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Discussion

In this experiment , we use use kjeldahl method to determine and calculate the protein
content in meat curry powder. The Kjeldahl method is used to determine the nitrogen content
in organic and inorganic samples. For longer than 100 years the Kjeldahl method has been
used for the determination of nitrogen in a wide range of samples. The determination of
Kjeldahl nitrogen is made in foods and drinks, meat, feeds, cereals and forages for the
calculation of the protein content. Also the Kjeldahl method is used for the nitrogen
determination in wastewaters, soils and other samples. (Sáez-Plaza et al., 2013). We can
observe the colour changes of the receiving flask. Firstly, when adding 4% boric acid, methyl
red and bromocresol green indicator, the solution become purple colour. After connecting the
receiving flask and digesting flask to the Kjeldahl unit for distillation with 5 minutes, the
solution in the receiving flask turn into light green colour. After that, we are able to observe
the solution becomes light pink after titrate with 0.1M HCl.

The mean of percentage of protein is 14.058%. It means that there are approximately
14.058% of protein in the meat curry powder. In measurement of uncertainty, standard
deviation is important because the lesser the standard deviation, the lesser this uncertainty
and thus more the confidence in the experiment, and thus higher the reliability of the
experiment. (Prokhorov and Colafrancesco, 2012) . Based on our results, the standard
deviation of percentage of protein is 1.753% . Thus, our experimental results have lesser error
and higher accurate due to the smaller value of standard deviation.

According to our results, protein percentages of fish (14.875%) is slightly higher than
meat (14.058%). Based on the Baba’s nutrition labelling of fish and meat curry powder as
figure below, it indicates that fish curry powder contain 16.0g/100g of protein while meat
curry powder contain 15.8g/100g of protein. It means that fish curry powder contain 16.0%
of protein while meat curry powder contain 15.8% of protein. Both value is higher than the
experimental value. The most possible for this experiment is human error . This is because
the main steps in the determination of protein and nitrogen sample preparation, digestion and
titration. They all have an influence on the measurement uncertainty for the determination of
protein . (Ellison, 2014) For example measurement inaccuracies in measurement of sodium
hydroxide and boric acid, vision inaccuracies in filtration section which determine the
reading and colour changes of receiving flask from light green to light pink, and imperfect
techniques that might occur. (Washington, C. and Leaver, D., 2015)

Figure 1 : Nutrition labelling of fish curry powder

Figure 2 : Nutrition labelling of meat curry powder


There are some precautions which must be taken to protect our own safety .
Due to the sample preparation is done by lab technician, we only need to be cautious
at the following steps. First of all , boric acid and sodium hydroxide can burn skin,
eyes and respiratory tract severely. So we have to wear heavy rubber gloves and face
shield to protect against concentrated acid or alkali. Besides , use effective fume
removal device to protect against acid fumes or alkali dusts or vapors . Concentrated
sodium hydroxide can quickly and easily cause blindness. If splashed on skin or in
eyes, flush with copious amounts of water and seek medical attention. After we added
boric acid into the receiving flask, we need to wash the measuring cylinder by using
distilled water instead of tap water. Using distilled water to wash the measuring
cylinder will decrease the appearance of water droplets adhering to the wall of the
measuring cylinder . Moreover , use acid resistant fumehood. Always add acid to
water unless otherwise directed in method. Wear face shield and heavy gloves to
protect against splashes. If acids are spilled on skin, immediately wash with large
amounts of water . (Prokhorov and Colafrancesco, 2012)

References :

Sáez-Plaza, P., Michałowski, T., Navas, M., Asuero, A. and Wybraniec, S. (2013). An
Overview of the Kjeldahl Method of Nitrogen Determination. Part I. Early History,
Chemistry of the Procedure, and Titrimetric Finish. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry,
43(4), pp.178-223.

Prokhorov, D. and Colafrancesco, S. (2012). The first measurement of temperature standard


deviation along the line of sight in galaxy clusters. Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society: Letters, 424(1), pp.L49-L53.

Washington, C. and Leaver, D. 2015. Principles and Practice of Radiation Therapy.

1st ed. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN: 9780323287814. p.246.

Ellison, S. (2014). Implementing measurement uncertainty for analytical chemistry:


theEurachem Guidefor measurement uncertainty. Metrologia, 51(4), pp.S199-S205.