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Lively Comment ary on Canadian Education Posted in Student Absenteeism/Attendance, Student

Disengagement, tagged High School Culture, School Climate, Student Absenteeism on April 3, 2016| 26
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School absenteeism is a prevalent problem for today’s schools with tremendous long-term social,
economic and human costs. Student absenteeism is a complex problem because it has multiple causes
and is deeply embedded in a contemporary high school culture which can be almost consequence-free
for so-called ‘floaters.’

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TESDA develops competency standards for middle-level skilled workers. These are in the form of units of
competency containing descriptors for acceptable work performance. These are packaged into
qualifications corresponding to critical jobs and occupations in the priority industry sectors. The
qualifications correspond to a specific levels in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework (PTQF).
The competency standards and qualifications, together with training standards and assessment
arrangements comprise the national training regulations (TR) promulgated by the TESDA Board. The TRs
serve as basis for registration and delivery of TVET programs, competency assessment and certification
and development of curricula for the specific qualification.
TESDA pursues the assessment and certification of the competencies of the middle-level skilled workers
through Philippine TVET Competency Assessment and Certification System (PTCACS). The assessment
process seeks to determine whether the graduate or worker can perform to the standards expected in the
workplace based on the defined competency standards. Certification is provided to those who meets the
competency standards. This ensures the productivity, quality and global competitiveness of the middle-
level workers.
TESDA has a Registry of Certified Workers which provides information on the pool of certified workers
for certain occupations nationwide.

The Effects of Excessive Absenteeism in

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By Malikah Walters:

Attending school regularly is a vital factor in school success for both students and
teachers. Excessive school absenteeism is often linked to poor school academic
achievement, so school attendance by both teachers and students plays an integral
role in the success and educational advancement levels of any academic institution
and all students enrolled.

Limited Educational Instruction

It is crucial to the success of any school to employ dedicated teachers who are
physically present to administer quality education to each student. Excessive
absenteeism by the teaching staff can drastically hinder the learning environment
and academic achievement of students when instructors are not r outinely present to
teach them. When teachers are absent, schools must rely on substitute teachers to
provide instruction for the students. However, many substitute teachers may not be
qualified to provide quality educational instruction. Substitute teache rs are not always
required to possess a teaching certification, and in some school districts they are
able to teach with only a high school GED. The loss of quality instructional time for
students can result in unlearned academic skills and objectives, and subsequent
reduction in students' standardized test scores.

Poor Academic Progress

Successful schools cannot survive without physically present students. According to
the "Excessive Absences Intervention" research study by author Linda L. Williams,
excessive absenteeism by students may result in unlearned course material from
fewer hours of instruction, and a disruption of class instruction for teachers who have
to administer remediation for the absent student when he returns to school.
Excessive absenteeism by students may additionally result in poor academic
achievement because students are not receiving instruction on a consecutive basis.
This problem also causes low standardized test scores because absent students are
not present to learn key concepts and skills that are assessed on standardized

Future Problems
Excessive student absenteeism can lead to an increasing disinterest in school and
academics in general. According to author Jason A. Schoeneberger’s "Longitudinal
Attendance Patterns" study, excessive absenteeism increases the chances of a
student eventually dropping out of school, which can lead to long term consequences
for these students, such as lower average incomes, higher incidences of
unemployment, and a higher likelihood of incarceration. Schoeneberger asserts that
students who drop out of school face a higher risk of poverty because of their
inability to secure quality paying employment due to their lack of education and
resources. Dropouts who lack education and resources are more likely to commit
criminal activity leading to incarceration.

Decreased School Budget

Excessive absenteeism also places an extreme strain on the school's budget, and
allocated finances in each school district. Average daily attendance, or ADA, is the
average attendance rate of students in a school year. States utilize a school district's
ADA to determine the allocated funding it will receive. Schools may encounter a
decrease in funding due to a loss of full-time students. This limited budget due to
excessive absences causes a lack of educational resources and materials for the all
the students in the school. According to "USA Today," about one in three teachers
misses more than 10 days of school each year in the public school system. Providing
substitutes for all of these absent teachers costs schools, cumulatively, at least $4
billion a year. "USA Today" further reported that in some states nearly 50 percent of
the teachers miss more than 10 days of school in a typical 180-day school year.

Absenteeism in School
Absenteeism in school is the habit of staying away from school without providing a genuine or
any reason for not attending classes. Absenteeism is a truant behavior that negatively affects
the performance among students.

Causes of Absenteeism

Absenteeism is caused by many factors as such as:

1. Phobic Adolescence: During this stage in the growth of a teen, there is a lot of fear
developed as a result of physical changes of the body for example growth of pimples, turbulent
emotions e.t.c. This scares teens away from school.

2. Lack of Interest: Students could be lacking interest in the study, which could be as a result
of content that is difficult for them to grasp hence pushing them away from school.
3. Teacher approach: The approach used by teachers may not be understood by the student
and this could lead them to lose interest in school. Punitive attendance policy plays a big role in
absenteeism too.

4. Pamperness from the family: Students who get excessive pocket money from their families
are most likely to absent themselves from school since they need time to spend the money.

5. Private Couching: Flexible private couching encouraged by some parents could drive a
number of students away from the conventional school timetable.

6. Diseases: Some diseases like asthma which requires attention and care as well as an
environment that is warm and not dusty could make students remain home.

7. School Infrastructural Facilities: Lack of libraries, sports facilities is a hindrance to

attendance of school among students.

8. Entertainment: Accessibility of entertainment facilities like cinemas could divert attention

of some students from school.

Absenteeism can lead to depression and also result in poor quality of education as a result of
time lost while being away from school. It could also lead to moral degradation that leads to
drug abuse, early pregnancies and unruly behavior.

Absenteeism can be remedied by providing adequate co-curricular activities to students. It

could be curbed by creating of clubs and societies to keep students busy when they are out of
class. Schools should strive to have up to date learning facilities like libraries as well as sporting
facilities to make students enhance student retention.

By Timothy Keter Community Relations Coordinator, Eneza Education Ltd.

Chronic absenteeism: An old problem in search of new
Brian A. Jacob and Kelly LovettThursday, July 27, 2017

A recent report by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) identifies “chronic

absenteeism” as a hidden educational crisis.[1]In 2013-14, roughly 14 percent of
students nationwide were chronically absent—defined as missing 10 percent or more
of school days, excused or unexcused, which in most states would correspond to about
18 days of school missed each year.[2] In some cities, that rate is considerably higher,
with Detroit topping the list at 57.3 percent of students chronically absent.
Researchers categorize the underlying causes of truancy into four groups: (i) student-
specific factors, (ii) family-specific factors, (iii) school-specific factors, and (iv)
community-specific factors (Table 1). As one might expect, the importance of various
factors depends a great deal on the student’s age and social context. Kindergarten
absenteeism is most strongly related to family factors—e.g., children whose parents
suffer from substance abuse, or whose work schedules makes it difficult for them to
get their children out the door each morning.

Teenage truancy, on the other hand, is more frequently associated with student- or
school-factors, such as fear of bullying or disengagement with school. For example, in
a recent Evidence Speaks post, Jing Liu and Susanna Loeb reported that high school
teachers have differential effects on unexcused class absences—that is, when students
miss only part of the school day—highlighting how the academic environment can
influence school attendance.[16]
Table 1: Factors related to absenteeism

Teenage motherhood, low academic performance

Student- and repeating grades, lack of caring relationships
specific with adults, negative peer influence, bullying

Low family income, low parent involvement,

unstable housing, at-home responsibilities,
Family- stressful family events conflicting home and
specific school priorities, language differences

Poor conditions or lack of school facilities, low-

quality teachers, teacher shortages, poor student-
School- teacher interactions, geographic access to school,
specific less challenging courses and student boredom

Availability of job opportunities that do not

require formal schooling, unsafe neighborhoods,
Community- low compulsory education requirements, lack of
specific social and education support services
Source: REL Pacific, Review of research on student nonenrollment
and chronic absenteeism

Brian A. Jacob
Nonresident Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families

Kelly Lovett
Project Manager - Youth Policy Lab, University of Michigan