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Ethics and Human Interface:

Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human


actions;
Selectiveness in recruiting subjects for clinical trials leads not only to human rights violations
but also to bad science. Discuss the ethical issues involved in clinical trials. (150 Words)
The Hindu
Background:-
 The goal of clinical research is to develop generalizable knowledge that improves human
health or increases understanding of human biology.
 Using these sources(Nuremberg Code (1947),Declaration of Helsinki (2000),Belmont
Report (1979),CIOMS (2002),U.S. Common Rule (1991)) of guidance and others, seven
main principles have been described as guiding the conduct of ethical research:
 Social and clinical value
 Scientific validity
 Fair subject selection
 Favourable risk-benefit ratio
 Independent review
 Informed consent
 Respect for potential and enrolled subjects
 Clinical trials involving human subjects have long been a flashpoint between bioethicists
and clinical research organisations (CROs) in India.
 In the last decade, on account of all clinical trials conducted by various pharmaceutical
companies, nearly 2,800 patients are said to have died between 2005 and 2012 in India.
Ethical issues involved in clinical trials:
 Lack of informed consent:
 In 2009, an international NGO had launched a $3.6 million human papillomavirus
(HPV) trial in India and tested two vaccines on 16,000 tribal girls in Andhra Pradesh
and Gujarat, apparently without informed consent from the girls’ parents.
 Principle of Utilitarian approach where more emphasis on maximum good to more
number of people at the cost of individual rights is followed.
 Corruption:-
 Clinical trials in India have been accompanied by large-scale criminality as doctors,
officials and pharmaceutical companies understand that India is a cesspool of
corruption where clearances can be had with influence.
 Lack of adequate representation:-
 There is a over-representation of low-income groups among trial subjects.
 Lack of volunteer honesty:-
 Some volunteers lie about one’s medical history or enrol in multiple trials to maximise
one’s income. Unsafe drugs can make their way into the market as a result, or safe
drugs can get rejected.
 Lack of transparency :-
 Trials done earlier where the drug has not been found to be effective are sometimes not
publicized
 Numerous challenges associated with monitoring such as overlapping responsibilities,
communication gaps, and lack of standards are also some concerns
What needs to be done/Way forward:-
 Landmark amendments to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act in 2013 led to better protection of
vulnerable groups such as illiterate people, but more regulation is needed to ensure truly
ethical research.
 A National registry of trial volunteers which will alert a CRO when someone signs up for
two studies simultaneously is necessary without violating volunteer privacy.
 Ethics committees are the front line regulators for clinical trials. If they were functional,
they would be a major factor in preventing unethical trials
 Encourage a wider cross-section of society to participate in research on human subjects.
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8) Incidents like acid attacks on women reveal moral bankruptcy of the Indian society
and government. Comment. (150 Words)
The Hindu

Background:
 Despite Women being respected since ancient Indian culture ,governments taking
measures for women empowerment women abuse and women safety are a distant
dream in India.
 The statistical data showing Indiahas the highest number of acid attacks in the
world and 300 acid attacks in 2016 highlights the dismal state of affair.
These attacks highlight the moral bankruptcy because:-
 The victim faces social stigma in the society and is often blamed for the incident
and doesn’t let an acid survivor lead a normal life after the attack. Her social life
is cut down as she cannot face people.
 Patriarchal authority gives boys freedom to do anything and get over with
anything
 In the old order, women were docile and obedient. In the burgeoning order,
women are independent. If they wish to end a relationship, they just do. These
are things people accustomed to a sense of male entitlement cannot take. In
their world view, a woman should be grateful for any interest a man shows in
her.
 As per the Avon Global Centre for Women and Justice, 35% acid attacks are
because of a rejection of a proposal. Especially in rural areas there is lack of
communication among the opposite sex.
 It is often seen as a male thing to chase a woman. And sadly, that is what
Bollywood too portrays most of the time. Eve teasing, stalking a love object
is an accepted behaviour in Indian society, and jilted love is a major reason
for many acid attacks in our country.
 Men resort to violent attacks as women assert themselves by challenging
men’s authority and expectations.
 When a man throws acid on a woman, his intention is to subjugate her and
show her who is in charge.
 Societal preference for son over daughter – Geeta Mohar’s husband poured
acid on her for giving him a daughter and not a son.
 Acid is easily available in any town or village or a city. Supreme court passed an
order regarding acid sale but governments have not taken enough action.
 West Bengal has the highest attacks in India yet the conviction rate is very low
which perpetuates this crime further.
What needs to be done?
 Bangladesh example:
 The laws not only instituted a complete ban on over-the-counter sale of acid
but also mandated the setting up of tribunals to deal with acid attacks, and the
creation of a National Acid Control Council.
 Bangladesh has made it mandatory that investigation in these cases should be
completed within 30 days.
 Tough penalties need to be imposed on state governments that fail to curb the sale
of acid by a certain date.
 Family plays a very important role in balancing the attitudes of children and the
children need to be taught about respecting each other irrespective of the gender.
Conclusion:-
 While the supreme court’s effort to stop acid attacks is commendable, society also
needs to be more compassionate.
9) You have graduated from a top IIT with excellent academic record. You are offered
a dream job in Google. However, you always wanted to be an IAS officer. Your
parents are extremely poor and you have completed your education solely on
scholarships and donations. Your parents do not understand what’s IAS or Google.
All they want is better life. Your friends and professors advice you to join Google.
They argue that IAS is corrupt and there is little you can do here with your talent.
They tell you that with a good experience in Google, you can come back to India and
build something like Google. They argue that spending 2-3 years preparing for IAS is
wastage of your talent. Moreover, they tell you that your parents have to continue to
live in poverty till you clear this exam.
You are in a dilemma now.
1. a) Do you think there is merit in arguments made by your friends and professors?
Justify.
2. b) In case you still want to pursue IAS, give compelling arguments why you want
to pursue it. (250 Words)

Background:-
The ethical dilemmas from the given case study are:-
 Conflict of conscience.
 Responsibility towards parents vs following one’s aspirations.
 Poverty suppressing dreams of the dreamer etc.
A)Based on the arguments put forward by my friends and professors, the following
can be concluded.
 Merits:-
 Additional burden on my parents if i don’t take up the job is a substantiate
argument.
 The job is very good and it would provide me and my parents not only
financial mobility but also social mobility
 IAS exam needs time to prepare so not considering the job in the present
circumstances is not logical.
 There is lateral entry in Indian government jobs as seen by the appointment of
Mr. Raghuram Rajan as RBI governor. With good experience in Google I can
come back to India and make some difference to the people.
 Also i can establish a company in India with sufficient expertise in Google
providing jobs to youth .
 I can work at Google and in the free time I can always prepare for IAS .But
taking the Google job is a priority now.
 Being IAS is not an end but just a means to carry out public service so that
can be done even by being in private sector as is visible by the work of Ratan
Tata ,Medha Patkar,Kailash Satyarthi etc.
 Demerits:-
 My dream job is IAS so i will never be satisfied with what i do at Google.
 I can arrange for the financial security of my parents till i clear this exam.
b)Arguments why i want to pursue IAS:-
 IAS gives me an opportunity to work and make a difference at the ground level by
lifting many families from poverty, ensuring quality education is provided , face
health contingencies , inculcate values in the youth etc.
 As an IAS i can work in multiple fields and gain expertise regarding the
compelling issues plaguing the society.
 Due to poverty , I can better understand the plight of millions of poor and do
effective programmes for the public.
 I can use technology effectively in the implementation of various government
initiatives leading to good governance.
 It gives me an opportunity to project to the society that being a civil servant with
integrity, efficiency, good decision making is very important and increase people
trust in district machinery especially when corruption is huge.
Dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great


leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and
educational institutions in inculcating values.

Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with


thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social
influence and persuasion.
One of your friends thinks that ethics is overrated and it has no place in actual world where
people are often moved into action by selfishness and self-interests. He believes that ethics has
no place in politics as practice of ethics in politics has lost its ability to win votes. He tells you
that even the public who expects politics to be free of corruption and unethical practises,
seldom raise their voice against lack of ethics among politicians. He is of the opinion that it’s
a futile exercise to clean politics as co-existence of good and bad is rule of nature and we
should not try to alter this balance.
a) What are your views on your friend’s observations and opinions? Analyse. (200 Words)
General

 Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action.
Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work
towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals.
 Selfless deeds put people apart from selfish acts . Selflessness is often overlooked as a key
to happiness because, on the surface, it appears to run contrary to the very notion.
 Politicians are representatives of common people, hence ethics which are moral values are
relevant in politics.
 Ethics in politics brings in humane feelings of empathy and compassion for different
sections of the society, hence establishing a welfare state.
 It brings in TRANSPARENCY in decision making thus building up trust between
public and politicians.
 When ethical standards are set and followed, the ideals of democracy and constitution
are held high.
 With great power comes great responsibility. However with the recent incidents of
representatives distributing money for votes, indulging in corruption, centralizing and
misusing powers there is considerable decline of ethics in politics but there are many
instances where leaders are elected for the development work in their constituencies and not
because they used illegal means to win
 There have been many instances like the anti corruption movement ,NOTA, Right to
information where people along with whistleblowers have raised voice against such
behavior of politicians. There is also Election commission which raises alarm and initiates
contempt proceedings against the leaders who misuse election campaigns.
 Clean politics is the necessity for India as the country’s development and future depends in
the initiatives taken by the leaders. So good has to prevail over the bad.
 There have been instances in the past when some populistic measures were taken but at the
national level the governments strive for the overall development of the country.
 So it is time people take active part in politics and act on it from inside and along with
efforts to make the system transparent and accountable.
 Citizens of the country need to be make conscious decisions in not letting unethical
politicians come to power.

8) Do you consider protecting environment as a moral cause? Justify. (150 Words)


NYT
Background:-
 Living in harmony with Nature has been an integral part of Indian culture. This has been
abundantly reflected in a variety of traditional practices, religious beliefs, rituals, folklore,
arts and crafts, and in the daily lives of the Indian people from time immemorial.
Protecting environment is a moral cause and moral obligation because:-
 Protecting the environment is not a modern concept. It is an idea enshrined in spiritual
beliefs around the world.Major religious and spiritual movements have historically placed
an emphasis on themes that have now been adapted by environmentalists seeking to protect
the earth’s ecosystem.
 An American – Indian community, the Sioux Indians, refused to till the soil because
they did not want to wound the body of their mother, the Earth.
 Forest dwellers respect for sacred groves .
 The principle of morality suggests that humans don’t have the right to destroy
environment when they are not the creators .
 Climate change is intrinsically linked to public health, food and water security,
migration, peace and security .Environmental protection is an issue of social justice,
human rights and fundamental ethics. People have a profound responsibility to protect the
fragile web of life on this Earth, and to this generation and those that will follow.
 Climate change affects us all, but not equally. Those who suffer first and worst are those
who did least to cause it: the poor and most vulnerable members of society. So it is in the
utilitarian system to act for larger good.
 Religious communities across the world routinely view the earth as a divine creation and
different faiths are increasingly accepting societal role in the conservation of environement.
 Environmental action also urges positive actions, a view of the entire earth as our family,
a need to act together, to be generous, compassionate and to see others welfare as part of our
responsibility.
 There is a need to respect the air people breathe and the soil people walk upon the same way
as the earth is an extension of society and everything truly is connected.
 When people cut down forests for agriculture, for example, there are immediate
repercussions. Not only do we disturb the habitat for many species, but we also destroy the
soil.
 The sustainable development definition that sustaining environment for future
generations is void impact of climate change are already visible for current
generation itself.
 For development of the country environmental sustainability is of huge importance as
huge amount of money is spent for post rehabilitation measures of a natural disaster.
 That environmental conservation cannot be isolated from the general issues of development
and must be viewed as an integral part of it, and an essential prerequisite for sustainable
development, is being increasingly understood today.
Conclusion:
 Conscious efforts are now being made to integrate environmental concerns into policies and
programmes relating to economic development.
 There have been instances like Chipko movement where people actively protected
environment that vigour is needed in t he present with more force.

7) Why do you think good temperament and strong emotional intelligence are desired
traits that one wants to witness in today’s global leaders? Comment. (150 Words)
The Hindu

Background:-
In the current world there are challenges with respect to climate change,water crisis
,growing violence ,terrorist activities so a leader with good temperament is very
necessary
Reasons why these are important are :-
 Traits like personality, how well leaders can communicate, and their ability to
empathize, negotiate, and leadare necessary qualities for a great leader. For
instance Jack Ma ‘s inspirational leadership
 Emotionally intelligent people tend to be more authentic and transparent .At the
same time, they’re also able to keep their feelings in check and make well-
informed decisions, are incredibly resilient under pressure and display higher
rates of empathy .
 In a study of more than 5000 leaders across multiple industries ,researchers
discovered that the best leaders were decisive and willing to take risks, but also
more self-aware and more thoughtful about how they engaged with family and
coworkers.
 They comprehend the needs and motivations of others, and in turn, calmly engage
with them under pressure in order to move decisions forward.
 According to Harvard study the most successful leaders are:

 Able to empathize and manage the emotions of other people
 Self-aware but not egocentric
 Able to keep their own emotions in check, while quickly thinking and
problem-solving around how their ideas will impact others
 In the present world emotionally intelligent leaders are necessary to avoid
conflicts like north Korea Vs US,understand environmental ethics,maintain peace
,defend minority rights etc.
 Lack of such attributes especially in global leaders leads to intolerance,sectarian
violence ,religious persecutions,refugee crisis etc..

Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity,


impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public
service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-
sections.

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application


in administration and governance.

Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and


world.

Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration:


Status and problems;
7) You are the chief of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). A movie on
LGBT rights comes to CBFC for certification. This movie’s story talks about struggle
of two gay boys – one from upper caste and another from lower caste – who are
maligned in the society and ostracised. Majority of the members in CBFC are against
the movie as it has many explicit scenes. At the same time, there is an outcry from
conservative groups seeking banning of the movie. Even few ministers who hold
important portfolios in the union government have expressed their dislike for the
movie. They think that the movie will endanger India’s culture. Whereas the director
is of the opinion that the movie tries to highlight not on sexuality related issues, but
also about other for of discriminations faced by lower caste people. You get phone
calls from influential people to deny certificate to this movie. The issue has divided
media and public into two opposing groups.
a)In this situation, what is the course of action you want to pursue? Justify with
valid reasons.
 Options available:-
 Ban the movie considering the sensitivity of the issue and heeding to the
demands of conservatives, political representatives etc.
 Clear the certification for the movie with necessary modifications.
 The latter option makes sense due to the following reasons:-
 CBFC is an independent body and my duty as a chief is to abide by the rule
book and adhere to the tenets of the constitution of India. So the movie has
the right to freedom of expression.
 The views of all the CBFC members will be seriously discussed but the
ultimate would be to maintain a balance will be maintained in protecting the
culture and respecting the fundamental right of equality.
 The movie highlights the modern issue of homosexuality but based on
supreme court judgement I would oppose it but the historical issue of dalit
discrimination needs urgent focus in the current Indian context so I would
permit the movie to be released with an adult certificate due to the explicit
scenes.
 I will involve all the stakeholders involved and try to bring a peaceful
resolution.

1. b) Do you think culture is influenced by motion pictures to the extent of


endangering it? Critically comment.
Yes, Culture is influenced by movies:-
 Movies which degrade and show Indian culture in a bad light can be banned
 Certain movies can lead to incitement of violence in the society
 The movies which violate the article 19 and the seven grounds of restriction
mentioned in the constitution can be banned.
No:-
 By censoring films at the behest of a few, we embolden fringe groups to take the
law into their hands, we arm them with the power to take the law in their own
hands, and to undermine the rule of law. Thus, it becomes the tyranny of the
minority over the rights of the majority.
 While entertaining movies also provides education, develops a national character,
and mirrors the society at large
 The ban on a film is legally justifiable only on these seven grounds, and none
else.
 The censorship should be based on precise statement of what may not be subject-
matter of film making and should allow full liberty to the growth of art and
literature.
 The ban on films which highlight issues clearly reveals immaturity in accepting
criticism
 Bans on films which raise modern issues such as Gulabi Aaina or Fire should not
be banned especially when the question of the rights of the LGBT community is
being debated as a constitutional issue, and as part of human rights.
 Most importantly, such prohibitions adversely affect democracy and the rule of
law.
 The prohibited films are readily available on the Internet. They can be
downloaded and enjoyed. Such bans thus motivate people to break the law and to
dilute the rule of law.
 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan asserts that the Indian civilisation is based on
assimilation rather than on extermination. Indeed, the Constitution of India is
wedded to the concept of pluralism and inclusiveness. But extra-constitutional
bans restrict the free flow of thoughts, of imagination, of creativity. Such
bans are thus against the constitutional philosophy, against the rule of law,
against democracy, and against our national interest.

c)Why do you think there exists opposition to such movies? Does it bode well for
India? Comment. (300 Words)
 Movies are opposed due to many factors:-
 Conservatism and orthodoxy that people are not ready to accept change.
 It hurts the sentiments of a group
 That these movies can create divide in the society.
 Indian culture do not explicitly deal with the sexually oriented issues.
 Lack of education
 Status quoism

As far as the movie does not bode with the national integrity of the nation,unity
and diversty in India it is good to fight against such movies.
It does not bode well for India:-
 Extra-constitutional bans restrict the free flow of thoughts, of imagination, of
creativity. Such bans are thus against the constitutional philosophy, against
the rule of law, against democracy, and against our national interest.
 Right to life and right to dignity need to be respected.

Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private


institutions;
You are working as Superintendent of Police in a communally sensitive region which is also a
commercial hub. You get a complaint that a holy site belonging to a minority religion is
desecrated and it has resulted in violence. You know that if the news spreads, this will result
unrest in the region and affect normal life. A group of youth belonging to minority religion
comes to you and seek permission to conduct huge rally against people who have desecrated
their holy site. At the same time, influential people belonging to majority religion comes to you
and seek permission to hold protests and enforce bandh in the region.

Evaluate the merits and demerits of the options you have in this situation. Justify with valid
reasons which course of action you would finally follow. (250 Words)

General
In the given situation the ethical dimensions involved are:-
 Emotional intelligence
 Resolving ethical dilemmas
 Providing peace to the society and see that violence is not taken place.
 Avoid religious conflict leading to riots.
Keeping in mind the above ideas the SP has the following choices:
1.To allow either community to hold rally or allow both groups:
 Merits:-
 The respect on the police machinery as perpetuators of justice will increase.
 Demerits:
 It is the duty of the police to investigate who desecrated till then rally need not be
allowed even though peaceful.
 The rally even though peaceful can lead to violence leading to riots.
 Majority community might not be happy with permitting minority for the rally and try
to influence your job postings.
 Also majority community does not have any grievances so there is no need for
permitting bandh organized by them.
 As the place is also a commercial hub bandh and rally would only lead to
inconvenience for the society and affect trade and commerce.
 Allowing both groups at the same time can lead to violent clashes and severe law and
order problem might be created.
2.To not allow both the communities to hold rally:-
 Merits:
 Leads to peaceful resolution of the issue.
 Both sides arguments will be heard .
 The trade and commerce will not be affected.
 Public disturbance will not be there.
 Political neutrality is upheld
 Demerits:-
 Chances of deadlock might arise
 The communities might not be ready to negotiate
Final decision:
As SP I would go with the second alternative as the issue is a very sensitive and effective utility
of emotional intelligence is necessary. Also my duty as a SP is to uphold peace and harmony in
the society and this possibility is realized only by the second alternative.

Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical


guidance;

accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and


moral values in governance;

Ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate


governance.
8) Foreign aid from developed countries in the West has for long been touted as an important
tool to help the poorest people in Asia and Africa lead better lives. Examine the ethical issues
involved in these foreign aids to poor countries. (150 Words)
The Hindu
Background:-
 Foreign aid can save the lives of millions of people living in poverty around the world. It
addresses issues such as health, education, infrastructure and humanitarian
emergencies leading to sustainable growth and development.
 Over the past half-century, aid to developing countries has grown to be big money, financed
through taxation and delivered through a plethora of government and philanthropic
organizations. Yet its ethical underpinnings have received surprisingly little attention.
Ethical issues:-
 Most of such aid fails to reach the poorest people who need it the most. Foreign aid
manages only to improve the lives of the richest people in the poorest countries of the world
reinforcing social inequities and perpetuates cycles of political abuse
 Lack of transparency and accountability:
 Foreign aid’s biggest downside is that no clear, effective system has been put in place
to hold aid recipients and their governments accountable for resources illegally taken
from public sector coffers.
 Sovereignty affected:-
 Aid dependence results in bad governance, stunting development and makes the
recipient countries at the mercy of the developed countries as is the case in the African
countries.
 Foreign Aid are short term interventions lacking lasting sustainable impact. Some of
these blame the world economic structure where LDC are put in perpetual dependency.
 Its volatility and unpredictability makes it difficult for countries to factor it into long
term spending plans and include it in budgets
 Cultural imposition also takes place
 Lack of compassion and selfish motive :-
 Foreign aid is dispatched by bureaucrats and politicians who usually direct the flow of
aid into the developing world.
 Corruption:-
 Their decisions are driven mostly by political considerations rather than noble
intentions. This naturally leads to various forms of corruption.
 Rise of fundamentalist tendencies:
 Aid from some of the countries increased the extremist tendencies in countries like
Pakistan .
Way ahead:-
 Foreign Aid can only yield results when it is consecrated to improve lives of the poor ones
through variety of empowerment programs (both for woman, unemployable youth and
vulnerable).
 It should help the government generate employment which will increase their living
standards and the level of consumption.
 It can have positive impact when it facilitates technology transfer, invest in research and
high education, build strong competitive market and freedom of all sorts to create enabling
environment for investors.
 The notion of helping others can be effective when the donors provide selfless aid rather
than expecting the returns from these underdeveloped countries

Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical


basis of governance and probity;

Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to


Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's
Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of
public funds, challenges of corruption.