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L-­3:  

Water  and  Wastewater  Management  –


Removal  of  Suspended  Solids…
Type I  (Discrete  Sedimentation)
Type I  (Discrete  Sedimentation)

The  force  due  to  gravity

𝐹𝐺 =  𝜌𝑝  𝑔𝑉𝑝

Where,
𝜌𝑝 = density of the particle
𝑔 = gravitational constant
𝑉𝑝= Volume of the particle
Type I  (Discrete  Sedimentation)

The  buoyant  force

𝐹𝐵 =  𝜌𝑤  𝑔𝑉𝑝

Where,
𝜌𝑤 = density of the water
𝑔 = gravitational constant
𝑉𝑝= Volume of the particle
Drag  Force
In  fluid  dynamics,  drag  (sometimes  called  resistance,  a  type  of  
friction,  or  fluid  resistance)  is  a  force  acting  opposite  to  the  
relative  motion  of  any  object  moving  with  respect  to  a  
surrounding   fluid.  This  can  exist  between  two  fluid  layers  (or  
surfaces)  or  a  fluid  and  a  solid  surface.  The  drag  force  can  also  
be  specified  as

𝐹𝐷 ∝ 𝑃𝐷   𝐴𝑝

Where,  PD is  pressure  exerted  by  fluid  on  area  Ap.  


PD is  referred   to  as  dynamic  pressure  due  to  kinetic  energy  of  
fluid  experiencing  relative  flow  velocity  v.  
Drag  Force
PD is referred to as dynamic pressure due to kinetic energy of fluid
experiencing relative flow velocity v. This is defined in similar form as
kinetic energy equation.
1
𝑃𝐷 =  𝜌𝑤  𝑣2
2
Where, PD is pressure exerted by fluid on area A. Here the pressure PD
is referred to as dynamic pressure due to kinetic energy of fluid
experiencing relative flow velocity v. This is defined in similar form as
kinetic energy equation
Fluid density ρw,
Size of the body, expressed in terms of its frontal area Ap.
1
𝐹𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷    𝜌𝑤  𝑣2𝐴𝑝
2
34 ∅  :;  <= >
𝐶𝐷 = for laminar flow. 𝑅𝑒 = ?
 
56
Steady  state  velocity
The  drag  force  acts  in  the  opposite  direction  to  the  driving  force  and  
increases  as  the  square  of  the  velocity,  acceleration  occurs  at  a  
decreasing  rate  until  steady  state  velocity  is  reached  at  a  point  where  
the  drag  force  is  equals  the  driving  force.
𝐹𝐺 − 𝐹𝐵 = 𝐹𝐷
1
𝜌𝑝  𝑔𝑉𝑝   − 𝜌𝑤  𝑔𝑉𝑝 = 𝐶𝐷    𝜌𝑤  𝑣2𝐴𝑝
2

D G E
AB F 3
       E   H
For  spherical  particles,     =   G H
=  I 𝑑
CB F H

D
L <B  M<= > L <B  M<= >3
𝑣𝑡 3 = E
=> 𝑣𝑡 = (Stokes equation)
NO < = PQ  ?
 
A  Random  Question

What  will  be  the  effect  of  increasing  temperature  


on  sedimentation  process?

Particles  will  settle  down  at  a  faster  rate/  slower  


rate.
Sedimentation  Tank  Configuration..1
Sedimentation  Tank  Configuration..1a
Sedimentation  Tank  Configuration..2
Sedimentation  Tank  Configuration..3
Sedimentation  Tank  Configuration..4
Tube  Settler…1
Tube  Settler…2
Example Question
Suppose  that  a  settling  column  is  filled  with  water  
containing  a  uniform  suspension  of  particles  A,  B  and  C.  

Diameters  of  particle  A,  B  and  C  are  0.2mm,  0.4  mm  and  
0.8  mm  respectively.  Particle  B  is  removed  with  100%  
efficiency  in  30  sec.  

What  will  be  percentage  removal  of  particle  A  and  C?  


Assume  that  the  particles  have  equal  densities  and  are  
following  Type  I  settling.
If  Particles  Do  Not  Behave  Independently….
• Often,  particle  growth  continues  during  settling.  This  is  
referred  to  as  Type  II  settling.  

• Particles  settle  faster  the  longer  they  are  in  the  system,  
so  they  cannot  be  assigned  a  single  vterm.  

• Effluent  can  still  be  viewed  as  mixture  of  different  


groups  of  particles,  each  present  in  part  of  the  column  
and  absent  from  other  parts.  

• A  generic  design  approach  exists  that  can  be  used  for  


both  Type  I  and  Type  II  settling.  
Generic  Design  Approach  for  
Types  I  and  II  Settling  
• Fill  a  column  at  least  as  long  as  the  anticipated  settling  
depth  with  water  of  interest.  Allow  suspension   to  settle,  
taking  samples  from  several  ports  at  various  times.  Plot  
%  removal  for  each  sample  as  shown  below.  
Q/A  …