  III  and  IV)  
• Zone  settling  occurs  when  a  flocculent  suspensions  
with  high  initial  concentration  settles  by  gravity.  

• Flocculant  forces  between  particles  causes  settling  as  a  


matrix  (particles  remain  in  a  fixed  position  relative  to  
each  other  as  they  settle).  

• When  matrix  sedimentation   is  constrained  from  the  


bottom  the  matrix  begins  to  compress.  Such  a  situation  
occurs  when  the  matrix  encounters  the  bottom  of  tank  
in  which  it  is  settling.  This  is  called  compression  (Type  
IV)  settling.