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# Experiment #1 / Unit 5

## A Recipe for Salt and Bubbles

Introduction:
We have been learning about stoichiometry and how balanced chemical
equations allow us to relate and find amounts of reactants and products in a
chemical reaction. In this experiment, we will examine the stoichiometry of a
common household chemical reaction.
In most recipes for baked goods, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3) is an
essential ingredient. Without it, cakes and cookies would not "rise". When an
acidic substance such as sour cream, buttermilk, vinegar, lemon juice, etc. is
added to baking soda, bubbles of carbon dioxide are produced.

## NaHCO3 + HA  H2O + CO2 + NaA

sodium bicarbonate acid salt

This release of gas is what causes the cake to increase in size and become light
and fluffy. We will carry out the reaction of baking soda with an acid to examine
the stoichiometry of this chemical reaction. By measuring the masses of the solid
reactants and products, we will be able to determine the mole relationships
between the solid reactant and product and compare our results to what the
balanced equation tells us should happen. If we know the masses (and therefore
the moles) of the reactants we start with, we can use the "recipe" of the balanced
equation to predict how much of each product will be made before we even carry
out the reaction. We will make such a prediction (called the theoretical yield) and
compare our results to the prediction (% yield).

## Percent yield = experimental yield = what you recovered x 100

theoretical yield max. predicted by the equation

Practice Problem:
1. In an experiment, a reaction is carried out in which a solution of barium
chloride is mixed with a solution of silver nitrate to produce a white
precipitate. The mass of the reactant BaCl 2 is found to be 10.2 g. The
precipitate is collected, dried, and found to have a mass of 14.5 g.
a. Write the balanced equation for the reaction of barium chloride with silver nitrate
and predict the theoretical mole ratio of silver chloride to barium chloride and the
amount of precipitate that could have been produced.
b. Calculate the experimental mole ratio of silver chloride to barium chloride.
c. Calculate the percent error for the experiment as reflected by the mole ratio.
d. Calculate the percent yield.

## Procedure: Record measurements and observations in Data section (on back).

1. Measure the mass of a clean, dry evaporating dish and watch glass.
2. Place the dish alone on the balance and press re-zero. Add NaHCO 3 until
you have about 1.4xx g (you must record it accurately).
3. Obtain 6 mL of 6 M HCl in a graduated cylinder. Add the acid dropwise w/
dropper until all the baking soda has reacted, but do not add any excess acid
because it will all have to be evaporated. You will know it has all reacted when
you can add a drop of acid and no bubbles appear. Any acid that you do not use

## Honors Chemistry Raleigh Charter High School Dr. Genez

can be returned to the stock beaker. Test the gas produced by lowering a lit
wooden splint into the dish. Note your observations.
4. Place the evaporating dish on a hot plate with the watch glass covering the
dish, but allowing steam to escape.
5. Heat the dish (on 4-5) until only a dry solid remains. Monitor the time! Avoid
overheating because it will cause the contents to spatter. Once the
contents of the dish are dry, you will need to dry the water droplets on the
underside of the watch glass. Using tongs carefully lift the watch glass and lay
it upside down on the hot plate.(otherwise the salt will pop off).
*Begin calculations #1-4 while you are heating. You must show
me the expected mass of salt before your final massing.
6. Remove the evaporating dish from the hot plate and allow it to cool.
7. Clean up lab station while allowing the dish to cool. Re-mass.

Data:
 mass of empty evaporating dish and watch glass
 mass of reactant (NaHCO3)
 mass of dish, glass, and dry product
 observations

## Calculations and Questions:

1. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
2. Predict how much salt should have been produced in the reaction (theoretical
yield).
3. Using the balanced equation, determine the theoretical mole ratio of NaCl to NaHCO3.
4. Calculate the number of moles of NaHCO3 reacted.
5. Calculate the mass of the product, NaCl.
6. Calculate the number of moles of NaCl produced.
7. Calculate the experimental mole ratio of NaCl to NaHCO3.
8. a. Determine the percent error from the mole ratios.
b. Determine another percent error from the predicted mass of salt and the
amount you actually recovered.
c. Calculate your percent yield for the salt.
9. How many carbon dioxide molecules should have been released from your reaction?
10. What did the splint test show?
Bonus: Baking powder consists of a mixture of NaHCO 3 and a substance called
cream of tartar. Baking soda is just pure NaHCO 3. Baking powder acts
differently from baking soda. When water is added to baking powder, CO 2
gas is produced. When water is added to baking soda, it just dissolves.
a. What does baking soda require in order to produce carbon dioxide?
b. Why is cream of tartar present in baking powder?

## Lab Report #5.1:

 Title Page
 Procedure Sheet
 Data
 Calculations and Questions