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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS,TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION


TECHNOLOGY

Antenna & RFID Sensors

Assoc. Prof. Nicolae CRISAN, PhD


Introduction
Microwaves band

- Radio Society of Great


Britain

2
Small antennas - Introduction
• In microstrip
technology
• Antenna pattern

3
Small Antennas for mobile phones
• Balanis

4
Antennas for macrocells
• Spatial
diversity
• CDF
• Gain

Antene pentru microunde - Nicolae 5


Crisan
Smart antennas - Introduction
• Network
design
• Optimization
with
Optimetrix
• In
reverberation
chamber

6
Smart spectrum analyzer up to 10
GHz
- C programmable ultra
portable spectrum
analyzer
- USB data exchange
- AAronia (Germany)

7
Ultra portable and programmable
Vector Network Analyzer kit
Specifications:
• Frequency range 1MHz – 3GHz
• Calibration using open-short-load for
accurate results
• Range of Z from 1 to 1000 ohm
• Two ports VNA with S11 and
S21; displayed and save results
• RF Generator with output power of -6dBm
@ 500 MHz
• Powered from USB
• SMA connectors for better isolation
• Dynamic range – up to 70 dB @ 500 MHz
• Boot loader for future firmware upgrades
• User friendly interface for PC Windows,
Linux and Mac
• Integrated Smith chart in software
• Android Mobile Phone software
• Export data in several formats JPEG, 8
EXCEL, ZPLOT, S2P, PDF
LEAT- ASL Antennas
- Microstrip antenna for:
- 3G & 4G systems UMTS & LTE
- Wireless Network sensors
- Array antennas measurements for
LTE systems simulation and arrays
processing in MATLAB

9
Texas instruments embedded kit
- 868-915 MHz
- 433-442 MHz
- 2.4-2.5 GHz
- C programmable
- Antenna testing

Antene pentru microunde - Nicolae 10


Crisan
Smart packet sniffer

11
RFID - Sensors

12
RFID – For deposit management

13
ASL - RFIDs

14
GPS – Sensors on RASPBERRY PI 3-B

15
Software defined radio - SDR

16
Open source GNU Radio under Linux – SDR –
Concatenated coding and OFDM for WiMAX

17
Examples: LTE Antenna beamforming effect over the
64QAM constellation
% Set PDSCH beamforming
vector
if (ntx==1)
% Use equal
transmission gains for each
antenna
rmc.PDSCH.W = [17 17
17 17]/34;
else
% Beamforming vector
matched to channel response
rmc.PDSCH.W = [17 8-
15*1i -8+15*1i 15+8*1i]/34;
end

18
Powerful FEM simulator

- HFSS v13
- Small scale simulation
- Antenna design in
microwave
- Simulations
- Optimization
- Antenna
parameterization
- Implementation
- Laboratory works
- Semester thesis
- Dissertation

19
Powerful FEM/SYS simulator

- ADS v2013.06
- Systems
- Simulations
- Array network design
- Implementation
- 15 licenses for ASL use
only

20
FEKO – Momentum/FEM
• Large scale antenna
modeling
• Automotive
• Radar

21
Compact yet powerful FEM/SYS
simulator
- SystemVue v2013.01
- Systems simulations
- Array network design
- Implementation
- Semester Thesis
- Dissertations

22
Academic SYS simulator

- Matlab vR2014a
- LTE Systems
- Simulations
- Array network design
- Toolboxes:
- LTE system toolbox
- Phased Array System
toolbox
- Semester Thesis
- Dissertations

23
Multiband
GSM / 3G / LTE
antenna design example
Targeted Parameters:
• S11 <-6dB in each band
• Antenna radiation efficiency >80%

Notes:
•The feeding and ground pins have arbitrary positions
•To avoid a large capacitance between the two GND planes on the main PCB many viases can be drawn arbitrary
•The antenna material can be copper
•Antenna bending is allowed. Freedom to choose its size.
•Parasitic elements can be applied on one face or the other of the vertical PCB to extend bandwidth
•Minimum antenna copper widths >0.5mm
•Use parameters for antenna elements size ->Optimetrics can be used to fine-tune the antenna
GSM / 3G antenna 824 – 960 MHz &1710 – 2170 MHz

Problem 1:
Design a dual band IFA antenna on the vertical PCB from the below picture

PCB – FR4 (thickness: 1,6mm; εr= 4.4; loss tangent= 0.02; 2 ground layers top and bottom on main PCB)

60mm

20mm 125mm

85mm
Antenna design for automotive challenge – Continental Timisoara

- Career opportunities : The easiest way is to …

- Write scientific
papers in journals
(easy!)

- to accept challenges like


this one and find some
innovative solutions (hard!)

27
Antenna coordinates

• PHI & THETA relationships


- Every point in its
surrounding is pointed
by the position vector r
- The magnitude
- The inclination (Theta)
- The azimuth (Phi)

- It is used for antenna pattern plotting in


3D or 2D (using sections through 3D plot)

28
• Antenna feed terminal

- The dipole antenna

29
EM wave

30
E field along the transmission line

• There is a mutual coupling


between the two line

• When the coupling decreses


the wire begin to radiate
through air

• E & H fields can generate


one another in a self
sustained manner

31
- Front wave is perpendicular to the direction of propagation

60 Pt
E  2 Erms
R

Erms is the root mean square of E field

32
33
Pattern along the three regions

34
Antenna basics

- A critical device present in each wireless system


- Energy converter (reciprocal)
- Two important distinct regions of the field
2𝐷2
- Near (ends at )
(is interesting for fields
𝜆
applicators in medicine)
- Far (here we are going to work in
communications and radar field)

35
Antenna parameters

1. Imput impedance
2. Bandwidth
3. Radiation pattern
4. Beamwidth
5. Imput impedance vs radiation
6. Polarization
7. Equivalent area, Gain and Directivity
8. SWAP – Size weight and power

36
Antenna parameters
1. Input impedance
Is a measure of the total opposition to the current flow and is evaluating
by two components (real + imaginary)
1 
Z in  Z 0  R  jX
1 
1 
VSVR  1 Voltage standing wave ratio
1   RL [ dB ]
10 20
1
VSWR   RL [ dB ]
RLdB  20 lg  return loss 10 20
1

 RL [ dB ]
Reflection coefficient
  10 20

37
Impedance matching (Important!)

- 𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0 possible only at resonance


- 𝑍𝑔 = 𝑍0 more realistic condition
- 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝑅 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛_𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑛𝑎 idealistic
- Mismatching leads to losses
- Insertion loss (generator/cable)
- Return loss (cable/antenna)

38
• Insertion loss

Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of power received at the end of the line and
transmitted power source line. It is a size that characterizes the line in terms of
losses incurred by the applied signal. In decibels losses are estimated to be as
small as possible (0 dB). Its determination taken into account final length of the
transmition line, so the effective value is expressed in terms of the line length in
dB / m and is positive (the argument of the logarithm lower than one).

𝑃
𝐼𝐿[𝑑𝐵] = −10𝑙𝑔 𝑃𝑅> 0
𝑇

39
• Return loss

Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of power received at the end of the line and
transmitted power source line. It is a size that characterizes the line in terms of
losses incurred by the applied signal. In decibels losses are estimated to be as
small as possible (0 dB). Its determination taken into account final length of the
transmition line, so the effective value is expressed in terms of the line length in
dB / m and is positive (the argument of the logarithm lower than one).

𝑅𝐿[𝑑𝐵] = −10𝑙𝑔 Γ = −10𝑙𝑔𝑆11 > 0

S11 is named in HFSS!

40
Relations between return loss, SWR and reflection coefficient
Convertion table: RL,
SWR and Г

Antenna matching through the load - Tektronics

41
2. Bandwidth

42
Calculation of the antenna frequency band by using the RL
if an antenna has two resonant frequencies (dual band)

43
3. Radiation pattern
An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is defined as “a mathematical function
or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function
of space coordinates. In most cases, the radiation pattern is determined in the far-field
region and is represented as a function of the directional coordinates.

Directivity

D ,   
puterea radiata pe unitatea de unghi solid

puterea medie pe unitatea de unghi solid
dPrad d dP d
 4 rad
Prad 4 Prad

d  sin  d d

44
Antenna pattern examples

- Its shape depends by the


antenna gain

45
46
Example – Pyramidal horn antenna simulated in HFSS

47
4. Beamwidth
-The beamwidth of a pattern is defined as the angular separation between two identical
points
on opposite sides of the pattern maximum (Pmax – 3 dB HPBW).

SLL-Side
lobes level

Polar and cartezian plot


48
5. Radiation impedance vs input impedance
Definition
Expression of the antenna radiation resistance is equal, by definition, to
the ratio between the average effective radiated power and average value
of the current that runs through the antenna.

Pr Pd
Rr  2 2 Rin  Rr  2 2
I0 I0

P  Pd  2 j WH  WE 
2
36,565 I 0
Rin  r  2  73,13 
I 0 I 0* 2 I0
2

Pd 0
Rin  Rr  2  Rr  - For a dipole (unfolded)
I0
2
8 .r0

  6,6 x10 6 meters

49
• Impedance along the dipol

50
6. Polarization

•The antenna is responsible for the direction and orientation of the vector E (electric field intensity)
since the wave is generated in the near field region. If the vector is acting in the horizontal plane, the wave
is horizontally polarized, and if it is in the vertical plane, polarization is vertical.

- Nowadays are used more specific polarization usually involves


turning the electric field so that two orthogonal components Etheta
and Efi, rotate the tip of E vector. It can describe a circle or an
ellipse. Between the two components there is a phase shift which
usually distinguish: if phase shift between Eteta and Efi is minus 90
degrees, the two components have equal modules and E vector tip
describes a circle, we are dealing with a circular polarization. If the
two components meet a phase shift of 180 degrees, we are dealing
with a linear polarization. Ultimately, if the phase shift has any other
value, different from the two previous cases, we have an elliptical
polarization.

51
Polarization: elliptical, circular and linear

52
7. Equivalent area (aperture) and the gain
The power capturing characteristics of the antenna when a wave impinges on it. The
ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna to the power flux
density of a plane wave incident on the.

PR   R AeR

PR is the electric power converted by the antenna at its terminals

R is the power density from its proximity

53
DT and DR are the antenna directivities of transmitter and receiver respectively and AeT
and AeR are equivalet areas of them.

PT DT
 R  0 DT 
4R 2

4 Aem
D
2

PT 4 4
G  D rad  D   rad Aem   Ae
PRF  2
 2

- Aem phisical area of aperture


- dB measures the gain but without a reference is useless

- dBi relative to isotropic antenna


- dBd relative to half wave dipole antenna (0 dBd=2.15 dBi)
- dBq relative to quarter wave monopole antenna (0 dBq=0.85 dBi)

54
8. SWAP – Size weight and power

Is related to the antenna optimization to the environment and application


Is very much dependent by:
- Application constriction
- Environmental constriction
- Standard and regulation constrictions

SWAP is taken into consideration especially for


designing low cost devices

- HFSS uses Optimetrix for SWAP problems


- five design scenarios

55
Microstrip antenna technologies
1. Patch antenna
USAGE
It is one of the most common enspecialy at microwave frequencies where wireless
equipments work (mobile phones, WiFi networks, laptops and so on).

Patch microstrip antenna- a. Vertical section, b. Top view

56
•Designing the patch
There are two methods that stands for the microstrip size calculation: lines model and
cavity model. The most used is the first which sees the antenna as an open transmition
line.

Line transmission model – a. Section through the dielectric, b. With two


admitances at both sides
57
120 h
Z0  - Characteristic impedance
W  eff

1 2
r 1  r 1 12h  - Effective dielectric permitivity
 eff   1  
2 2  W 

W2
G pentru W  0 - Load conductance
9002

W2
G pentru W  0
12002

 0 L  eff - Load susceptance


B
Z0

58
  eff  0,3  W h   0,264
L  0,412h  - corections
  eff  0,258  W h   0,8
 

g 0
L  2L   - Line must be lengthen with something
2 2  eff

c - Resonance
fr 
2  eff L  L 

1 / 2
c   r 1 - Line width
W   
2 fr  2 

59
Exemple – Design a microstrip patch antenna at 1.6 GHz on a FR4 PCB with
electric permitivity εr = 4.4 having the thickness h = 1.524 mm. The fed line of the
antenna has 50 ohms characteristic impedance. After the antenna dimention
match the antenna to the 50 ohm characteristic impedance of the fed line.

c
0   18,69 cm
fr

0   r  1  1 / 2
W     5,7 cm
2  2 
1 2
r 1  r 1 12h 
 eff   1    4,2
2 2  W 

  eff  0,3  W h   0,264


L  0,412h   0,7 mm
  eff  0,258  W h   0,8
 

60
0
L  2L  4,43 cm
2  eff

4502
Rin   486 ohmi
2
W

Matching method with a quarter wave line

61
• Feeding methods

Input impedance has a real value only at the resonance, this value depends by the conductance
value from its sides. Mostly the main problem emerges due to the mismatch between the feeding line
and the input impedance of the antenna. In this case a matching impedance must be consider using
stubs on microstrip PCB. Another technique is to resize the width W of the antenna to match the 50
ohms characteristic impedance of the feeding line.
The antenna admittance is of the form:

W2
Yin  2G 
4502
4502
Z in  Rin   50 Ω.
2
W

62
In order to obtain an input impedance of 50 ohms : W  0,95....1,20

Or taking into account the microstrip thickness :

 
W  h g ln  g / h  1  

A microtrip patch antenna usually has a reduced aperture even though its radiation efficiency is very high
(tends to the unity). When W increases the antenna gain will increase, as well. When we can not modify the W
parameter the inset feeding method is an option to keep the impedance matching. The inset feeding technique
exploit the variation of the impedance along the antenna (along z axes) variation that follows a co-sinusoidal
law :

 z 
Rin _ inset  Rin cos 2   Where z is the inset coordinate along the antenna length
 L  referring to one of its end

63
This program interface shows this variation of
the impedance along the length of the antenna
with z.

- inset feed in Ansoft designer)

 Rin _ inset 
L 1  
z cos
  Rin 
 

64
• Asymmetric feed line
method
If d is the smallest distance from the edge then the
input admittance could be equated as follows:

1
   eff  G 2  B 2   eff 
Yin  2G cos 2  2 d  sin 2  4 d 
    Y02   
  0   0 

Where G and B are conductance and susceptance (measured in Siemens)


respectively from its ends

Y = G+jB

2  eff
B L
g Z0

65
•Ansoft interface – Ansoft Designer is the own
by the Ansys Coorporation

66
Types of antenna feeding techniques a. coaxial fed b. EM fed

67
Electric field along the patch

b. Inset fed with coaxial line

Electric field bends to the antenna sides making it to looks longer from electric point of view. Voltage wave is
maximum at the ends and the current into the middle. Radiation tends to its maximum in the middle where the
current is maximum too.

68
•slot coupled antennas

A slot can be used every time the line couldn’t be attached phisically to the patch.

Geometry of the slot can match the input impedance

• VSWR controll

69
S11 vs frequency

70
From figure we can approximate antenna bandwidth at 18 MHz. The size of the slot can modify the WSVR
value.

S11 vs frequency (zooming)

71
S11 on Smith chart

•The closer to the origin the better

72
3D directivity using wire-frame method Slot cupled

73
•Half patch antenna – PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna
- In the middle the input impedance is zero.
- Symmetry
- Cut the right side and use a short circuit into the middle to force a null
- We can shorten the antenna to the half (quarter wavelength)

74
- Half patch antenna in HFSS

75
•Left or right handed polarization

- Feeding methods for RHP or LHP

- Quadrature hybrid coupler

76
•SAR – Specific absorption rate

- Is a measure of the amount of energy which is absorbed by a


human tissue (body) when it is exposes to a radio wave.

- Units [W/Kg].

- Calculation
𝜎 𝑟 𝐸 𝑟 2
SAR= 𝑑𝑟
𝜌 𝑟

-𝜌 𝑟 tissue density
- 𝐸 𝑟 2 electric field (RMS)
-σ 𝑟 electrical conductivity

Ex. For a SAR=2W/Kg there is a temperature increase with 1 grad


Celsius after 30 minutes of exposure.

77
- After 6 minutes of exposure

- Our concerns are mobile phones

- How can we proceed on with the experiments


under HFSS?

78
Estimate SAR with HFSS following the FCC – Federal
Communications Commission restrictions

79
Measurements and simulations comparisons of
SAR with HFSS

80
SAR – RMS

Normalized depth under the skin

81
Arrays

- EM antenna array

-A group of identic radiators through


which different magnitude and/or
phase currents flows

-Smart antennas

-When one can controlled by


software the magnitudes and the
phase of the current

82
-The very firs applications of
the EM arrays was in WWII

-Mammut hoarding radar

Modern applications
- avionics

83
- Equipment is at the cutting edge
of technological advanced
- In order to control the magnitude and phase for each radiator
the cutting edge of engineering is involving like DSP processing,
and software advanced algorithms. A sophisticated software
defined radio platform is the key.
84
Our technology

The SDR boards from


Sundance and Texas
instruments based on the most
advanced still cheep DSP’s.

85
•A smart antenna is comprised by more arrays of identical radiators (small
antennas) which are connected by means of coaxial or microstrip lines. In the far
field region the resulting field emerges under the effect of the superposition effect
of each radiator.
•With the help of these lines the direction of the radiation is under the control of
the signal delay and gain (complex weights) along each path.

Conclusions
• The array could be linear (ULA-
Uniform linear array) most simple,
rectangular or circular (geometry)
• To be “smart”, there must be
some processing involved before
signal summation

86
•Antenna feeding network for ULA

87
• ULA-Uniform linear array

- There is a phase differences between elements


- Along the front wave the waves are in phase so the
direction of the propagation have to make an angle
theta that depend by the delay on each path.

88
• Retele de antene de tip array linear

•The radiators (array elements) are identical


and omnidirectional

- Path differences between rays

2𝜋𝑑 cos 𝜃0
𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 = - Equivalent phase difference
𝜆
between two consecutive
elements

89
• ULA – Superposition effect of the fields

𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟1 − 𝛿1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟2 − 𝛿2
= 𝐸1 + 𝐸2
4𝜋 𝑟1 4𝜋 𝑟2
𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛽 𝑟𝑁 − 𝛿𝑁
+ … + 𝐸𝑁
4𝜋 𝑟𝑁
E is the magnitude of the electric field

𝑁
𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝛽 𝑟
𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑓 𝜃, 𝜓 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 + 𝛿
4𝜋 𝑟
𝑖=1

Assumptions:

𝛿1 = 𝛿2 = ⋯ = 𝛿𝑁 = 𝛿 Equal phase differences


𝑟1 = 𝑟2 = ⋯ = 𝑟𝑁 = 𝑟 Only for the denominator
90
• Array factors & pattern for N elements

𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝛽 𝑟
𝐸𝐹 = 𝑓 𝜃, 𝜓 element pattern or element factor
4𝜋 𝑟

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 + 𝛿 pattern multiplication or array factor


𝑖=1

𝑁−1
𝐴𝐹 = 𝑘=0 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗𝑘𝜑 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2 +…+𝑒 𝑗𝜑𝑁

91
• ULA - Phase array
𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐸𝐹 ∗ 𝐴𝐹

- EF is related to the element


geometry which means that is
constant

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2 +…+𝑒 𝑗𝜑𝑁


𝜑𝑖 = 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 + 𝛿
𝜋
𝜑 = 𝛽𝑑 cos 𝜃0 = 𝛽𝑑 cos − 𝜃
2

IF: 𝛿 = −𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 Then: 𝜑𝑖 = 0


Input/output
𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙_𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐸𝐹 ∗ 𝑁

When phase difference is −𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 then the main lobe is beam
steered (is controlled) through 𝑛
92
•Linear array with two elements

-The most fundamental and simplest array


Assumptions:
- 𝑟 ≫𝑑
- 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , 𝑟 are parallel
- the phase reference is in the middle
𝛿
- The left phase is − 2
𝛿
- The right phase is 2
- 𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 phase difference

d
𝑟1 ≈ 𝑟 + sin 𝜃 Distance
2 vectors
d
𝑟2 ≈ 𝑟 − sin 𝜃 magnitude
2

93
• Phase array

𝛿 𝛿
−𝑗 𝑗
-the phasor current in element 1 is 𝐼1 = 𝐼0 𝑒 2 and for the second is 𝐼2 = 𝐼0 𝑒 2

𝐼1 𝐼2

94
•Example – two elements array

d - is antenna spacing
The wave front is coming under theta angle from the right

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2
𝛽𝑑 𝜋 𝛽𝑑 𝜋
−𝑗 cos −𝜃 𝑗 cos −𝜃
𝐴𝐹0 = 𝑒 2 2 +𝑒 2 2
Wave front

𝑛
𝛽𝑑 𝛿 𝛽𝑑 𝛿
−𝑗 2 sin 𝜃−2 𝑗 2 sin 𝜃−2
𝑟2 AF = 𝑒 + 𝑒
𝑎2 𝜃 𝑎1

𝜃 𝜃0
𝐴𝐹0 𝛽𝑑 𝛿
d
𝛿 𝛿 sin 𝜃 − = 0

2 2 2 2
0 𝑟1

−𝑑 2 𝑑 2
AF 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 = 𝛿
Trough receiver

95
•N elements uniform linear array

- All elements are identical and equally spaced and excitations


are equally weight
- Assuming the far field condition: 𝑟 𝑖 ≫ 𝑑
- Reference is taken at the left element

96
•N elements uniform linear array

𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒 𝑗𝜑1 + 𝑒 𝑗𝜑2 +…+𝑒 𝑗𝜑𝑁 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 = 𝛿

𝐴𝐹 = 1 + 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 + 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗2 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 + ⋯ + 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑁 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿

𝑈𝜃 = 𝐸𝐹 ∗ 𝐴𝐹 = AF ∗ sin2 𝜃 Antenna pattern for a dipoles array

𝑁 𝑁
𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛼
𝑖=1 𝑖=1

It is aVandermode vector of the form( 1 𝑧 𝑧 2 … 𝑧 𝑁−1 )

Is a matrix of the form:

𝑇
𝑎 θ = 1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 … . . 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑁 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿

97
•N elements uniform linear array

𝑎 θ - the array steering vector


- array propagation vector
- array response vector
- array manifold vector
- array vector
𝑁 𝑁
𝐴𝐹 = 𝑖=1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 = 𝑖=1 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝑖−1 𝛼

- Geometric sequence

𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝛿 = exp(jα) - Common ratio

98
•N elements uniform linear array

𝑁 𝑁 𝑁
𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 𝛼
𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗𝑁𝛼 − 1 2 2 2
𝐴𝐹 = =
𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗𝛼 − 1 𝛼 𝛼 𝛼
𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 2 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 2 − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑗 2

𝛼 𝛼 𝛼
Knowing that: 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 = cos + 𝑗 sin
2 2 2

𝑁
𝑁−1 sin 𝛼 - The term encircled with red is
𝐴𝐹 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑗 𝛼 2
𝛼 1, whenever the reference is in
2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 the middle of the array

99
•N elements uniform linear array

𝛼
sin 𝑁 2
𝐴𝐹 = 𝛼 - The maximum value is N
𝑠𝑖𝑛 2

𝛼 𝛼
𝑠𝑖𝑛 ≈ When alpha is small
2 2

𝛼
𝐴𝐹 sin 𝑁 - Normalized array factor
𝐴𝐹𝑛 = = 2
𝑁 𝛼 - Maximum is 1
𝑁2

100
- Operation modes

BROADSIDE -The most common mode of operation for a linear


array is in the broadside mode in which 𝛿 = 0 (all elements are in
phase)

- the maximum radiation is broadside to the array geometry

𝑑 𝑑
-AF for four elements array 𝜆
= 1 (left) and 𝜆
= 0,75 (right) 101
- Operation modes

BROADSIDE -The most common mode of operation for a linear


array is in the broadside mode in which 𝛿 = 0 (all elements are in
phase)

- the maximum radiation is broadside to the array geometry

𝑑 𝑑
-AF for four elements array 𝜆
= 0.5 (left) and 𝜆
= 0.25 (right) 102
END-FIRE mode - The name end-fire indicates that this
array’s maximum radiation is along the axis containing
the array elements. Thus, maximum radiation is “out the
end” of the array.

103
- Four elements array in the same condition as previous
ones

It should be noted that the mainlobe width for the ordinary end-fire
case is much greater than the mainlobe width for the broadside case.

𝛿 = −𝛽𝑑 Phase condition for end-fire array

104
Corectia Hansen-Woodyard

An increased directivity end-fire array has been developed by Hansen-


Woodyard
𝜋
𝛿 = −𝛽𝑑 −
𝑁

105
Hansen-Woodyard end-fire array with four
elements
𝜋 - Condition that tilt the main lobe to
𝛿 = 𝛽𝑑 −
𝑁 the right
106
• MATLAB example

N=4%number of elements
dpla=0.25%d/lambda
betad=2*pi*dpla;
fi=betad;%the phase for end-fire mode
figrd=(180*fi)/pi
i=1;
for teta = 0.0001:pi/180:2*pi
alf=betad*sin(teta)+fi;
X(i)=abs((2*sin((N*alf)/2))/(N*alf));
i =i+1;
end
teta = 0.0001:pi/180:2*pi;
polar(teta,X)%plot the AF pattern

107
- N elements BEAMSTEERED linear array

- the scanning angle is under controlled by means of the phase

108
Beamsteering example

Remark: The higher angle the worst directivity (or gain)

109
N-Elements uniform linear array directivity

Directivity - is a measure of the antennas


ability to selectively direct energy in certain
directions

when EF = 1

110
Plotting the directivity in MATLAB

Remark: The directivity is doubled for the END-FIRE mode


111
Homework
N=8%elements
CL = ['b' 'r' 'g' 'm'];%plot color
for j = 0:3
scangrd=j*30%scanning angle
dpla=.75%d/lambda
unghiscanrad=(pi*scangrd)/180;
i=1;
X=0:pi/180:pi;
F=@(x)((sin(((N/2)*pi*dpla*(cos(x)-cos(unghiscanrad))))/
((N/2)*pi*dpla*(cos(x)-cos(unghiscanrad))))^2)*2*pi*sin(x);%directivity formula
Q=quad(F,0,pi);
for teta = 0:pi/180:2*pi
dif = cos(teta)-cos(unghiscanrad);
root = pi*dpla*dif;
if root ~= 0
X(i)= (1/N)*(sin(N*root)/root);
X(i)=(4*pi*(X(i)^2))/Q;
else X(i)=4*pi/Q;
end
i =i+1;
end
teta = 0:pi/180:2*pi;
h(j+1)=polar(teta,X,CL(j+1));
set(h(j+1),'LineWidth',0.75*(4-j))
if j<3
hold on
else hold off
end
end
legend(h,{'end-fire 90grd','beamsteered 60grd',
'beamsteered 30grd','broadside 0grd'})
112
Beamforming using sidelobes suppresing

• The idea is to weight the RF current magnitude for each element


in order to suppress sidelobes
- For an even number of elements

113
2𝑀−1 1 1 2𝑀−1
−j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 −j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 j 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝐴𝐹𝑝𝑎𝑟 = 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 2 + ⋯+ 𝑤1 𝑒 2 + 𝑤1 𝑒 2 + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 2

𝑤𝑛 - real weights greater than zero 𝑛 = 1, 𝑀

2𝜋
𝛽= - phase constant
𝜆

𝑁 = 2𝑀 − 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠

- The main idea is to avoid 𝑒 −𝑗0 term by taking the reference point in
the middle of the array

114
- Taking into account two by two left and right symmetric
terms we have:
1
−𝑗2𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
1
𝑗 2𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 1
𝑤1 𝑒 + 𝑤1 𝑒 = 𝑤1 2 cos 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
2

𝑀 2𝑛 − 1
𝐴𝐹𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 = 2 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝑛=1 2

- After normalization:

𝑀 2𝑛 − 1
𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛 cos 2 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝐴𝐹𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 = 𝑀
𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛

115
- For an odd number of elements 𝑁 = 2𝑀 + 1

𝐴𝐹𝑜𝑑𝑑
= 𝑤𝑀+1 𝑒 −j𝑀𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + ⋯ + 𝑤2 𝑒 −j𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + 𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃 + + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝑀𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝑀+1
=2 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝑛 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝑛=1

116
- After normalization
𝑀+1
𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛 cos 𝑛 − 1 𝛽𝑑 sin 𝜃
𝐴𝐹𝑜𝑑𝑑 = 𝑀+1
𝑛=1 𝑤𝑛

117
Side lobes suppressing technique

Weights must meet some criteria!

𝐴𝐹𝑛 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑎 𝜃 𝑤 𝑇 𝑤𝑀 𝑤𝑀−1 … 𝑤1 … 𝑤𝑀−1 𝑤𝑀

First criterion is to minimize the sidelobes

Second is to place nulls at certain angles

118
PASCAL triangle

𝑛
𝑎+𝑏 = 𝑎 𝑛 + +𝐶𝑛1 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏 + 𝐶𝑛2 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑏2 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑛

119
Example - Using side lobe suppressing technique find the weights that cancel out
the side lobes for an array with N=8.

120
•This program can be used each time one
uses sidelobes canceling criterion no matter
what function stands for the weights
generation.

121
122
• Antenna as a sensor – AoA and channel
parameter estimation

•Is about finding the angles under each front comes to the
array.

• The more elements the better estimation from resolution point


of view

•The result is in a matrix AoA of 1xD, where D is the total number of


arriving wave fronts. Matrix AoA containing the angle for each wave
front.

123
•Auto-correlation matrix

𝑤 𝑇 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 … 𝑤𝑀

𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘

𝑠1 𝑘
𝑠2 𝑘
𝑥 𝑘 = 𝑎 𝜃1 𝑎 𝜃2 …𝑎 𝜃𝐷 ⋮ +𝑛 𝑘
k – sample index
𝑠𝐷 𝑘
= 𝐴𝑠 𝑘 +𝑛 𝑘

𝑎𝑇 𝜃1 = 1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1
… 𝑒𝑗 𝑀−1 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1
124
•Example for three wave-fronts

1 1 1 𝑠1
𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠2
𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗2𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠3

- When the phase reference is at the side of the array

𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠1


𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤 𝑇 𝑥𝑘 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 1 1 1 𝑠2
𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃3 𝑠3

- When the phase reference is in the middle of the array

125
𝑅𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸 𝑥 𝑥 𝐻 = 𝐸 𝐴𝑠 + 𝑛 𝑠 𝐻 𝐴𝐻 + 𝑛𝐻 - Auto-corellation matrix

𝑥𝐻 - Hermitian of 𝑥 (transpose conjugate of 𝑥)

𝑅𝑥𝑥 = 𝐴𝐸 𝑠𝑠 𝐻 𝐴𝐻 + 𝐸 𝑛𝑛𝐻 = 𝐴𝑅𝑠𝑠 𝐴𝐻 + 𝑅𝑛𝑛

𝑅𝑥𝑥 [MxM] = [MxD] [DxD] [DxM] + [MxM]

𝐴 Array matrix

𝑅𝑠𝑠 Auto – correlation of the source

𝑅𝑛𝑛 Noise correlation matrix

Remark – It is imposible to calculate the auto-correlation matrix if we


126
consider the noise
Based on the received signal
𝐾
1
𝑅𝑥𝑥 ≈ 𝑥 𝑘 𝑥 𝐻𝑘
𝐾
𝑘=1

It works only when K (number of samples) is sufficiently higher

Is not enough !
The wave fronts must be decorelated to each other

127
Angle of arrival estimation (AoA)

• If the AoA is known at the receiver the array can cope with the frequency
selective fading using beamforming and beamsteering.

• If the AoA is determined the receiver can cancel some of the fronts placing a
NULL in its directions.

• A RADAR can determine the direction of the targets without rotating the
antenna.

The price!
The computational effort is very high
The complexity of the receiver increases
The use of signal processing techniques is a must

128
•Sensing the radio channel characteristic

- Impulse response of the radio channel

- Responses are known


in literature as:
-Fingers (rarely)
-Taps (very often)
-Returns (rarely)

129
Power delay profile

- In an urban environment

130
RMS – Delay Spread

- Mean Excess Delay

- RMS – Delay Spread

PT – multipath power gain

131
Angular profile

- Mean Arrival Angle

- RMS Angular Spread

PAP – Power Angular Profile


Table – LTE profile

Angle of arrival 132


•AoA – Bartlett estimation

- It is among the most simple to be implemented

𝑃𝑏 𝜃 = 𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

𝑃𝑏 𝜃 The probability to find the wave front in that


direction under theta angle

133
134
135
136
137
• Capone method
•This method is well known as Minimum Variance Distortionless
Response. Is about finding with the maximum probability (near one) one
of the wave front considering all others as interferers.

- Is based on SIR maximization method

138
𝑤 𝑇 = 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 … 𝑤𝑀

−1
𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃
𝑤= 𝐻 - Calculate the weights for
𝑎 𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃 direction theta to maximize the
power for that direction and
minimize the power for others

It leads to the following term:


1
𝑃𝐶 𝜃 =
𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

139
140
Finding the weights

141
• Linear prediction method

The main purpose of this method is to minimized the error between one
element and a specific one that is the reference for all others.

The reference element is identified using a Cartesian basis vector that


uses number one to mark the reference and zero for all others.

𝑢4𝑇 = 0 0 0 1 0 0 … . . 0

The estimation error is minimized if the reference is near the middle


of the array and the probability to find the incoming front in theta
direction is:

𝑇 𝑅 −1 𝑢
𝑢𝑚 𝑥𝑥 𝑚
𝑃𝑃𝐿𝑚 𝜃 = 2
𝑇 −1
𝑢𝑚 𝑅𝑥𝑥 𝑎 𝜃

142
143
• Burg method

This method is known as the maximum entropy model

1
𝑃𝐵𝑀𝑒𝑗 =
𝑎𝐻𝜃 𝑐𝑗 𝑐𝑗𝐻 𝑎 𝜃

where 𝑐𝑗 is the j’th column of the


−1 .
autocorrelation matrix inverse 𝑅𝑥𝑥

InvRx=inv(Rxx);
cj=InvRx(:,m)%genereaza coloana j

144
145
146
147
148
149
• Pisarenko method (harmonic decomposition)

- Is about the minimization of the mean square error taking into account
that the noise is decorelated with the direction from which the wave
fronts coming from. According to Pisarenko the estimation probability of
the incoming wave front under theta is:

1
𝑃𝑃𝐻𝐷 𝜃 =
𝑎𝐻 𝜃 𝑒1 2

where 𝑒1 is the eigenvector associated with the lowest eigenvalue 𝜆1 .

150
151
152
153
154
155
•Observatie

156
3 Adaptive (smart) antennas

• Adaptive antennas uses beamforming and beamsteering in order to adaptively


improve SNR or SIR parameters.

• Smart beamforming and beamsteering can be accomplished in two different


ways: in RF domain or IF domain. The former is using the RF
lines/amplifiers/atenuators (coaxial/microstrip) to alter the signal phase and signal
magnitude and the later is using the DSP.

•In IF domain the computational effort is important but leads to the best results.

157
3.1. RF domain array processing

• The adaptation methods in RF domain are very effective and cheap for
beamforming. For example the most simple and straight RF domain processing
is the side lobes suppressing method (with real weights).
• Further only the RF domain processing methods with complex weights will be
studied.

3.1.1. RF beamforming with Butler labirinth

•Butler discover a method to beamform the radiation of an array using four


hybrid quadrature couplers. No active circuits are required so the
processing is very cheap. Is now the most used RF processing for radio
cells.

158
159
The array factor will be:

3 1 1 3
−𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 −𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃 𝑗 𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃
𝐴𝐹𝑘 = 𝑤𝑘1 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘2 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘3 𝑒 2 + 𝑤𝑘4 𝑒 2

The weights are from the previous table:

3𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
−𝑗 4 −𝑗 4 −𝑗 2
𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒 ; 𝑤𝑘2 = 𝑒 −𝑗𝜋 ; 𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒 ; 𝑤𝑘1 = 𝑒

160
161
There are many possibilities to achieved beamforming by change the
position of the -45 degree delay line or its value.

162
Antene pentru microunde - Nicolae 163
Crisan
- Hybrid quadrature coupler can be simulated in HFSS, ADS or
SysVue in order to counteract the effect of losses in dielectric and
balance the paths against the imbalance effect of the mutual coupling
between the lines.

164
165
166
167
•Smart beamforming

•There are to types of smart beamforming


ABF – Analog beamforming (in time domain)
DBF – Digital beamforming (in frequency domain)

Both of them are demanding a pre-processing step in which case the auto-
correlation matrix must be captured.

For both the post-processing step could be done online or offline

The main difference is related to the fact that the former proceeds in time domain
and the latter in frequency domain.

The math is similar for both

168
169
- ABF uses transmition lines
- DBF uses DSP’s

The most common beamforming technique is spatial selection


between the beams that are following different paths and arriving
from different directions
170
- First step starts with the calculation of the AoA using a
technique presented in previous chapter
- The second step is resolving a linear equations systems

𝐴𝑜𝐴 = [𝜃1 𝜃2 𝜃3 … . 𝜃𝐷 ]

- Let assume that the antenna looks through 𝜃1 direction


- This means AF(𝜃1 ) =1 and for the any other 𝜃2 𝜃3 … . 𝜃𝐷
directions AF=0

𝑦 𝑡 = 𝑤1 𝑥1(𝑡) + 𝑤1 𝑥2(𝑡) + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑥𝑀(𝑡)

171
𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1
+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1
=1
𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2
+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2
=0

𝑤1 + 𝑤2 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝐷
+ ⋯ + 𝑤𝑀 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝐷
=0

𝑥1 + 𝑎1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎M−1 𝑥M = 1
𝑥1 + 𝑏1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑏M−1 𝑥M = 0 Zero Forcing algorithm (in LTE

𝑥1 + 𝑐1 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑐M−1 𝑥M = 0 standard)

𝑤𝐻 𝐴 = 𝑢1 𝑇 -matricial form ; 𝑢1 𝑇 Cartesian basis vector

𝑤𝐻 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑇 𝐴−1 - The solution we are looking for

de t( 𝐴) ≠ 0 - The expected condition


172
•Remark

•If 𝐴−1 does not exist we must increase M or modify the array
spacing

𝑤𝐻 = 𝑢𝑖𝑇 𝐴𝐻 𝐴𝐴𝐻 + 𝜎𝑛2 𝐼𝑀 −1 - A better approximation of


weights in the present of noise

173
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• MMSE (Minimum mean-square error) beamforming

•The main idea here is to minimize the MMSE error as much as possible

179
- 𝑑(𝑘) is the reference sample and must be decorelated with the
interference signal and correlated with selected signal 𝑠𝑖

180
- The optimal weights can be found as:

𝑤𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐸 = 𝑆𝑠(𝑘) 𝑅𝑥𝑥 −1 𝑎


𝜃𝑠

where:
- 𝑆𝑠(𝑘) is the normalized energy of selected
wave front,
- 𝑅𝑥𝑥 , correlation matrix at the receiver
(MxM)
- 𝑎(𝜃𝑠 ) array vector along direction under 𝜃𝑠
angle

181
182
183
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• SIR maximization

- The main idea is the maximization of SIR (Signal to interference


ratio)
- It is useful when the selected front is heavily disrupted by the
interference signal (under radio traffic jam)

- We can make distinction between correlation matrix


for useful front and correlation matrix of the
interference fronts

𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸 𝑥𝑠 𝑥𝑠𝐻

185
𝑦 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥𝑠 𝑘 + 𝑥𝑖 𝑘 +𝑛 𝑘 = 𝑤𝐻 𝑥𝑠 𝑘 +𝑢 𝑘

- 𝑘 current sample,
- 𝑢 𝑘 all interference signals with noise
- 𝑛 𝑘 noise for k sample
- 𝑤𝐻 complex weights

𝑅𝑢𝑢 = 𝐸 𝑥𝑖 𝑥𝑖𝐻 + 𝑅𝑛𝑛 = 𝑅𝑖𝑖 + 𝑅𝑛𝑛

𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸 𝑥𝑠 𝑥𝑠𝐻

−1
𝑅𝑢𝑢 𝑅𝑠𝑠 𝑤𝑆𝐼𝑅 - Where 𝑤𝑆𝐼𝑅 is the eigenvector of
𝑤𝑜𝑝𝑡 = −1 𝑅 that corresponds
the matrix 𝑅𝑢𝑢
𝜆𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠𝑠
to the maximum eigenvalue 𝜆𝑚𝑎𝑥
186
187
188
189
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191
192
Array antenna over MIMO channels

- Complex gains of the MIMO channel (channel matrix)


- Motivation of MIMO (probably the best way to increase the received power)

193
MIMO – Beam forming using complex weight coefficients

194
Receiver-Combining Methods

Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) and Selection Combining (SC)

ℎ1
ℎ2
ℎ3 𝑦 4
𝐸𝑠 2
𝛾= ℎ𝑖
ℎ4 𝑁
𝑖=1

ℎ1 𝑥1 ℎ1 𝑦1 𝑥1 ℎ1
ℎ 𝑥1 ℎ2 𝑦 𝑥1 ℎ2
𝑦 = 𝐻 𝑡 𝑥1 = 2 𝑥1 = = 𝑦2 𝑦=𝐻 ∗ 𝑦 = ℎ1∗ ℎ2∗ ℎ3∗ ℎ4∗
ℎ3 𝑥1 ℎ3 3 𝑥1 ℎ3
ℎ4 𝑥1 ℎ4 𝑦4
𝑥1 ℎ4

195
Autocorrelation matrix – LTE channel model

196
LTE – structure in time domain

197
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LTE – Resource grid in frequency domain

199
Array antenna – channel matrix estimation

200
Channel estimation 2x2 MIMO

n – sample index

201
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Transmit antenna diversity 2x2 mod 2 LTE - Alamouti

203
Transmit antenna diversity 2x2, 4x4 mod 2 LTE

204
Alamouti - decoder

but

- Pairs of
consecutive
sequences

- When channel is
assumed to be static
during n and n+1

205
Rank-Deficiency Problem
- X transmitted signal
- H channel matrix
- Y received signal
- n the noise

𝐻 ≠ 0 ; is a must

Antennas&RFID sensors – 206


Nicolae Crisan
The Solution for the Rank-Deficiency problem

- X transmitted signal
- H channel matrix
- V precoding matrix
- Y received signal
- n the noise

Precoding matrices for two transmit


antennas in LTE spatial multiplexing

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Nicolae Crisan
Zero-Forcing LTE receiver (ZF-receiver/MxN MIMO)

𝑌(𝑛) = 𝐻𝑋(𝑛) + 𝑛 With the solution 𝑋(𝑛) =𝐻 −1 (𝑌(𝑛) - 𝑛)

Minimum Means Square Error LTE receiver (MMSE-receiver)

𝐺𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐸 = 𝐻 𝐻 𝐻𝐻 𝐻 + 𝜎𝑛2 𝐼𝑀 −1
𝑤𝐻 = 𝑢𝑖𝑇 𝐴𝐻 𝐴𝐴𝐻 + 𝜎𝑛2 𝐼𝑀 −1

𝑌(𝑛) [Nx1] – received signal 𝐻 [MxN] - channel matrix

𝑋(𝑛) [Mx1] – transmitted signal 𝐺𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐸 [NxM] – optimum coefficients matrix

With the solution 𝑋(𝑛) =𝐺𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐸 (𝑌(𝑛) - 𝑛)

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Nicolae Crisan
Example: What is the condition necessary to have 𝑅𝑥𝑥 = 𝐻 𝐻 𝐻 where 𝐻 is the channel
matrix of the channel complex gains and 𝐻 𝐻 its transpose conjugate.

ℎ11
ℎ11 ℎ12 ℎ13 ℎ14
ℎ ℎ22 ℎ23 ℎ24
𝐻 = 21
ℎ31 ℎ32 ℎ33 ℎ34 ℎ22
ℎ41 ℎ42 ℎ43 ℎ44

ℎ33

ℎ44

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Nicolae Crisan
ℎ11 ℎ22 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃2 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗3𝜃3
ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗𝜃1 ℎ22 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3
𝐻=
ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃1 ℎ22 𝑒 𝑗𝜃2 ℎ33 ℎ44 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3
ℎ11 𝑒 𝑗3𝜃1 ℎ22 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃2 ℎ33 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 ℎ44

1 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃2 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 𝑒 −𝑗3𝜃3 ℎ11 0 0 0


𝑒 𝑗𝜃1
1 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 0 ℎ22 0 0
𝐴 = 𝑗2𝜃 𝐻𝑠 =
𝑒 1 𝑒 𝑗𝜃2 1 𝑒 −𝑗𝜃3 0 0 ℎ33 0
𝑒 𝑗3𝜃1 𝑒 𝑗2𝜃2 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜃3 1 0 0 0 ℎ44

𝐻 = 𝐴𝐻𝑠

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Nicolae Crisan
𝐻 𝐻 𝐻 =𝐴𝐻𝑠𝐻𝑠 𝐻 𝐴𝐻 = 𝐴𝑅𝑠𝑠 𝐴𝐻 = 𝑅𝑥𝑥

ℎ11 2 0
ℎ11 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0
0 ℎ22 0 0 0 ℎ22
𝐻𝑠 = 𝑅𝑠𝑠 = 2
0 0 ℎ33 0 0 0 ℎ33 0
0 0 0 ℎ44 2
0 0 0 ℎ44

Set the conditions required:

𝐴𝑜𝐴 = [ 𝜃1 𝜃2 𝜃3 𝜃4 ] maximum four decorelated fronts

Antennas&RFID sensors – 211


Nicolae Crisan
Conclusions
• Modern antenna is actively involved in a complex
MIMO communications system
• Could mitigate efficiently radio channel fading
• Introduces an extra dimension that allows the wave
front selection and SNR or SIR improvements at the
receiver stage
• Antenna arrays have a great potential as sensors for
radio channel sensing, estimation or sounding
• 4G – (LTE and WiMAX) brings new antenna
techniques like beamforming and spatial multiplexing
Antennas&RFID sensors –
Nicolae Crisan 212