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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST – CALOOCAN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Power Factor Correction


Experiment No. 8

GROUP 2

Submitted to:
Engr. Sinforoso D. Cimatu Jr.

Submitted by:
Kimberly S. Pambid

NEE 322 – 2EC Date Performed: March 01, 2017


20141163033 Date Submitted: March 15, 2017
1. From the data of Table 8.1, calculate for the Power Factor (P.F.), power
delivered to the load (PLoad) and power loss (PLoss) in the line using the
formulas below:
P.F.= cosθT PLoad = VLITcosθT PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1)

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

P.F.= cosθT P.F.= cosθT P.F.= cosθT


P.F.= cos54˚ P.F.= cos43.2˚ P.F.= cos28.8˚
P.F.= 0.59 P.F.= 0.73 P.F.= 0.88

PLoad = VLITcosθT PLoad = VLITcosθT PLoad = VLITcosθT


PLoad = (5.5V)(18.7mA) cos54˚ PLoad = (5.6V)(16mA) cos43.2˚ PLoad = (5.6V)(13.44mA) cos28.8˚
PLoad = 80.24mW PLoad = 85.14mW PLoad = 85.72mW

PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1) PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1) PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1)


PLoss = 18.7mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω) PLoss = 16mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω) PLoss = 13.44mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω)
PLoss = 4.52mW PLoss = 3.31mW PLoss = 2.32mW

Trial 6
Trial 4 Trial 5

P.F.= cosθT
P.F.= cosθT P.F.= cosθT
P.F.= cos-54˚
P.F.= cos-3.60˚ P.F.= cos-36˚
P.F.= 0.59
P.F.= 0.99 P.F.= 0.81

PLoad = VLITcosθT
PLoad = VLITcosθT PLoad = VLITcosθT
PLoad = (5.4V)(20.50mA) cos-54˚
PLoad = (5.6V)(11.90mA) cos-3.60˚ PLoad = (5.6V)(14.90mA) cos-3.60˚
PLoad = 87.96mW
PLoad = 86.70mW PLoad = 88mW

PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1)


PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1) PLoss = IT2(R1 + RL1)
PLoss = 20.50mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω)
PLoss = 11.90mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω) PLoss = 14.90mA2(11.6Ω + 1.34Ω)
PLoss = 5.44mW
PLoss = 1.83mW PLoss = 2.87mW

2. Plot the graph of the Power Factor (P.F.) against the following quantities:
a. Capacitance CT using the axes suggested in Figure 8.5;
b. Total current IT using the suggested in Figure 8.6;
c. Load voltage VL using the suggested in Figure 8.7;
d. Line losses PLoss using the suggested in Figure 8.8.
1. What generalization can be drawn regarding the plot of Power Factor (P.F.)
against:
a. Capacitance in Figure 8.5?
Regarding the plot of Power Factor against Capacitance in Figure 8.5
there’s a part of the graph where it reaches its peak and it happened when
the power factor is leading and higher among others.

b. Total current IT in Figure 8.6?


Regarding the plot of Power Factor against Total current in Figure 8.6 the
power factor is decreasing as the total current increases.

c. Load voltage VL in Figure 8.7?


Regarding the plot of Power Factor against Load voltage in Figure 8.7
there’s a part of the graph where it reaches its peak and it happened when
the power factor is leading and higher among others.

d. Line losses PLOSS in Figure 8.8?


Regarding the plot of Power Factor against Line losses in Figure 8.8 the
power factor is decreasing as the line losses increases.

2. In industrial application of power factor correction, why are capacitors


connected in parallel with the load and not in series?
Because if you connect the capacitor in parallel then you ensure a constant
voltage across the load and at the same time improve the power factor.
3. Two loads in an industrial plant are connected in parallel across a 460 volts,
60 hertz single phase source. Load 1 draws 20 KVA at 0.6 power factor
lagging, while Load 2 takes 50 KW at 0.707 lagging power factor. If it is
desired to improve the overall power factor to 98% lagging, find the
capacitance of the capacitor to be connected in parallel with the load.

Load 1 Load 2

Θ = cos-10.6 =53.13° Θ = cos-10.707 = 45°

Q = (20kVA)sin53.13° = 16kVars P = 50kW

P = (20kVA)cos5313° = 12kW S = 50kW/cos45° = 70.71kVA

Q = (70.71kVA)sin45° = 50kVars

PT = 12kW+50kW = 62kW

QT = 16kVars+50kVars = 66kVars

Θpfold = tan-166kVars/62kW = 46.79°

Θpfnew = Θpf2=cos-10.98 = 11.48°

Qcap = 62kW(tan46.79°-tan11.48°) = 53.41kVars

C = 53.41kVars/2π(60)(460)2

C = 669.54uF
The table below contains the results of the experiment and the computed values of

PLoad, PLoss & P.F. of the circuit

C IT PLoad PLoss P.F.


Trial VS VL ±θT (mW) (Lag/Lead)
(nF) (mA) (mW)
7.3 80.24 4.52 0.59 (lag)
1 0 5.5 18.7 54 ˚

7.3 85.14 3.31 0.73 (lag)


2 50 5.6 16 43.2 ˚

7.3 85.72 2.32 0.88 (lag)


3 110 5.6 13.4 28.8 ˚

7.3 86.70 1.83 0.99 (lead)


4 210 5.6 11.9 -3.6 ˚

7.3 88 2.87 0.81 (lead)


5 330 5.6 14.9 -36 ˚

7.3 87.96 5.44 0.59 (lead)


6 450 5.4 20.5 -54 ˚

With the data we have gathered the measured values of VS are constant

throughout all the trials while measured values of VL are unstable similar to the total

current. The phase angle from Trial 1 to Trial 6 decreases. PLoad increases when the power

factor changed from lagging to leading and PLoss starts to decrease when the power factor

is lagging away from zero and starts to increase when the power factor is leading

approaching zero. The power factor is said to be lagging when the phase angle is positive

while it is leading when the phase angle is negative.


The experiment showed us the relationship and effect of power factor
with power delivered to the load, power loss, phase angle and of course total
current. Using the instruments that are needed, we were able to get the
parameters that were asked and interpreted them. During the experiment,
we get the total current of each capacitor and realized that the higher the
power factor, we will get a lower total current. When the power factor is
leading and away from zero the phase angle is at its lowest similar to its line
losses. We can get a low power delivered to the load when the power factor
is lagging and approaching zero. And with the help of this experiment I
realized the reason why the power factor correction is important to the
industry and especially to our daily lives because we can benefit from it in
terms of reduction of electricity bills and also our environment by reducing
power consumption and reduction of power consumption means less
greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion by power stations.
Cimatu, S., Rebong, A (n.d). Power Factor Correction. Laboratory Manual in AC Circuits.

2006_18_spring_wiring_matters_power_factor_correction_pfc.pdf