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# Example 1: Calculate the size required and the approximate power input needed for a flocculation chamber

treating a maximum flow of 4 ML/d. Laboratory tests have indicated an energy requirement of 1J/L to be
provided over a period of 20 min.

Solution
0. Size required
4 x10 6
Flow conversion: 4 ML/d = L/s = 46.3 L/s
86400
For 25 min. retention, capacity required = 20 x 60 x 46.3 ≅ 55,560m3.
ii) Power input = flow rate x energy requirements
= Q x 1 = 46.3 x 1 = 46.3W (Note J/s = W)

Example 2: A pipeline with several bends is used for mixing a continuous stream of coagulant with a stream of
water. At maximum flow, the total head loss, h, in the mixing portion of the pipe is 0.8 m. Assuming that head
loss is proportional to the square of the rate of flow, estimate the energy dissipation in Joules per liter (i) at
maximum flow, and (ii) at half maximum flow.

Solution
0. Energy dissipation at maximum flow
The energy loss per kg is given by
ΔΕ
= gh. J/kg = gh J/kg
m
where g is acceleration due to gravity ms-2, and h = head loss (m water)
Therefore, as 1 liter of water has a mass of 1 kilogram, the energy loss in the pipeline is 0.8 x 9.8 = 7.84 J/L

0. At half flow the head loss will be reduced in proportion to the square of the flow
Therefore, h = 0.8 x (0.5)2 = 0.2 m
and the corresponding energy loss is
0.2 x 9.8 = 1.96 J/L
Note the fourfold reduction in energy per unit volume. Under low flow conditions, the mixing efficiency for
fixed hydraulic devices is substantially reduced.

## G = {1kJ/[0.001 kgm-1s-11m3]}1/2 Note here that viscosity of water

= 1 cPoise = 0.01P = 0.001Pa.s
= 10001/2 = 31.6 s-1 Pa.s = kg.m.s-2.m-2.s = kg m-1s-1
Note also that we used the energy per volume and divided it by that unit volume.

Example 4: Calculate the difference in height required to provide the energy input in Example 1.

## Energy requirement is provided from potential energy. Power = energy/time.

Power requirements = mass/s x g x h = 46.3 kg/s x 9.8 ms-2 x h = 46.3 W
Height required, therefore = 1/9.8 = 0.102m, or about 100 mm.

## Design of mechanical mixers

Mechanical mixers are usually the revolving-paddle type. For paddle flocculators, the useful power input is
directly related to the drag of the paddles. The general equation for drag can be written as:
C D Aρυ
2
F =
2
where F = drag force, N
CD = dimensionless drag coefficient for plates moving with faces normal to direction of motion
A = cross-sectional area of the paddles, m2
υ = relative velocity between paddles and fluid, m/s
ρ = density, 1000 kg/m3
The power input can be computed as the product of drag force and velocity:
C D Aρυ
3
P = Fυ = [2.4]
2
If this is substituted in the equation for G (2.3), the mean velocity gradient G becomes
0.5
⎛ CD Aρυ 3 ⎞
G= ⎜ 2 ∀μ ⎟ [2.5]
⎝ ⎠
where ∀ = the volume of the flocculating basin, m3.
Common peripheral speeds of paddles are within the range 0.1 - 1 m/s.

Example 6: A water treatment plant is designed to process 100 ML/d. The flocculator is 30 m long, 15 m
wide, and 5 m deep. Revolving paddles are attached to four horizontal shafts that rotate at 1.5 rpm. Each shaft
supports four paddles that are 200 mm wide, 15 m long and centered 2 m from the shaft. Assume the mean
water velocity to be 70% less than paddle velocity and CD = 1.8. All paddles remain submerged all the time.
Find: a) the difference in velocity between paddles and water, b) the value of G and c) the Camp number.

Solution
2πρν
a) Rotational speed, Vp =
60
n = rpm
r = distance from shaft to centre of paddle, m
2π x 2x1.5
Vp = = 0.31 m/s
60
Speed differential = 70% x 0.31 m/s = 0.22 m/s
C D Aρυ3
b) P=
2
where A, paddle area = 0.2 x 15 x 4 x 4 = 48 m2
1.8x 48x1000 x (0.22) 3
P= = 460W = 460 W
2
(i.e. m2 x kg x m-3 x m3s-3 = m2kgs-3 = W (kg ms-2 ms-1)
0.5
⎛ P⎞
G = ⎜ ∀μ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
∀ = tank volume = 30 x 15 x 5 = 2250 m3
μ = viscosity = 1cP = 1 x 10-3 kgm-1s-1
P = 460 W
0.5
⎛ 460 ⎞
G = ⎜ −3 ⎟ = 14.3s-1
⎝ 2250 x10 ⎠
(i.e. m2 kgs-3 x m-3 x kg-1 ms]0.5 = [s-2]0.5 = s-1)
c) The retention time of the flocculator is found by dividing the tank volume by the flow rate:
2250 m 3
= 32.4 min
100 x 103 x (24 x 60 )−1
Camp no. = Gt = 14.3 x 32.4 x 60 = 27800
This value is within the normal range of 20,000 and 200,000.

Notes

## 1. Dimensional analyses help to prevent mistakes.

24 3
2. CD is not provided in practice and has to be calculated from CD = + 0.5 + 0.34 and the Reynolds
Re Re
number, Re, is estimated from the hydraulic configuration.
3. Power requirements as calculated do not allow for mechanical losses in the equipment.
4. Viscosity units sometimes cause confusion. Many reference sources list viscosity in the cgs system. The
SI system measures it in kgm-1s-1 also expressed as Pa.s (Pascal-seconds). The cgs system uses the Poise,
gcm-1s-1, which is a 10 times smaller unit. Water viscosity is 1 cP (10-2 P) at 20˚C (or 1.3 cP at 10˚C)
which equals 10-3 Pa.s Kinematic viscosity ,ν is also used, which is really μ/ρ and results in a value of
10-6m2s-1 at 20C in the SI system and 10-2 cm2/g in the cgs system.