RFID sensor

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RFID sensor

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TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Microwaves band

Britain

2

Small antennas - Introduction

• In microstrip

technology

• Antenna pattern

3

Small Antennas for mobile phones

• Balanis

4

Antennas for macrocells

• Spatial

diversity

• CDF

• Gain

Crisan

Smart antennas - Introduction

• Network

design

• Optimization

with

Optimetrix

• In

reverberation

chamber

6

Smart spectrum analyzer up to 10

GHz

- C programmable ultra

portable spectrum

analyzer

- USB data exchange

- AAronia (Germany)

7

Ultra portable and programmable

Vector Network Analyzer kit

Specifications:

• Frequency range 1MHz – 3GHz

• Calibration using open-short-load for

accurate results

• Range of Z from 1 to 1000 ohm

• Two ports VNA with S11 and

S21; displayed and save results

• RF Generator with output power of -6dBm

@ 500 MHz

• Powered from USB

• SMA connectors for better isolation

• Dynamic range – up to 70 dB @ 500 MHz

• Boot loader for future firmware upgrades

• User friendly interface for PC Windows,

Linux and Mac

• Integrated Smith chart in software

• Android Mobile Phone software

• Export data in several formats JPEG, 8

EXCEL, ZPLOT, S2P, PDF

LEAT- ASL Antennas

- Microstrip antenna for:

- 3G & 4G systems UMTS & LTE

- Wireless Network sensors

- Array antennas measurements for

LTE systems simulation and arrays

processing in MATLAB

9

Texas instruments embedded kit

- 868-915 MHz

- 433-442 MHz

- 2.4-2.5 GHz

- C programmable

- Antenna testing

Crisan

Smart packet sniffer

11

RFID - Sensors

12

RFID – For deposit management

13

ASL - RFIDs

14

GPS – Sensors on RASPBERRY PI 3-B

15

Software defined radio - SDR

16

Open source GNU Radio under Linux – SDR –

Concatenated coding and OFDM for WiMAX

17

Examples: LTE Antenna beamforming effect over the

64QAM constellation

% Set PDSCH beamforming

vector

if (ntx==1)

% Use equal

transmission gains for each

antenna

rmc.PDSCH.W = [17 17

17 17]/34;

else

% Beamforming vector

matched to channel response

rmc.PDSCH.W = [17 8-

15*1i -8+15*1i 15+8*1i]/34;

end

18

Powerful FEM simulator

- HFSS v13

- Small scale simulation

- Antenna design in

microwave

- Simulations

- Optimization

- Antenna

parameterization

- Implementation

- Laboratory works

- Semester thesis

- Dissertation

19

Powerful FEM/SYS simulator

- ADS v2013.06

- Systems

- Simulations

- Array network design

- Implementation

- 15 licenses for ASL use

only

20

FEKO – Momentum/FEM

• Large scale antenna

modeling

• Automotive

• Radar

21

Compact yet powerful FEM/SYS

simulator

- SystemVue v2013.01

- Systems simulations

- Array network design

- Implementation

- Semester Thesis

- Dissertations

22

Academic SYS simulator

- Matlab vR2014a

- LTE Systems

- Simulations

- Array network design

- Toolboxes:

- LTE system toolbox

- Phased Array System

toolbox

- Semester Thesis

- Dissertations

23

Multiband

GSM / 3G / LTE

antenna design example

Targeted Parameters:

• S11 <-6dB in each band

• Antenna radiation efficiency >80%

Notes:

•The feeding and ground pins have arbitrary positions

•To avoid a large capacitance between the two GND planes on the main PCB many viases can be drawn arbitrary

•The antenna material can be copper

•Antenna bending is allowed. Freedom to choose its size.

•Parasitic elements can be applied on one face or the other of the vertical PCB to extend bandwidth

•Minimum antenna copper widths >0.5mm

•Use parameters for antenna elements size ->Optimetrics can be used to fine-tune the antenna

GSM / 3G antenna 824 – 960 MHz &1710 – 2170 MHz

Problem 1:

Design a dual band IFA antenna on the vertical PCB from the below picture

PCB – FR4 (thickness: 1,6mm; εr= 4.4; loss tangent= 0.02; 2 ground layers top and bottom on main PCB)

60mm

20mm 125mm

85mm

Antenna design for automotive challenge – Continental Timisoara

- Write scientific

papers in journals

(easy!)

this one and find some

innovative solutions (hard!)

27

Antenna coordinates

- Every point in its

surrounding is pointed

by the position vector r

- The magnitude

- The inclination (Theta)

- The azimuth (Phi)

3D or 2D (using sections through 3D plot)

28

• Antenna feed terminal

29

EM wave

30

E field along the transmission line

between the two line

the wire begin to radiate

through air

one another in a self

sustained manner

31

- Front wave is perpendicular to the direction of propagation

60 Pt

E 2 Erms

R

32

33

Pattern along the three regions

34

Antenna basics

- Energy converter (reciprocal)

- Two important distinct regions of the field

2𝐷2

- Near (ends at )

(is interesting for fields

𝜆

applicators in medicine)

- Far (here we are going to work in

communications and radar field)

35

Antenna parameters

1. Imput impedance

2. Bandwidth

3. Radiation pattern

4. Beamwidth

5. Imput impedance vs radiation

6. Polarization

7. Equivalent area, Gain and Directivity

8. SWAP – Size weight and power

36

Antenna parameters

1. Input impedance

Is a measure of the total opposition to the current flow and is evaluating

by two components (real + imaginary)

1

Z in Z 0 R jX

1

1

VSVR 1 Voltage standing wave ratio

1 RL [ dB ]

10 20

1

VSWR RL [ dB ]

RLdB 20 lg return loss 10 20

1

RL [ dB ]

Reflection coefficient

10 20

37

Impedance matching (Important!)

- 𝑍𝑔 = 𝑍0 more realistic condition

- 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝑅 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛_𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑛𝑎 idealistic

- Mismatching leads to losses

- Insertion loss (generator/cable)

- Return loss (cable/antenna)

38

• Insertion loss

Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of power received at the end of the line and

transmitted power source line. It is a size that characterizes the line in terms of

losses incurred by the applied signal. In decibels losses are estimated to be as

small as possible (0 dB). Its determination taken into account final length of the

transmition line, so the effective value is expressed in terms of the line length in

dB / m and is positive (the argument of the logarithm lower than one).

𝑃

𝐼𝐿[𝑑𝐵] = −10𝑙𝑔 𝑃𝑅> 0

𝑇

39

• Return loss

Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of power received at the end of the line and

transmitted power source line. It is a size that characterizes the line in terms of

losses incurred by the applied signal. In decibels losses are estimated to be as

small as possible (0 dB). Its determination taken into account final length of the

transmition line, so the effective value is expressed in terms of the line length in

dB / m and is positive (the argument of the logarithm lower than one).

40

Relations between return loss, SWR and reflection coefficient

Convertion table: RL,

SWR and Г

41

2. Bandwidth

42

Calculation of the antenna frequency band by using the RL

if an antenna has two resonant frequencies (dual band)

43

3. Radiation pattern

An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is defined as “a mathematical function

or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function

of space coordinates. In most cases, the radiation pattern is determined in the far-field

region and is represented as a function of the directional coordinates.

Directivity

D ,

puterea radiata pe unitatea de unghi solid

puterea medie pe unitatea de unghi solid

dPrad d dP d

4 rad

Prad 4 Prad

d sin d d

44

Antenna pattern examples

antenna gain

45

46

Example – Pyramidal horn antenna simulated in HFSS

47

4. Beamwidth

-The beamwidth of a pattern is defined as the angular separation between two identical

points

on opposite sides of the pattern maximum (Pmax – 3 dB HPBW).

SLL-Side

lobes level

48

5. Radiation impedance vs input impedance

Definition

Expression of the antenna radiation resistance is equal, by definition, to

the ratio between the average effective radiated power and average value

of the current that runs through the antenna.

Pr Pd

Rr 2 2 Rin Rr 2 2

I0 I0

P Pd 2 j WH WE

2

36,565 I 0

Rin r 2 73,13

I 0 I 0* 2 I0

2

Pd 0

Rin Rr 2 Rr - For a dipole (unfolded)

I0

2

8 .r0

49

• Impedance along the dipol

50

6. Polarization

•The antenna is responsible for the direction and orientation of the vector E (electric field intensity)

since the wave is generated in the near field region. If the vector is acting in the horizontal plane, the wave

is horizontally polarized, and if it is in the vertical plane, polarization is vertical.

turning the electric field so that two orthogonal components Etheta

and Efi, rotate the tip of E vector. It can describe a circle or an

ellipse. Between the two components there is a phase shift which

usually distinguish: if phase shift between Eteta and Efi is minus 90

degrees, the two components have equal modules and E vector tip

describes a circle, we are dealing with a circular polarization. If the

two components meet a phase shift of 180 degrees, we are dealing

with a linear polarization. Ultimately, if the phase shift has any other

value, different from the two previous cases, we have an elliptical

polarization.

51

Polarization: elliptical, circular and linear

52

7. Equivalent area (aperture) and the gain

The power capturing characteristics of the antenna when a wave impinges on it. The

ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna to the power flux

density of a plane wave incident on the.

PR R AeR

53

DT and DR are the antenna directivities of transmitter and receiver respectively and AeT

and AeR are equivalet areas of them.

PT DT

R 0 DT

4R 2

4 Aem

D

2

PT 4 4

G D rad D rad Aem Ae

PRF 2

2

- dB measures the gain but without a reference is useless

- dBd relative to half wave dipole antenna (0 dBd=2.15 dBi)

- dBq relative to quarter wave monopole antenna (0 dBq=0.85 dBi)

54

8. SWAP – Size weight and power

Is very much dependent by:

- Application constriction

- Environmental constriction

- Standard and regulation constrictions

designing low cost devices

- five design scenarios

55

Microstrip antenna technologies

1. Patch antenna

USAGE

It is one of the most common enspecialy at microwave frequencies where wireless

equipments work (mobile phones, WiFi networks, laptops and so on).

56

•Designing the patch

There are two methods that stands for the microstrip size calculation: lines model and

cavity model. The most used is the first which sees the antenna as an open transmition

line.

admitances at both sides

57

120 h

Z0 - Characteristic impedance

W eff

1 2

r 1 r 1 12h - Effective dielectric permitivity

eff 1

2 2 W

W2

G pentru W 0 - Load conductance

9002

W2

G pentru W 0

12002

B

Z0

58

eff 0,3 W h 0,264

L 0,412h - corections

eff 0,258 W h 0,8

g 0

L 2L - Line must be lengthen with something

2 2 eff

c - Resonance

fr

2 eff L L

1 / 2

c r 1 - Line width

W

2 fr 2

59

Exemple – Design a microstrip patch antenna at 1.6 GHz on a FR4 PCB with

electric permitivity εr = 4.4 having the thickness h = 1.524 mm. The fed line of the

antenna has 50 ohms characteristic impedance. After the antenna dimention

match the antenna to the 50 ohm characteristic impedance of the fed line.

c

0 18,69 cm

fr

0 r 1 1 / 2

W 5,7 cm

2 2

1 2

r 1 r 1 12h

eff 1 4,2

2 2 W

L 0,412h 0,7 mm

eff 0,258 W h 0,8

60

0

L 2L 4,43 cm

2 eff

4502

Rin 486 ohmi

2

W

61

• Feeding methods

Input impedance has a real value only at the resonance, this value depends by the conductance

value from its sides. Mostly the main problem emerges due to the mismatch between the feeding line

and the input impedance of the antenna. In this case a matching impedance must be consider using

stubs on microstrip PCB. Another technique is to resize the width W of the antenna to match the 50

ohms characteristic impedance of the feeding line.

The antenna admittance is of the form:

W2

Yin 2G

4502

4502

Z in Rin 50 Ω.

2

W

62

In order to obtain an input impedance of 50 ohms : W 0,95....1,20

W h g ln g / h 1

A microtrip patch antenna usually has a reduced aperture even though its radiation efficiency is very high

(tends to the unity). When W increases the antenna gain will increase, as well. When we can not modify the W

parameter the inset feeding method is an option to keep the impedance matching. The inset feeding technique

exploit the variation of the impedance along the antenna (along z axes) variation that follows a co-sinusoidal

law :

z

Rin _ inset Rin cos 2 Where z is the inset coordinate along the antenna length

L referring to one of its end

63

This program interface shows this variation of

the impedance along the length of the antenna

with z.

Rin _ inset

L 1

z cos

Rin

64

• Asymmetric feed line

method

If d is the smallest distance from the edge then the

input admittance could be equated as follows:

1

eff G 2 B 2 eff

Yin 2G cos 2 2 d sin 2 4 d

Y02

0 0

respectively from its ends

Y = G+jB

2 eff

B L

g Z0

65

•Ansoft interface – Ansoft Designer is the own

by the Ansys Coorporation

66

Types of antenna feeding techniques a. coaxial fed b. EM fed

67

Electric field along the patch

Electric field bends to the antenna sides making it to looks longer from electric point of view. Voltage wave is

maximum at the ends and the current into the middle. Radiation tends to its maximum in the middle where the

current is maximum too.

68

•slot coupled antennas

A slot can be used every time the line couldn’t be attached phisically to the patch.

• VSWR controll

69

S11 vs frequency

70

From figure we can approximate antenna bandwidth at 18 MHz. The size of the slot can modify the WSVR

value.

71

S11 on Smith chart

72

3D directivity using wire-frame method Slot cupled

73

•Half patch antenna – PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna

- In the middle the input impedance is zero.

- Symmetry

- Cut the right side and use a short circuit into the middle to force a null

- We can shorten the antenna to the half (quarter wavelength)

74

- Half patch antenna in HFSS

75

•Left or right handed polarization

76

•SAR – Specific absorption rate

human tissue (body) when it is exposes to a radio wave.

- Units [W/Kg].

- Calculation

𝜎 𝑟 𝐸 𝑟 2

SAR= 𝑑𝑟

𝜌 𝑟

-𝜌 𝑟 tissue density

- 𝐸 𝑟 2 electric field (RMS)

-σ 𝑟 electrical conductivity

Celsius after 30 minutes of exposure.

77

- After 6 minutes of exposure

under HFSS?

78

Estimate SAR with HFSS following the FCC – Federal

Communications Commission restrictions

79

Measurements and simulations comparisons of

SAR with HFSS

80

SAR – RMS

81

Arrays

- EM antenna array

which different magnitude and/or

phase currents flows

-Smart antennas

software the magnitudes and the

phase of the current

82

-The very firs applications of

the EM arrays was in WWII

Modern applications

- avionics

83

- Equipment is at the cutting edge

of technological advanced

- In order to control the magnitude and phase for each radiator

the cutting edge of engineering is involving like DSP processing,

and software advanced algorithms. A sophisticated software

defined radio platform is the key.

84

Our technology

Sundance and Texas

instruments based on the most

advanced still cheep DSP’s.

85

•A smart antenna is comprised by more arrays of identical radiators (small

antennas) which are connected by means of coaxial or microstrip lines. In the far

field region the resulting field emerges under the effect of the superposition effect

of each radiator.

•With the help of these lines the direction of the radiation is under the control of

the signal delay and gain (complex weights) along each path.

Conclusions

• The array could be linear (ULA-

Uniform linear array) most simple,

rectangular or circular (geometry)

• To be “smart”, there must be

some processing involved before

signal summation

86

•Antenna feeding network for ULA

87

• ULA-Uniform linear array

- Along the front wave the waves are in phase so the

direction of the propagation have to make an angle

theta that depend by the delay on each path.

88

• Retele de antene de tip array linear

and omnidirectional

2𝜋𝑑 cos 𝜃0

𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 = - Equivalent phase difference

𝜆

between two consecutive

elements

89

• ULA – Superposition effect of the fields

𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟1 − 𝛿1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟2 − 𝛿2

= 𝐸1 + 𝐸2

4𝜋 𝑟1 4𝜋 𝑟2

𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟𝑁 − 𝛿𝑁

+ … + 𝐸𝑁

4𝜋 𝑟𝑁

E is the magnitude of the electric field

𝑁

𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝛽 𝑟

𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑓 𝜃, 𝜓 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 + 𝛿

4𝜋 𝑟

𝑖=1

Assumptions:

𝑟1 = 𝑟2 = ⋯ = 𝑟𝑁 = 𝑟 Only for the denominator

90

• Array factors & pattern for N elements

𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝛽 𝑟

𝐸𝐹 = 𝑓 𝜃, 𝜓 element pattern or element factor

4𝜋 𝑟

𝑖=1

𝑁−1

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑘=0 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝑘𝜑 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2 +…+𝑒 𝑗𝜑𝑁

91

• ULA - Phase array

𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐸𝐹 ∗ 𝐴𝐹

geometry which means that is

constant

𝜑𝑖 = 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 + 𝛿

𝜋

𝜑 = 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 = 𝛽𝑑 cos − 𝜃

2

Input/output

𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙_𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐸𝐹 ∗ 𝑁

When phase difference is −𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 then the main lobe is beam

steered (is controlled) through 𝑛

92

•Linear array with two elements

Assumptions:

- 𝑟 ≫𝑑

- 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , 𝑟 are parallel

- the phase reference is in the middle

𝛿

- The left phase is − 2

𝛿

- The right phase is 2

- 𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 phase difference

d

𝑟1 ≈ 𝑟 + sin 𝜃 Distance

2 vectors

d

𝑟2 ≈ 𝑟 − sin 𝜃 magnitude

2

93

• Phase array

𝛿 𝛿

−𝑗 𝑗

-the phasor current in element 1 is 𝐼1 = 𝐼0 𝑒 2 and for the second is 𝐼2 = 𝐼0 𝑒 2

𝐼1 𝐼2

94

•Example – two elements array

d - is antenna spacing

The wave front is coming under theta angle from the right

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2

𝛽𝑑 𝜋 𝛽𝑑 𝜋

−𝑗 cos −𝜃 𝑗 cos −𝜃

𝐴𝐹0 = 𝑒 2 2 +𝑒 2 2

Wave front

𝑛

𝛽𝑑 𝛿 𝛽𝑑 𝛿

−𝑗 2 sin 𝜃−2 𝑗 2 sin 𝜃−2

𝑟2 AF = 𝑒 + 𝑒

𝑎2 𝜃 𝑎1

𝜃 𝜃0

𝐴𝐹0 𝛽𝑑 𝛿

d

𝛿 𝛿 sin 𝜃 − = 0

−

2 2 2 2

0 𝑟1

−𝑑 2 𝑑 2

AF 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 = 𝛿

Trough receiver

95

•N elements uniform linear array

are equally weight

- Assuming the far field condition: 𝑟 𝑖 ≫ 𝑑

- Reference is taken at the left element

96

•N elements uniform linear array

𝑁 𝑁

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛼

𝑖=1 𝑖=1

𝑇

𝑎 θ = 1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 … . . 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑁 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿

97

•N elements uniform linear array

- array propagation vector

- array response vector

- array manifold vector

- array vector

𝑁 𝑁

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑖=1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 = 𝑖=1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖−1 𝛼

- Geometric sequence

98

•N elements uniform linear array

𝑁 𝑁 𝑁

𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛼

𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗𝑁𝛼 − 1 2 2 2

𝐴𝐹 = =

𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗𝛼 − 1 𝛼 𝛼 𝛼

𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 2 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 2 − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 2

𝛼 𝛼 𝛼

Knowing that: 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 = cos + 𝑗 sin

2 2 2

𝑁

𝑁−1 sin 𝛼 - The term encircled with red is

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 2

𝛼 1, whenever the reference is in

2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 the middle of the array

99

•N elements uniform linear array

𝛼

sin 𝑁 2

𝐴𝐹 = 𝛼 - The maximum value is N

𝑠𝑖𝑛 2

𝛼 𝛼

𝑠𝑖𝑛 ≈ When alpha is small

2 2

𝛼

𝐴𝐹 sin 𝑁 - Normalized array factor

𝐴𝐹𝑛 = = 2

𝑁 𝛼 - Maximum is 1

𝑁2

100

- Operation modes

array is in the broadside mode in which 𝛿 = 0 (all elements are in

phase)

𝑑 𝑑

-AF for four elements array 𝜆

= 1 (left) and 𝜆

= 0,75 (right) 101

- Operation modes

array is in the broadside mode in which 𝛿 = 0 (all elements are in

phase)

𝑑 𝑑

-AF for four elements array 𝜆

= 0.5 (left) and 𝜆

= 0.25 (right) 102

END-FIRE mode - The name end-fire indicates that this

array’s maximum radiation is along the axis containing

the array elements. Thus, maximum radiation is “out the

end” of the array.

103

- Four elements array in the same condition as previous

ones

It should be noted that the mainlobe width for the ordinary end-fire

case is much greater than the mainlobe width for the broadside case.

104

Corectia Hansen-Woodyard

Woodyard

𝜋

𝛿 = −𝛽𝑑 −

𝑁

105

Hansen-Woodyard end-fire array with four

elements

𝜋 - Condition that tilt the main lobe to

𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 −

𝑁 the right

106

• MATLAB example

N=4%number of elements

dpla=0.25%d/lambda

betad=2*pi*dpla;

fi=betad;%the phase for end-fire mode

figrd=(180*fi)/pi

i=1;

for teta = 0.0001:pi/180:2*pi

alf=betad*sin(teta)+fi;

X(i)=abs((2*sin((N*alf)/2))/(N*alf));

i =i+1;

end

teta = 0.0001:pi/180:2*pi;

polar(teta,X)%plot the AF pattern

107

- N elements BEAMSTEERED linear array

108

Beamsteering example

109

N-Elements uniform linear array directivity

ability to selectively direct energy in certain

directions

when EF = 1

110

Plotting the directivity in MATLAB

111

Homework

N=8%elements

CL = ['b' 'r' 'g' 'm'];%plot color

for j = 0:3

scangrd=j*30%scanning angle

dpla=.75%d/lambda

unghiscanrad=(pi*scangrd)/180;

i=1;

X=0:pi/180:pi;

F=@(x)((sin(((N/2)*pi*dpla*(cos(x)-cos(unghiscanrad))))/

((N/2)*pi*dpla*(cos(x)-cos(unghiscanrad))))^2)*2*pi*sin(x);%directivity formula

Q=quad(F,0,pi);

for teta = 0:pi/180:2*pi

dif = cos(teta)-cos(unghiscanrad);

root = pi*dpla*dif;

if root ~= 0

X(i)= (1/N)*(sin(N*root)/root);

X(i)=(4*pi*(X(i)^2))/Q;

else X(i)=4*pi/Q;

end

i =i+1;

end

teta = 0:pi/180:2*pi;

h(j+1)=polar(teta,X,CL(j+1));

set(h(j+1),'LineWidth',0.75*(4-j))

if j<3

hold on

else hold off

end

end

legend(h,{'end-fire 90grd','beamsteered 60grd',

'beamsteered 30grd','broadside 0grd'})

112

Beamforming using sidelobes suppresing

in order to suppress sidelobes

- For an even number of elements

113

2𝑀−1 1 1 2𝑀−1

−j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 −j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝐴𝐹𝑝𝑎𝑟 = 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 2 + ⋯+ 𝑤1 𝑒 2 + 𝑤1 𝑒 2 + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 2

2𝜋

𝛽= - phase constant

𝜆

- The main idea is to avoid 𝑒 −𝑗0 term by taking the reference point in

the middle of the array

114

- Taking into account two by two left and right symmetric

terms we have:

1

−𝑗2𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

1

𝑗 2𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 1

𝑤1 𝑒 + 𝑤1 𝑒 = 𝑤1 2 cos 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

2

𝑀 2𝑛 − 1

𝐴𝐹𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 = 2 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝑛=1 2

- After normalization:

𝑀 2𝑛 − 1

𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛 cos 2 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝐴𝐹𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 = 𝑀

𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛

115

- For an odd number of elements 𝑁 = 2𝑀 + 1

𝐴𝐹𝑜𝑑𝑑

= 𝑤𝑀+1 𝑒 −j𝑀𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + ⋯ + 𝑤2 𝑒 −j𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝑀𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝑀+1

=2 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝑛 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝑛=1

116

- After normalization

𝑀+1

𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝑛 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃

𝐴𝐹𝑜𝑑𝑑 = 𝑀+1

𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛

117

Side lobes suppressing technique

118

PASCAL triangle

𝑛

𝑎+𝑏 = 𝑎 𝑛 + +𝐶𝑛1 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏 + 𝐶𝑛2 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑏2 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑛

119

Example - Using side lobe suppressing technique find the weights that cancel out

the side lobes for an array with N=8.

120

•This program can be used each time one

uses sidelobes canceling criterion no matter

what function stands for the weights

generation.

121

122

• Antenna as a sensor – AoA and channel

parameter estimation

•Is about finding the angles under each front comes to the

array.

of view

arriving wave fronts. Matrix AoA containing the angle for each wave

front.

123

•Auto-correlation matrix

𝑤 𝑇 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 … 𝑤𝑀

𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘

𝑠1 𝑘

𝑠2 𝑘

𝑥 𝑘 = 𝑎 𝜃1 𝑎 𝜃2 …𝑎 𝜃𝐷 ⋮ +𝑛 𝑘

k – sample index

𝑠𝐷 𝑘

= 𝐴𝑠 𝑘 +𝑛 𝑘

𝑎𝑇 𝜃1 = 1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1

… 𝑒𝑗 𝑀−1 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1

124

•Example for three wave-fronts

1 1 1 𝑠1

𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠2

𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠3

𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 1 1 1 𝑠2

𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠3

125

𝑅𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸 𝑥 𝑥 𝐻 = 𝐸 𝐴𝑠 + 𝑛 𝑠 𝐻 𝐴𝐻 + 𝑛𝐻 - Auto-corellation matrix

𝐴 Array matrix

126

consider the noise

Based on the received signal

𝐾

1

𝑅𝑥𝑥 ≈ 𝑥 𝑘 𝑥 𝐻𝑘

𝐾

𝑘=1

Is not enough !

The wave fronts must be decorelated to each other

127

Angle of arrival estimation (AoA)

• If the AoA is known at the receiver the array can cope with the frequency

selective fading using beamforming and beamsteering.

• If the AoA is determined the receiver can cancel some of the fronts placing a

NULL in its directions.

• A RADAR can determine the direction of the targets without rotating the

antenna.

The price!

The computational effort is very high

The complexity of the receiver increases

The use of signal processing techniques is a must

128

•Sensing the radio channel characteristic

in literature as:

-Fingers (rarely)

-Taps (very often)

-Returns (rarely)

129

Power delay profile

- In an urban environment

130

RMS – Delay Spread

131

Angular profile

Table – LTE profile

•AoA – Bartlett estimation

𝑃𝑏 𝜃 = 𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

direction under theta angle

133

134

135

136

137

• Capone method

•This method is well known as Minimum Variance Distortionless

Response. Is about finding with the maximum probability (near one) one

of the wave front considering all others as interferers.

138

𝑤 𝑇 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 … 𝑤𝑀

−1

𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

𝑤= 𝐻 - Calculate the weights for

𝑎 𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃 direction theta to maximize the

power for that direction and

minimize the power for others

1

𝑃𝐶 𝜃 =

𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

139

140

Finding the weights

141

• Linear prediction method

The main purpose of this method is to minimized the error between one

element and a specific one that is the reference for all others.

uses number one to mark the reference and zero for all others.

𝑢4𝑇 = 0 0 0 1 0 0 … . . 0

of the array and the probability to find the incoming front in theta

direction is:

𝑇 𝑅 −1 𝑢

𝑢𝑚 𝑥𝑥 𝑚

𝑃𝑃𝐿𝑚 𝜃 = 2

𝑇 −1

𝑢𝑚 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

142

143

• Burg method

1

𝑃𝐵𝑀𝑒𝑗 =

𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑐𝑗 𝑐𝑗𝐻 𝑎 𝜃

−1 .

autocorrelation matrix inverse 𝑅𝑥𝑥

InvRx=inv(Rxx);

cj=InvRx(:,m)%genereaza coloana j

144

145

146

147

148

149

• Pisarenko method (harmonic decomposition)

- Is about the minimization of the mean square error taking into account

that the noise is decorelated with the direction from which the wave

fronts coming from. According to Pisarenko the estimation probability of

the incoming wave front under theta is:

1

𝑃𝑃𝐻𝐷 𝜃 =

𝑎𝐻 𝜃 𝑒1 2

150

151

152

153

154

155

•Observatie

156

3 Adaptive (smart) antennas

improve SNR or SIR parameters.

ways: in RF domain or IF domain. The former is using the RF

lines/amplifiers/atenuators (coaxial/microstrip) to alter the signal phase and signal

magnitude and the later is using the DSP.

•In IF domain the computational effort is important but leads to the best results.

157

3.1. RF domain array processing

• The adaptation methods in RF domain are very effective and cheap for

beamforming. For example the most simple and straight RF domain processing

is the side lobes suppressing method (with real weights).

• Further only the RF domain processing methods with complex weights will be

studied.

hybrid quadrature couplers. No active circuits are required so the

processing is very cheap. Is now the most used RF processing for radio

cells.

158

159

The array factor will be:

3 1 1 3

−𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 −𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃

𝐴𝐹𝑘 = 𝑤𝑘1 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘2 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘3 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘4 𝑒 2

3𝜋 𝜋 𝜋

−𝑗 4 −𝑗 4 −𝑗 2

𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒 ; 𝑤𝑘2 = 𝑒 −𝑗𝜋 ; 𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒 ; 𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒

160

161

There are many possibilities to achieved beamforming by change the

position of the -45 degree delay line or its value.

162

Antene pentru microunde - Nicolae 163

Crisan

- Hybrid quadrature coupler can be simulated in HFSS, ADS or

SysVue in order to counteract the effect of losses in dielectric and

balance the paths against the imbalance effect of the mutual coupling

between the lines.

164

165

166

167

•Smart beamforming

ABF – Analog beamforming (in time domain)

DBF – Digital beamforming (in frequency domain)

Both of them are demanding a pre-processing step in which case the auto-

correlation matrix must be captured.

The main difference is related to the fact that the former proceeds in time domain

and the latter in frequency domain.

168

169

- ABF uses transmition lines

- DBF uses DSP’s

between the beams that are following different paths and arriving

from different directions

170

- First step starts with the calculation of the AoA using a

technique presented in previous chapter

- The second step is resolving a linear equations systems

𝐴𝑜𝐴 = [𝜃1 𝜃2 𝜃3 … . 𝜃𝐷 ]

- This means AF(𝜃1 ) =1 and for the any other 𝜃2 𝜃3 … . 𝜃𝐷

directions AF=0

171

𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1

+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1

=1

𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2

+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2

=0

…

𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝐷

+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝐷

=0

𝑥1 + 𝑎1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎M−1 𝑥M = 1

𝑥1 + 𝑏1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑏M−1 𝑥M = 0 Zero Forcing algorithm (in LTE

…

𝑥1 + 𝑐1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑐M−1 𝑥M = 0 standard)

172

•Remark

•If 𝐴−1 does not exist we must increase M or modify the array

spacing

weights in the present of noise

173

174

175

176

177

178

• MMSE (Minimum mean-square error) beamforming

•The main idea here is to minimize the MMSE error as much as possible

179

- 𝑑(𝑘) is the reference sample and must be decorelated with the

interference signal and correlated with selected signal 𝑠𝑖

180

- The optimal weights can be found as:

𝜃𝑠

where:

- 𝑆𝑠(𝑘) is the normalized energy of selected

wave front,

- 𝑅𝑥𝑥 , correlation matrix at the receiver

(MxM)

- 𝑎(𝜃𝑠 ) array vector along direction under 𝜃𝑠

angle

181

182

183

184

• SIR maximization

ratio)

- It is useful when the selected front is heavily disrupted by the

interference signal (under radio traffic jam)

for useful front and correlation matrix of the

interference fronts

𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸 𝑥𝑠 𝑥𝑠𝐻

185

𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥𝑠 𝑘 + 𝑥𝑖 𝑘 +𝑛 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥𝑠 𝑘 +𝑢 𝑘

- 𝑘 current sample,

- 𝑢 𝑘 all interference signals with noise

- 𝑛 𝑘 noise for k sample

- 𝑤𝐻 complex weights

𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸 𝑥𝑠 𝑥𝑠𝐻

−1

𝑅𝑢𝑢 𝑅𝑠𝑠 𝑤𝑆𝐼𝑅 - Where 𝑤𝑆𝐼𝑅 is the eigenvector of

𝑤𝑜𝑝𝑡 = −1 𝑅 that corresponds

the matrix 𝑅𝑢𝑢

𝜆𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠𝑠

to the maximum eigenvalue 𝜆𝑚𝑎𝑥

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

Array antenna over MIMO channels

- Motivation of MIMO (probably the best way to increase the received power)

193

MIMO – Beam forming using complex weight coefficients

194

Receiver-Combining Methods

ℎ1

ℎ2

ℎ3 𝑦 4

𝐸𝑠 2

𝛾= ℎ𝑖

ℎ4 𝑁

𝑖=1

ℎ1 𝑥1 ℎ1 𝑦1 𝑥1 ℎ1

ℎ 𝑥1 ℎ2 𝑦 𝑥1 ℎ2

𝑦 = 𝐻 𝑡 𝑥1 = 2 𝑥1 = = 𝑦2 𝑦=𝐻 ∗ 𝑦 = ℎ1∗ ℎ2∗ ℎ3∗ ℎ4∗

ℎ3 𝑥1 ℎ3 3 𝑥1 ℎ3

ℎ4 𝑥1 ℎ4 𝑦4

𝑥1 ℎ4

195

Autocorrelation matrix – LTE channel model

196

LTE – structure in time domain

197

198

LTE – Resource grid in frequency domain

199

Array antenna – channel matrix estimation

200

Channel estimation 2x2 MIMO

n – sample index

201

202

Transmit antenna diversity 2x2 mod 2 LTE - Alamouti

203

Transmit antenna diversity 2x2, 4x4 mod 2 LTE

204

Alamouti - decoder

but

- Pairs of

consecutive

sequences

- When channel is

assumed to be static

during n and n+1

205

Rank-Deficiency Problem

- X transmitted signal

- H channel matrix

- Y received signal

- n the noise

𝐻 ≠ 0 ; is a must

Nicolae Crisan

The Solution for the Rank-Deficiency problem

- X transmitted signal

- H channel matrix

- V precoding matrix

- Y received signal

- n the noise

antennas in LTE spatial multiplexing

Nicolae Crisan

Zero-Forcing LTE receiver (ZF-receiver/MxN MIMO)

𝐺𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐸 = 𝐻 𝐻 𝐻𝐻 𝐻 + 𝜎𝑛2 𝐼𝑀 −1

𝑤𝐻 = 𝑢𝑖𝑇 𝐴𝐻 𝐴𝐴𝐻 + 𝜎𝑛2 𝐼𝑀 −1

Nicolae Crisan

Example: What is the condition necessary to have 𝑅𝑥𝑥 = 𝐻 𝐻 𝐻 where 𝐻 is the channel

matrix of the channel complex gains and 𝐻 𝐻 its transpose conjugate.

ℎ11

ℎ11 ℎ12 ℎ13 ℎ14

ℎ ℎ22 ℎ23 ℎ24

𝐻 = 21

ℎ31 ℎ32 ℎ33 ℎ34 ℎ22

ℎ41 ℎ42 ℎ43 ℎ44

ℎ33

ℎ44

Nicolae Crisan

ℎ11 ℎ22 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃2 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗3𝜃3

ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗𝜃1 ℎ22 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3

𝐻=

ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃1 ℎ22 𝑒 𝑗𝜃2 ℎ33 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3

ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗3𝜃1 ℎ22 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃2 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 ℎ44

𝑒 𝑗𝜃1

1 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 0 ℎ22 0 0

𝐴 = 𝑗2𝜃 𝐻𝑠 =

𝑒 1 𝑒 𝑗𝜃2 1 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 0 0 ℎ33 0

𝑒 𝑗3𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃2 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 1 0 0 0 ℎ44

𝐻 = 𝐴𝐻𝑠

Nicolae Crisan

𝐻 𝐻 𝐻 =𝐴𝐻𝑠𝐻𝑠 𝐻 𝐴𝐻 = 𝐴𝑅𝑠𝑠 𝐴𝐻 = 𝑅𝑥𝑥

ℎ11 2 0

ℎ11 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 0

0 ℎ22 0 0 0 ℎ22

𝐻𝑠 = 𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 2

0 0 ℎ33 0 0 0 ℎ33 0

0 0 0 ℎ44 2

0 0 0 ℎ44

Nicolae Crisan

Conclusions

• Modern antenna is actively involved in a complex

MIMO communications system

• Could mitigate efficiently radio channel fading

• Introduces an extra dimension that allows the wave

front selection and SNR or SIR improvements at the

receiver stage

• Antenna arrays have a great potential as sensors for

radio channel sensing, estimation or sounding

• 4G – (LTE and WiMAX) brings new antenna

techniques like beamforming and spatial multiplexing

Antennas&RFID sensors –

Nicolae Crisan 212

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