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# Continuum Mechanics

lecture-2
Hook’s law, plane -2D problems

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Lecture 2 Content
• Review of lecture 1
• Hooke’s law
• Shear modulus and bulk modulus
• Stress in terms of strain
• Plane stress and plane strain problems
• Stress in 2D, stresses on inclined plane
• Principal stresses, max shear stresses, Mohr’s circle
• Strain in 2D, strains in any direction
• Differential equations of equilibrium
• Boundary conditions-for displacements and stresses
• Compatibility conditions
Lecture 2
Hooke’s law
• Experiment shows that normal stresses do not produce distortion for
isotropic material. Thus

x
x  where E is the modulus of Elasticity in tension
E
Extension of element in x direction is accompanied by Lateral contraction
x x
 y   ,  z  
E E
where  is the poisson's ratio
Strains in Element carrying normal stresses
z
y

x
x

y
z
Strains in elements ----2

 x   x   y   z 
1
E

 y   y   z   x 
1
E

 z   z   x   y 
1
E

Pure shear stress and shear strain
Pure shear stress and shear strain--2

## • Resolving forces normal to plane bc (  y   z ) we get normal

stress on plane bc as
 yOB cos 45 -  zOC cos 45  0

##  yOB SIN45 /OC -  zOA SIN45 /OC  1/ 2( y   z )  

Pure shear stress and shear strain--3
• This is a state of pure shear
• Elongation of vertical element ob = shortening of horizontal element oa and oc

## • Angle between ab and bc changes 

• After deformation of ab and bc we have
Pure shear stress and shear strain--4
Oc   1  z
 tan(  ) 
Ob 4 2 1  y

## Linear strains  y  z are given as

1 
 y   y  z  
1
 y and
E E
1 
 z   z  y  
1
z
E E
Pure shear stress and shear strain--5

(1   ) y
1
 E
(1   ) z
1
E
Pure shear stress and shear strain--6
• This gives

 (1   ) z (1   )
  giving
2 E E

2(1   )
 thus we have
E

E
G  shear modulus 
2(1   )
Pure shear stress and shear strain--7

1 1 1
 xy   xy ,  yz   yz ,  zx   zx ,
G G G

## Linear strains and shear strains are independent of each other

Volumetric stress and strain
• If we use the following notations

e  x  y   z
and
  x  y z
adding the three strains we get
1  2
e 
E
Volumetric stress-strain
• In case of uniform hydrostatic pressure p we have

x y z  p
we have
3(1- 2 )
e p
E
this represents relationship between vo lumetric
strain e and hydrostatic pressure p

3(1- 2 )
 K  bulk modulus
E
Stress in terms of strain
If following equations are solved for stresses
Stress in terms of strain
Stress in terms of strain
PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS
• Plane stress If a thin plate is loaded by
a. forces applied at boundary
b. parallel to the plane of plate
c. distributed uniformly over thickness of plate
PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS

• Stress components   
z , yz , xz are zero on both faces of
plates and we assume them to be zero through thickness also. The
state of stress is then defined by only  ,  ,
x y xy

## • and are functions of x and y only.

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS

## • Plane strain problem

• If a body is very long such as a long cylinder, or a dam or
a retaining wall, or a tunnel and is
• a. loaded by forces normal to the length of the body
• b. and these forces do not vary with length
• c. We can assume all sections will behave identically
• d. It is presumed that ends are restrained in length
direction
Long Dam or Retaining wall
Long Tunnel
Long under ground or under water pipeline
Plane strain contd
• Strains and stresses must satisfy following conditions
• As the longitudinal displacement w is zero we must have all strains in
z direction as zero, thus
v w
 yz   0
z y
u w
 xz   0
z x
w
z  0
z
Plane strain contd.
• As longitudinal strain is zero we must have

 z  0   z    x   y 
1
E
giving
 z    x   y 
These stresses act as interacting forces between adjacent sections, over the
entire cross section. State of stress is therefore represented by

 x ,  y , xy only
and  z can be determined from  x and  y
Lecture 3
Stress at a point in 2-D problem
• Knowing atate of stress at a point ( x ,  y , xy ) it is possible to
determine state of stress in a plane at angle θ to this plane using
equations of equilibrium

Stress at a point in 2-D problem
• In discussing conditions of equilibrium of small triangular prism, body
forces are neglected
• Also variation of stresses across element is neglected.
• Cosines of angle between normal N and x and y axes are denoted as
• Cos Nx = l and Cos Ny = m
• If A is area of BC then area of other two sides are Al and Am
Stress at a point in 2-D problem
• Equations of equilibrium of prismatical element are

X  l x  m xy

Y  m y  l xy
Stress at a point in 2-D problem
• Knowing atate of stress at a point ( x ,  y , xy ) it is possible to
determine state of stress in a plane at angle α to this plane using
equations of equilibrium

Calculating stress on an inclined plane

## Let  be the angle between x axis and normal to the plane

so that cos   l and sin   m
the normal and shear stresseson plane BC are given by
 -
  X cos   Y sin   x cos    y sin   2 xy sin cos
2 2

 -
  Y cos   X sin   xy (cos   sin  )  ( y   x ) sin cos
2 2
Principal stresses

## Angle α may be chosen such that shear stress τ becomes zero

Principle stresses continued
 xy (cos   sin  )  ( y   x ) sin cos  0
2 2

 xy sin cos 1
  tan 2
 x   y (cos   sin  ) 2
2 2

From this equation, two directions could be found out for which
shear stress is zero. These directions are the Principal
directions and the corresponding normal stressesare the
Principal stresses
Principal stresses contd

## If principal directions are taken as x and y then normal

and shear stresseson any plane at angle are given as
   x cos2   y sin 2
  ( y   x ) sin cos
variation of these stressesis given by graphical representation
Principal stresses- Mohr’s circle
Mohr’s circle contd
x  y  x  y
OF  OC  CF     cos 2
2 2
x y
 (1  cos 2 )  (1  cos 2 )
2 2
  x cos    y sin 
2 2

 x  y
DF    CD sin 2  sin 2
2
Mohr’s circle

## Maximum shear stress is given by

 x  y
 max  at angle 2  /2 or   /4
2
Principal stresses another graphical
representation
Strain at a point
When strain components  x ,  y and  xy are known at a point
the strains (normal and shear ) in any direction can be determined
If a line PQ is translated, stretchedand rotated into line P' Q' when
the deformations occur
Strains at a point --- contd

## The displacements of P are u and v and those of Q are

u u v v
u  dx  dy and v  dx  dy
x y x y
Strains at a point contd.

## QR and RQ’’ represent the components of displacement

of Q relative to P
Strains at a point contd.
u u
QR  dx  dy
x y
v v
RQ' '  dx  dy
x y

## QR and RQ’’ represent the components of

displacement of Q relative to P
Strains at a point contd
Component of these relative displacements QS and SQ' '
along and normal to PQ' ' are
QS  QRsin  RQ' ' cos
SQ' '  QRcos  RQ' ' sin
Strains at a point contd

## Strain (unit elongation) of P' Q' is given by

   SQ' ' / PQ 
1
QR cos  RQ' ' sin 
PQ
1  u u v v 
  ( dx  dy) cos  sin ( dx  dy)
PQ  x y x y 
Strains at a point contd
 u dx u dy v dx v dy 
   (  ) cos  sin (  )
 x PQ y PQ x PQ y PQ 
 u u v v 
 ( cos  sin  ) cos  sin ( cos  sin  )
 x y x y 
u  u v  v 2
 cos      sin  cos  sin 
2

x  y x  y
    x cos    xy sin  cos   y sin 
2 2
Strain at a point contd
The angle   through w hich PQ is rotated is QS/PQ

 
1
 QR sin   RQ ' ' cos 
PQ
1  u u  v v 
  sin  ( dx  dy)  cos  dx  dy 
PQ  x y  x y 
 u dx u dy  v dx v dy 
  sin  (  )  cos   
 x ds y ds  x ds y ds 
Strain at a point contd

v  v u  u 2
   cos      sin  cos  sin 
2

x  y x  y

Shear strain at a point contd
• Thus angle through which PQ has rotated is

v  v u  u 2
   cos      sin  cos  sin 
2

x  y x  y
Shear strain at a point contd.

## Line element PT at right angles to PQ makes an

angle   with x axis and its rotation is given by
2

  after substituting   for 
2
Shear strain at a point contd
• Thus angle through which PT has rotated is

v  v u 
   / 2  cos (   / 2)     sin(   / 2) cos(   / 2)
2

x  y x 
u 2
 sin (   / 2)
y
v 2  v u  u
   / 2  sin      sin  cos  cos2 
x  y x  y
Shear strain at a point contd
The •shear strain   for directions PT and PQ is      / 2 hence
v u  v u 
   (  )(cos   sin  )    2 sin  cos
2 2

x y  y x 
or

##     xy (cos   sin  )   y   x sin  cos

1 1 2 2

2 2
Differential equation of equilibrium
equations of equilibrium contd.
 x1h   x3h   x2 k   x4 k  Xhk  0
Dividing throughout by hk we have
 x1   x3  x2   x4
 X 0
k h
taking element very small so that h  0 and k  0
 x  xy
 X 0
x y
Equations of equilibrium contd

## Similarly Adding forcesin Y direction

 y  xy
 Y  0
y x
Boundary conditions
• The differential equations of equilibrium are to be
satisfied at all the points, within the bady and also at
outer surface of body.
Boundary conditions contd
Boundary conditions contd.
• If we take l and m as the direction cosines of normal to the boundary
N then we have the following boundary conditions

l x  m xy  X

m y  l xy  Y
Statically indeterminate problems
• We have two equations of equilibrium and three unknowns in terms
σ x , σ y , and  xy
of

## • Such problems are called statically indeterminate problems

• For the 2D problem we have two displacements U and V and three
strain components in terms of

u v u v
x  , y  ,  xy  
x y y x
Compatibility conditions contd
• The three strain components can not have independent values but must
have relations between them as they are functions of two variables only
• The relation between these strain components is established by
differentiating  x twice wrt y,  y twice wrt x and  xy once wrt
x and once wrt y we get

  x   y   xy
2 2 2

 2 
y 2
x xy
This differential relation is called the compatibility condition
Strains displacement relations in two
dimensions
1

 x   x  y
E

1

 y   y  x
E

 xy 2(1  )
 xy    xy
G E