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FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE

Department of mechanical engineering, laqshya Institute of technology & sciences, thanikella, telangana,
Email id: saikumar.pusuluri999@gmail.com,
Name : p.saikumar
R.no : 14RC1A0342

Abstract
Economic growth and changing consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in
generation of waste plastics in the world. On the other hand, plastic waste recycling can provide an opportunity to
collect and dispose of plastic waste in the most environmental friendly way and it can be converted into a resource.
In most of the situations, plastic waste recycling could also be economically viable, as it generates resources,
which are in high demand. This paper is an effort for the conversion of plastics into fuel which is in commercial
use, under pilot implementation and under laboratory testing, aimed to raise awareness on available options. The
results of hydrolysis of plastic has compared without catalyst and with catalyst. Catalyst used here were Calcium
Antonito and Zealot. Calcium Antonito has proved better for the conversion of LDPE to liquid fuel. The kinetic
study has also carried out by different models and reaction follows Maple’s first order reaction.

Introduction: Plastics will break before deforming and therefore


are not plastic in the technical sense there are two
types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting
polymers. Thermoplastics will soften and melt if
enough heat is applied; examples are polyethylene,
polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Thermosets can
melt and take shape once; after they have solidified,
they stay solid.

Overview:

Plastics can be classified by chemical


structure, namely the molecular units that make up
the polymer's backbone and side chains. Some
important groups in these classifications are the
Fig:Household items made of various kinds of acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and
plastic. halogenated plastics. Plastics can also be classified
by the chemical process used in their synthesis, such
as condensation, polyaddition, and cross-linking.
Plastic:

Other classifications are based on


It is the general common term for a wide
qualities that are relevant for manufacturing or
range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic
product design. Examples of such classes are the
amorphous solid materials used in the manufacture
thermoplastic and thermoset, elastomer, structural,
of industrial products. Plastics are typically
biodegradable, and electrically conductive. Plastics
polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain
can also be classified by various physical properties,
other substances to improve performance and/or
such as density, tensile strength, glass transition
reduce costs. Monomers of Plastic are either natural
temperature, and resistance to various chemical
or synthetic organic compounds. The word is
products.
derived from the Greek plastics meaning fit for
molding (plasters) meaning molded. It refers to their
malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that Due to their relatively low cost, ease of
allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to
variety of shapes—such as films, fibers, plates, water, plastics are used in an enormous and
tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more. The common expanding range of products, from paper clips to
word plastic should not be confused with the spaceships. They have already displaced many
technical adjective plastic, which is applied to any traditional materials, such as wood; stone; horn and
material which undergoes a permanent change of bone; leather; paper; metal; glass; and ceramic, in
shape (plastic deformation) when strained beyond a most of their former uses.
certain point. Aluminum, for instance, is plastic in
this sense, but not a plastic in the common sense; in The use of plastics is constrained chiefly
contrast, in their finished forms, some by their organic chemistry, which seriously limits
their hardness, density, and their ability to resist
heat, organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing
radiation. In particular, most plastics will melt or
decompose when heated to a few hundred degrees
celsius.While plastics can be made electrically
conductive to some extent, they are still no match
for metals like copper or aluminum. Plastics are still
History:
too expensive to replace wood, concrete and
ceramic in bulky items like ordinary buildings, The first human-made plastic was invented by
bridges, dams, pavement, and railroad ties. Alexander Parks in 1855 [7]; he called this plastic
Parke sine (later called celluloid). The development
of plastics has come from the use of natural plastic
Chemical structure: materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of
chemically modified natural materials (e.g., rubber,
Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to nitrocellulose, collagen, calamite) and finally to
500,000 in molecular mass, while thermosets are completely synthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite,
assumed to have infinite molecular weight. These epoxy, polyvinyl chloride,
chains are made up of many repeating molecular
units, known as repeat units, derived from polyethylene).
monomers; each polymer chain will have several
thousand repeating units. The vast majority of Types:
plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and
hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine
or sulfur in the backbone. (Some of commercial Cellulose-based plastics
interests are silicon based.) The backbone is that
part of the chain on the main “path” linking a large In 1855, an Englishman from Birmingham
number of repeat units together. To customize the named Alexander Parks developed a synthetic
properties of a plastic, different molecular groups replacement for ivory which he marketed under the
“hang” from the backbone (usually they are “hung” trade name Parke sine, and which won a bronze
as part of the monomers before linking monomers medal at the 1862 World's fair in London. Parke
together to form the polymer chain). This fine sine was made from cellulose (the major component
tuning of the properties of the polymer by repeating of plant cell walls) treated with nitric acid and a
unit’s molecular structure has allowed plastics to solvent. The output of the process (commonly
become such an indispensable part of twenty first- known as cellulose nitrate or pyroxilin) could be
century world. dissolved in alcohol and hardened into a transparent
and elastic material that could be molded when
Some plastics are partially crystalline and partially heated. By incorporating pigments into the product,
amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both it could be made to resemble ivory.
a melting point (the temperature at which the
attractive intermolecular forces are overcome) and Bois Doric is a plastic molding material
one or more glass transitions (temperatures above based on cellulose. It was patented in Paris by
which the extent of localized molecular flexibility is Lesage in 1855. It is made from finely ground wood
substantially increased). The so-called semi- flour mixed with a binder, either egg or blood
crystalline plastics include polyethylene, albumen, or gelatin. The wood is probably either
polypropylene, poly (vinyl chloride), polyamides ebony or rose wood, which gives a black or brown
(nylons), polyesters and some polyurethane. Many resin. The mixture is dried and ground into a fine
plastics are completely amorphous, such as powder. The powder is placed in a steel mould and
polystyrene and its copolymers, poly (methyl compressed in a powerful hydraulic press whilst
methacrylate), and all thermosets. being heated by steam. The final product has a
highly polished finish imparted by the surface of the
steel mould.

Bakelite:

The first plastic based on a synthetic


polymer was made from phenol and formaldehyde,
with the first viable and cheap synthesis methods
invented in 1909 by Leo Hendrix Baekeland, a
Belgian-born American living in New York state.
Baekeland was searching for an insulating shellac to
coat wires in electric motors and generators. He
found that mixtures of phenol (C6H5OH) and
formaldehyde (HCOH) formed a sticky mass when
mixed together and heated, and the mass became
extremely hard if allowed to cool. He continued his
investigations and found that the material could be
mixed with wood flour, asbestos, or slate dust to
fig.1: plastic food create "composite" materials with different
properties. Most of these compositions were strong
Molded plastic food replicas on display outside a and fire resistant. The only problem was that the
restaurant in Japan. material tended to foam during synthesis, and the
resulting product was of unacceptable quality. Fig.2: polystyrene and PVC
Baekeland built pressure vessels to force out the
bubbles and provide a smooth, uniform product. He Plastic piping and fire stops being
publicly announced his discovery in 1912, naming it installed at Norton Casitas, North York (Now
bakelite. It was originally used for electrical and Toronto), Ontario, Canada. Certain plastic pipes can
mechanical parts, finally coming into widespread be used in some non-combustible buildings,
use in consumer goods in the 1920s. When the provided they are fire stopped properly and that the
Bakelite patent expired in 1930, the Catalan flame spread ratings comply with the local building
Corporation acquired the patent and began code.
manufacturing Catalan plastic using a different
process that allowed a wider range of coloring. After the First World War, improvements in
chemical technology led to an explosion in new
Bakelite was the first true plastic. It was a forms of plastics. Among the earliest examples in
purely synthetic material, not based on any material the wave of new plastics were polystyrene (PS) and
or even molecule found in nature. It was also the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), developed by IG Fabre of
first thermosetting plastic. Conventional Germany.
thermoplastics can be molded and then melted
again, but thermoset plastics form bonds between Polystyrene is a rigid, brittle, inexpensive plastic
polymers strands when cured, creating a tangled that has been used to make plastic model kits and
matrix that cannot be undone without destroying the similar knick-knacks. It would also be the basis for
plastic. Thermoset plastics are tough and one of the most popular "foamed" plastics, under the
temperature resistant. name styrene foam or Styrofoam. Foam plastics can
be synthesized in an "open cell" form, in which the
Bakelite was cheap, strong, and durable. It foam bubbles are interconnected, as in an absorbent
was molded into thousands of forms, such as radios, sponge, and "closed cell", in which all the bubbles
telephones, clocks, and billiard balls. The U.S. are distinct, like tiny balloons, as in gas-filled foam
government even considered making one-cent coins insulation and flotation devices. In the late 1950s,
out of it when World War II caused a copper high impact styrene was introduced, which was not
shortage. Phenol plastics have been largely replaced brittle. It finds much current use as the substance of
by cheaper and less brittle plastics, but they are still toy figurines and novelties.
used in applications requiring its insulating and
heat-resistant properties. For example, some
electronic circuit boards are made of sheets of paper
or cloth impregnated with phenol resin. Phenol
sheets, rods and tubes are produced in a wide
variety of grades under various brand names. The
most common grades of industrial phenolic are PVC has side chains incorporating
Canvas, Linen and Paper. chlorine atoms, which form strong bonds. PVC in
its normal form is stiff, strong, heat and weather
resistant, and is now used for making plumbing,
Polystyrene and PVC: gutters, house siding, enclosures for computers and
other electronics gear. PVC can also be softened
with chemical processing, and in this form it is now
used for shrink-wrap, food packaging, and rain gear.

Nylon:
The real star of the plastics industry in the
1930s was polyamide (PA), far better known by its
trade name nylon. Nylon was the first purely
synthetic fiber, introduced by DuPont Corporation
at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City.

In 1927, DuPont had begun a secret


development project designated Fiber66, under the
direction of Harvard chemist Wallace Carothers and
chemistry department director Elmer Keiser Bolton.
Carothers had been hired to perform pure research,
and he worked to understand the new materials'
molecular structure and physical properties. He took
some of the first steps in the molecular design of the
materials. His work led to the discovery of synthetic
nylon fiber, which was very strong but also very
flexible. The first application was for bristles for
toothbrushes. However, Du Pont's real target was which increased to 840 000 tons in 1945. In the
silk, particularly silk stockings. Carothers and his space race and nuclear arms race, Caltech
team synthesized a number of different polyamides researchers experimented with using synthetic
including polyamide 6.6 and 4.6, as well as rubbers for solid fuel for rockets. Ultimately, all
polyesters.[9] large military rockets and missiles would use
synthetic rubber based solid fuels, and they would
also play a significant part in the civilian space
effort.

Toxicity:
General condensation polymerization reaction for
nylon. It took DuPont twelve years and US$27
Due to their insolubility in water and
million to refine nylon, and to synthesize and
relative chemical inertness, pure plastics generally
develop the industrial processes for bulk
have low toxicity in their finished state, and will
manufacture. With such a major investment, it was
pass through the digestive system with no ill effect
no surprise that Du Pont spared little expense to
(other than mechanical damage or obstruction).
promote nylon after its introduction, creating a
public sensation, or "nylon mania".
However, plastics often contain a variety
of toxic additives. For example, plasticizers like
Nylon mania came to an abrupt stop at the end of
adipates and phthalates are often added to brittle
1941 when the USA entered World War II. The
plastics like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to make them
production capacity that had been built up to
pliable enough for use in food packaging, children's
produce nylon stockings, or just nylons, for
toys and teethers, tubing, shower curtains and other
American women was taken over to manufacture
items. Traces of these chemicals can leach out of the
vast numbers of parachutes for fliers and
plastic when it comes into contact with food. Out of
paratroopers. After the war ended, DuPont went
these concerns, the European Union has banned the
back to selling nylon to the public, engaging in
use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), the most
another promotional campaign in 1946 that resulted
widely used plasticizer in PVC. Some compounds
in an even bigger craze, triggering the so called
leaching from polystyrene food containers have
nylon riots.
been found to interfere with hormone functions and
are suspected human carcinogens.
Subsequently polyamides 6, 10, 11, and 12 have
been developed based on monomers which are ring
Moreover, while the finished plastic may
compounds; e.g. caprolactam.nylon 66 is a material
be non-toxic, the monomers used in its manufacture
manufactured by condensation polymerization.
may be toxic; and small amounts of those chemical
may remain trapped in the product. The World
Nylons still remain important plastics, and not just Health Organization's International Agency for
for use in fabrics. In its bulk form it is very wear Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized the
resistant, particularly if oil-impregnated, and so is chemical used to make PVC, vinyl chloride, as a
used to build gears, plain bearings, and because of known human carcinogen. Some polymers may also
good heat-resistance, increasingly for under-the- decompose into the monomers or other toxic
hood applications in cars, and other mechanical substances when heated.
parts.
The primary building block of
Rubber: polycarbonates, bisphenol A (BPA), is an estrogen-
like endocrine disruptor that may leach into food.
Research in Environmental Health Perspectives
Natural rubber is an elastomer (an elastic
finds that BPA leached from the lining of tin cans,
hydrocarbon polymer) that was originally derived
dental sealants and polycarbonate bottles can
from latex, a milky colloidal suspension found in
increase body weight of lab animals' offspring. A
the sap of some plants. It is useful directly in this
more recent animal study suggests that even low-
form (indeed, the first appearance of rubber in
level exposure to BPA results in insulin resistance,
Europe is cloth waterproofed with unvulcanized
which can lead to inflammation and heart disease.
latex from Brazil) but, later, in 1839, Charles
Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber; this a form of
natural rubber heated with, mostly, sulfur forming As of January 2010, the LA Times
cross-links between polymer chains (vulcanization), newspaper reports that the United States FDA is
improving elasticity and durability. spending $30 million to investigate suspicious
indications of BPA being linked to cancer. Bis(2-
ethylhexyl) adipate, present in plastic wrap based on
Synthetic rubber: PVC, is also of concern, as are the volatile organic
compounds present in new car smell.
The first fully synthetic rubber was synthesized by
Leedey in 1910. In World War II, supply blockades The European Union has a permanent ban
of natural rubber from South East Asia caused a on on the use of phthalates in toys. In 2009, the
boom in development of synthetic rubber, notably United States government banned certain types of
Styrene-butadiene rubber (a.k.a. Government phthalates commonly used in plastic.
Rubber-Styrene). In 1941, annual production of
synthetic rubber in the U.S. was only 231 tons
5. PP, polypropylene: Commonly found on bottle
caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers.
Environmental issues:
6. PS, polystyrene: Commonly found on "packing
peanuts", cups, plastic tableware, meat trays, take-
Plastics are durable and degrade very away food clamshell containers
slowly; the molecular bonds that make plastic so
durable make it equally resistant to natural
processes of degradation. Since the 1950s, one 7. OTHER, other: This plastic category, as its name
billion tons of plastic has been discarded and may of "other" implies, is any plastic other than the
persist for hundreds or even thousands of years. In named #1–#6, commonly found on certain kinds of
some cases, burning plastic can release toxic fumes. food containers, Tupperware, and Nalgene bottles.
Burning the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) may
create dioxin. Also, the manufacturing of plastics Unfortunately, recycling plastics has proven
often creates large quantities of chemical pollutants. difficult. The biggest problem with plastic recycling
is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic
Prior to the ban on the use of CFCs in waste, and so it is labor intensive. Typically,
extrusion of polystyrene (and general use, except in workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin
life-critical fire suppression systems; see Montreal identification code, though common containers like
Protocol), the production of polystyrene contributed soda bottles can be sorted from memory. Other
to the depletion of the ozone layer; however, non- recyclable materials, such as metals, are easier to
CFCs are currently used in the extrusion process. process mechanically. However, new mechanical
sorting processes are being utilized to increase
plastic recycling capacity and efficiency.
By 1995, plastic recycling programs were
common in the United States and elsewhere.
Thermoplastics can be remolded and reused, and While containers are usually made from a single
thermoset plastics can be ground up and used as type and color of plastic, making them relatively
filler, though the purity of the material tends to easy to sort out, a consumer product like a cellular
degrade with each reuse cycle. There are methods phone may have many small parts consisting of over
by which plastics can be broken back down to a a dozen different types and colors of plastics. In a
feedstock state. case like this, the resources it would take to separate
the plastics far exceed their value and the item is
discarded. However, developments are taking place
To assist recycling of disposable items, in the field of Active Disassembly, which may
the Plastic Bottle Institute of the Society of the result in more consumer product components being
Plastics Industry devised a now-familiar scheme to re-used or recycled. Recycling certain types of
mark plastic bottles by plastic type. A plastic plastics can be unprofitable, as well. For example,
container using this scheme is marked with a polystyrene is rarely recycled because it is usually
triangle of three cyclic arrows, which encloses a not cost effective. These unrecycled wastes are
number giving the plastic type: typically disposed of in landfills, incinerated or used
to produce electricity at waste-to-energy plants.

Biodegradable (Compostable) plastics:

Research has been done on biodegradable


plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight
(e.g., ultra-violet radiation), water or dampness,
bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and some
instances rodent pest or insect attack are also
included as forms of biodegradation or
Plastics type marks: the resin identification code; environmental degradation. It is clear some of these
modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is
exposed at the surface, while other modes will only
be effective if certain conditions exist in landfill or
1. PET (PETE), polyethylene terephthalate:
composting systems. Starch powder has been mixed
Commonly found on 2-liter soft drink bottles, water
with plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more
bottles, cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jars.
easily, but it still does not lead to complete
breakdown of the plastic. Some researchers have
2. HDPE, high-density polyethylene: Commonly actually genetically engineered bacteria that
found on detergent bottles, milk jugs. synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic, but
this material, such as Bhopal, is expensive at
3. PVC, polyvinyl chloride: Commonly found on present. The German chemical company BASF
plastic pipes, outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, makes Colfax, a fully biodegradable polyester for
shower curtains, clamshell packaging. food packaging applications.

4. LDPE, low-density polyethylene: Commonly


found on dry-cleaning bags, produce bags, trash can
liners, and food storage containers. Bioplastics:
Some plastics can be obtained from biomass,
including: Polystyrene (PS)
Packaging foam, food containers, disposable cups,
1. from pea starch film with trigger biodegradation plates, and cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.
properties for agricultural applications (TRIGGER).
High impact polystyrene (HIPS)
Fridge liners, food packaging, vending cups.
2. from biopetroleum.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
Oxo-biodegradable: Electronic equipment cases (e.g., computer
monitors, printers, keyboards), drainage pipe.
Oxo-biodegradable (OBD) plastic is Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
polyolefin plastic to which has been added very Carbonated drinks bottles, jars, plastic film,
small (catalytic) amounts of metal salts. As long as microwavable packaging.
the plastic has access to oxygen (as in a littered
state), these additives catalyze the natural Polyester (PES)
degradation process to speed it up so that the OBD Fibers, textiles.
plastic will degrade when subject to environmental
conditions. Once degraded to a small enough Polyamides (PA) (Nylons)
particle they can interact with biological processes Fibers, toothbrush bristles, fishing line, under-the-
to produce to water, carbon dioxide and biomass. hood car engine mouldings.
The process is shortened from hundreds of years to
months for degradation and thereafter Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
biodegradation depends on the micro-organisms in Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains,
the environment. Typically this process is not fast window frames, flooring.
enough to meet ASTM D6400 standards for
definition as compostable plastics. Polyurethanes (PU)
Cushioning foams, thermal insulation foams,
Price, environment, and the future: surface coatings, printing rollers. (Currently 6th or
7th most commonly used plastic material, for
instance the most commonly used plastic found in
The biggest threat to the conventional cars).
plastics industry is most likely to be environmental
concerns, including the release of toxic pollutants, Polycarbonate (PC)
greenhouse gas, litter, biodegradable and non-
Compact discs, eyeglasses, riot shields, security
biodegradable landfill impact as a result of the windows, traffic lights, lenses.
production and disposal of petroleum and
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran)
petroleum-based plastics. Of particular concern has Food packaging.
been the recent accumulation of enormous
quantities of plastic trash in ocean gyres. Polyethylene (PE)
Wide range of inexpensive uses including
For decades one of the great appeals of supermarket bags, plastic bottles.
plastics has been their low price. Yet in recent years
the cost of plastics has been rising dramatically. A Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
major cause is the sharply rising cost of petroleum, (PC/ABS)
the raw material that is chemically altered to form A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger
commercial plastics. With some observers plastic. Used in car interior and exterior parts, and
suggesting that future oil reserves are uncertain, the mobile phone bodies.
price of petroleum may increase further. Therefore,
alternatives are being sought. Oil shale and tar oil
are alternatives for plastic production but are Special-purpose plastics:
expensive. Scientists are seeking cheaper and better
alternatives to petroleum-based plastics, and many Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
candidates are in laboratories all over the world. Contact lenses, glazing (best known in this form by
One promising alternative may be fructose. its various trade names around the world; e.g.,
Common plastics and uses: Perspex, Oroglas, Plexiglas), aglets, fluorescent
light diffusers, rear light covers for vehicles.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Heat-resistant, low-friction coatings, used in things
like non-stick surfaces for frying pans, plumber's
tape and water slides. It is more commonly known
as Teflon.

A chair made with a polypropylene seat


Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) (Polyetherketone)
Polypropylene (PP)
Strong, chemical- and heat-resistant thermoplastic,
Food containers, appliances, car fenders (bumpers),
biocompatibility allows for use in medical implant
plastic pressure pipe systems.
applications, aerospace mouldings. One of the most consumption will become greater. In spite of the
expensive commercial polymers. varied and widespread application of plastics in
practically every phase of everyday life, the
Polyetherimide (PEI) (Ultem) possibilities of this wonderful new material have
A high temperature, chemically stable polymer that been by no means exhausted. It seems safe to say
does not crystallize. that if the application and use of plastics continue to
increase at the present rate, we may be living in a
Phenolics (PF) or (phenol formaldehydes) "Plastics Age."
High modulus, relatively heat resistant, and
excellent fire resistant polymer. Used for insulating An apt definition of plastics has been
parts in electrical fixtures, paper laminated products given by the head of the Monsanto Plastics
(e.g., Formica), thermally insulation foams. It is a Research who says, "Plastics are materials that,
thermosetting plastic, with the familiar trade name while being processed, can be pushed into almost
Bakelite, that can be moulded by heat and pressure any desired shape and then retain that shape."
when mixed with a filler-like wood flour or can be
cast in its unfilled liquid form or cast as foam (e.g.,
Oasis). Problems include the probability of The major chemicals used to make plastic
mouldings naturally being dark colours (red, green, resins pose serious risks to public health and safety.
brown), and as thermoset difficult to recycle. Many of the chemicals used in large volumes to
produce plastics are highly toxic.Some chemicals,
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) like benzene and vinyl chloride, are known to cause
One of the aminoplasts and used as a multi- cancer in humans; many tend to be gases and liquid
colorable alternative to phenolics. Used as a wood hydrocarbons, which readily vaporize and pollute
adhesive (for plywood, chipboard, hardboard) and the air. Many are flammable and explosive. Even
electrical switch housings. the plastic resins themselves are flammable and
have contributed to numerous chemical accidents.
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) The production of plastic emits substantial amounts
One of the aminoplasts, and used as a multi- of toxic chemicals(eg. ethylene oxide, benzene and
colorable alternative to phenolics, for instance in xylenes) to air and water. Many of the toxic
mouldings (e.g., break-resistance alternatives to chemicals released in plastic production can cause
ceramic cups, plates and bowls for children) and the cancer and birth defects and damage the nervous
decorated top surface layer of the paper laminates system, blood, kidneys and immune systems. These
(e.g., Formica). chemicals can also cause serious damage to
ecosystems.
Polylactic acid (PLA)
A biodegradable, thermoplastic found converted Ethylene oxide is used as a sterilant in
into a variety of aliphatic polyesters derived from hospitals. It is also the principle metabolite of
lactic acid which in turn can be made by ethene, a precursor to polyethylene plastics and
fermentation of various agricultural products such other synthetic chemicals. Ethylene oxide can be
as corn starch, once made from dairy products. measured by gas chromatography in air or
biological specimens. Ethylene oxide reacts in the
Plastarch material body with hemoglobin.
Biodegradable and heat resistant, thermoplastic
composed of modified corn starch. Many food containers for meats, fish,
cheeses, yogurt, foam and clear clamshell
Effects of Plastics: containers, foam and rigid plates, clear bakery
containers, packaging "peanuts," foam packaging,
In this era of many astonishing industrial audio cassette housings, CD cases, disposable
developments, probably no industry has under gone cutlery, and more are made of polystyrene. J. R.
such rapid growth and development as the plastics Withey in Environmental Health Perspectives 1976
industry. According to most authorities in this field, Investigated styrene and vinyl chloride monomer as
the plastics industry really began in 1868. A young being similar: "Styrene monomer readily migrates
American printer, named John Wesley Hyatt, was from food contained in it. It makes no difference
searching for a new material to be used as a whether the food or drink is hot or cold, or contains
substitute for ivory in the making of billiard balls. fat or water. ...It is not inconceivable that the animal
body behaves as a 'sink' for styrene monomer until
This new plastic was called Bakelite. the lipid portion of the animal body either becomes
Many new plastics have been made since Bakelite. saturated (although death would probably occur
Production of plastics has increased over 2000% prior to this event) or the tissues are equilibrated at
since Bakelite was first produced, and there are now the same concentration as the exposure atmosphere.
more than twenty known types. PVC is used for many products including: flooring,
toys, teethers, clothing, raincoats, shoes, building
products like windows, siding and roofing, hospital
Research along the lines of plastics has blood bags, IV bags and other medical devices. One
given a great impetus to research and invention in of it's major ingredients is chlorine. When chlorine-
many other different fields of endeavor. Millions of based chemicals are heated in the presence of
dollars are spent yearly in plastics research, trying to hydrocarbons they create dioxin, a known
find new plastics and to improve the existing ones. carcinogen and endocrine disruptor. All PVC
Much research will be done in the future to lower production releases dioxin. Other sources of dioxin
the cost of producing plastics so that their are: production and use of chemicals, such as
herbicides and wood preservatives, oil refining,
burning coal and oil for energy, all car and truck TYPES OF PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUES:
In our study, we intended to divide pyrolysis into
pyrolysis with the use of catalysts and pyrolysis without the use of
catalysts. Pyrolysis process, which uses catalysts, can take place
in two different kinds of batch reactor

Pyrolysis using expensive catalysts:


Here the catalysts used are metal promoted silica-
alumina or mixtures of metal hydrogenation catalysts with
HZSM-5. The optimization of waste plastic as a function of
temperature in a batch mode reactor gave liquid yields of
about 80% at a furnace temperatures of about 600 degrees
centigrade and one hr residence time. The pyrolysis oil
obtained at the temperature of maximum yield are relatively
heavy in nature. However, hydro processing at relatively low
hydrogen pressures (200-500psiag) at 430-450 degrees
centigrade either thermally or catalytically converts them
into a much lighter product. Sodium carbonate or lime
addition to the hydrolysis and co processing reactors results
into an effective chlorine capture and the chlorine content of
pyrolysis oil reduces to about 50-200ppm and that of the
hydro processed oils to 1-10ppm. The volatile product from
this process is scrubbed and condensed yielding about 10-
15%gas and 75-80% of a relatively heavy oil product.

Pyrolysis using synthesized catalysts from


fly ash:
Table 2 shows chemical compositions of
fig: pyrolysis the catalysts and fly ash obtained from coal fired
power plants. To use fly ash as synthesized catalyst
Plasticizers are used in PVC that migrate it was treated in NaOH solution for more 24 hrs,
into a blood recipient via the blood bag, IV bag, IV washed by distilled water and dried. To make other
tubing. Children's toys are made with pvc. synthesized catalysts this catalyst can be
impregnated in the nickel nitrate solution. So two
types of catalysts were made for the pyrolysis of PE
Anyone who receives blood, is on kidney and PP of olefin series.
dialysis, or has tubes either inserted in them or has
liquid or air transported to their body is at risk. Component Mordent HY
About 85% of medical waste is incinerated, Silica Alumina Fly Ash
accounting for ten percent of all incineration in the
U.S.Approximately five to fifteen percent of SiO2 91.7 74.9
medical waste needs to be incinerated to prevent 87 53.56
infectious disease. The remaining waste, while not Al2O3 8.23 24.0
posing any danger from infectious pathogens, is 13 27.71
very dangerous when burned. It contains high Na2O3 0.03 1.1
volumes of chlorinated plastics including PVC (also - 0.37
the toxic substances mercury, arsenic, cadmium and Fe - 0.03
lead.) - 5.53
SiO2/Al2O3 (-)18.9 5.31
Pyrolysis: 6.69 1.93

Pyrolysis is a process of thermal


The setup of the pyrolysis batch reactor is
degradation in the absence of oxygen. Plastic &
shown in Figure 1. The mechanical agitator was
Rubber waste is continuously treated in a cylindrical
installed in the batch type reactor wrapped around
chamber and the pyrolytic gases are condensed in a
with electric heater for controlling the pyrolysis
specially-designed condenser system.This yields a
temperature of waste plastic. The organic vapor
hydrocarbon distillate comprising straight and
pyrolyzed from waste plastics can pass the catalytic
branched chain aliphatic, cyclic aliphatic and
cracker bed or not when catalyst is charged with
aromatic hydrocarbons. The resulting mixture is
waste plastics in the reactor. After that, the vapor is
essentially the equivalent to petroleum distillate.The
discharged through 1st and 2nd condenser for
plastic / Rubber is pyrolised at 370ºC -420ºC and
product oil conversion. These two condensers are
the pyrolysisgases are condensed in a series of
maintained at different temperatures, 70 and 10.
condensers to give a low sulphur content distillate.
Pyrolysis oil collected from each condenser was
analyzed by SIMDIS GC to investigate the catalytic for 1hr about 80% of oil yield is obtained,
properties and the pyrolysis conditions. The yields which is relatively low in chlorine content (10ppm).
of pyrolysis oil from polyethylene and
polypropylene were 75 to 89% Future prospects of pyrolysis technology:

Paralysis is a very promising and reliable


technology for the chemical recycling of plastic
wastes. Countries like UK, USA, and Germany etc
have successfully implemented this technology and
commercial production of monomers using
pyrolysis has already begun there.
Paralysis offers a great hope in generating
fuel oils, which are heavily priced now. This reduces
the economical burden on developing countries. The
capital cost required to invest on pyrolysis plant is
low compared to other technologies. So, this
technology may be the beacon light in the future to
a world, which is now on the verge of acute fuel
shortage.

Indian scenario and conclusion:

According to one estimate in India about


80000 tons of municipal solid waste is generated
everyday of which plastics comprise of only 4-6%.
A scientific and systematic approach in recycling
the plastic waste in India is still in its infancy.
Unscientific and haphazard landfilling is in
operation in urban areas and in rural areas
practically there is absence of any treatment.
The reasons are many. Both the
government and private industrial sectors failed to
initialize the development of indigenous
technologies related to this area. Except well-
established industries like Reliance polymers etc,
others are not investing in a venture like this.
Nevertheless, India has already taken its
first step in this direction. In
the course of time, with the potential that our
country has, India will surely make the most of
chemical recycling methods and achieve great
profits and progress by adapting pyrolysis.
Paralysis without the use of catalysts:
The process carried out is the same in this
Random Depolymerization:
case also but catalysts are not used. Instead the
temperature parameters are varied. Plastics have become an integral part and
parcel of our lives due to its economic value, easy
Commercial technology (CFFLS pyrolysis availability, easy processability, light-weight,
durability and energy efficiency, besides other
technology): benefits.
CFFLS (Consortium for fossil fuel
liquefaction science) technology is implemented by Since plastics are re-usable and
USA.Here; plastic is subjected to a very simple recyclable, there should not have been any problem
pretreatment process of shredding of waste to 1- of disposal of the plastics waste, however due to our
10cm size. The shredded materials are then poor littering habits and inadequate waste
subjected to magnetic and eddy current cleaning management system/infrastructure, plastics waste
steps. In pyrolysis at about 600 degrees centigrade management, disposal continues to be a major
problem for the civic authorities, especially in the
urban areas.
CFFLS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY Though various steps have already been
Plastic waste
either taken or initiated by the Government and the
legal/civic authorities to reduce the problem of this
waste management, an innovative invention by Prof.
Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar of the Department of
Applied Chemistry, G.H. Raisoni College of
Pyrolysis
Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, has created a
Cleaning Reactor hope and scope to tackle this problem more easily
and more environmentally-friendly manner.
oil
She has invented a catalyst system, which temperature is 350oC. There is total conversion of
converts polymeric materials into liquid, solid and waste plastics into value-added fuel products.
gaseous fuels. Unique features of the process and product
obtained are:
The Process: 1. All types of Plastics Waste including CD’s and
Under controlled reaction conditions, plastics Floppies having metal inserts, laminated plastics –
materials undergo random de-polymerization and can be used in the process without any cleaning
are converted into three products: operation. Inputs should be dry.
a) Solid Fuel – Coke 2. Bio-medical plastics waste can be used.
b) Liquid Fuel – Combination of About 1 liter of Fuel is produced from 1 kg of
Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel and Lube Oil Plastics Waste. Bye-products are Coke and LPG
c) Gaseous Fuel – LPG range gas Gaseous Fuel.
The process consists of two steps: 3. Any possible dioxin formation is ruled out during
the reaction involving PPVC waste, due to the fact
i) Random de-polymerization
that the reaction is carried out in absence of oxygen,
- Loading of waste plastics into the a prime requirement for dioxin formation.
reactor along with the Catalyst system.
4. This is a unique process in which 100% waste is
- Random de-polymerization of the waste converted into 100% value-added products.
plastics.
The process does not create any pollution.
ii) Fractional Distillation
Though the fuel so produced from the
- Separation of various liquid fuels by plastics waste could be used for running a four-
virtue of the difference in their boiling points. stroke/100 cc motorcycle at a higher mileage rate,
One important factor of the quality of the the inventor agrees that separation of petrol from the
liquid fuel is that the sulphur content is less than liquid fuel could be a complex generation.
0.002 ppm – which is much lower than the level Nevertheless the product is good enough for use as
found in regular fuel. an alternative clean fuel in boilers and other heating
systems.
Fig. 2 It is, however, not the first time that fuel
10% has been produced out of plastics waste. A Japanese
company, M/s. Osmotic, is already manufacturing
Bags Films fuel out of plastics waste at an industrial plant in
etc. Japan employing the Pyrolysis process. However,
Prof. Zadgaonkar’s process is a continuous one and
Others hence is cheaper, whereas the Japanese technology
is a batch process and is comparatively costlier.
45% 45%
A live demonstration of the production of
Bottles & Liquid Fuel was made in the presence of ICPE led
Containers team in the laboratory. Three kgs of plastics scrap
was used to produce about 2 litres of Liquid Fuel in
about 3 hrs. The reaction was terminated after the
Fig: process of fuels trial demo. The fuel obtained was used in smooth
running of a motorcycle, which was experienced by
the visiting members. However, the inventor does
Principals Involved: not wish to claim the product as a substitute for
Petrol or Diesel at this stage. The present use would
All plastics are polymers mostly be as a fuel for running boilers and other heating
containing carbon and hydrogen and few other purposes.
elements like chlorine, nitrogen, etc. Polymers are
made up of small molecules, called monomers, Zadgaonkars’ Process:
which combine together and form large molecules,
called polymers. The process is also carried out in absence of oxygen
When this long chain of polymers breaks & in the presence of coal and certain hybrid
at certain points, or when lower molecular weight catalytic additive.The reaction parameters viz.
fractions are formed, this is termed as degradation temperature and pressure for a batch were
of polymers. This is reverse of polymerization or extremely high in initial stages. Later with the use
de-polymerization. of hybrid catalyst the maximum reaction
If such breaking of long polymeric chain temperature were brought down to a greater extend.
or scission of bonds occurs randomly, it is called
‘Random depolymerization’. Here the polymer Steps Involved:
degrades to lower molecular fragments.
In the process of conversion of waste 1. Feed System
plastics into fuels, random depolymerization is
carried out in a specially designed reactor in the 2. Premaster
absence of oxygen and in the presence of coal and
certain catalytic additives. The maximum reaction 3. Melter

4. Dechlorination
Here complex hydrocarbons break into simpler
5. Reactor molecules to increase the quality and quantity of
1. Feed System: lighter, more desirable products.
It is also known as unzipping reaction.

Fig: feed system


Feed consists of all type of plastic scrap
The system essentially consist sorters and sizing
equipment like of Crusher
The material is crushed in to uniform size for ease
of handling and melting
This process of sizing and grading the waste is semi
automatic.

2. Pre-melting/Feeder:
The feeder consists of a driving motor,
electric heater and control panel.
The granular crushed/cut/shredded waste plastic
melts and injected in the melting vessel.
Fig: reactor section
3. Melter: Advantages:
In melter vessel, the feed is heated to  Reduces pollution helps in waste
275⁰C -410⁰C. plastic degradation.
The heat required for the melting will be supplied  Cheaper and quality fuel.
by the gas generated from the plant.  Perfect solution for waste plastic,
rubber, tyre management.
4. Dechlorination:  Raw material readily available.
 Plant is energy self sufficient.
The molten plastic will be drawn from the
overflow end of melter vessel to Dechlorinate.
Here the waste plastic is heated with catalytic
additive which helps in removal of chlorine.
The hydrocarbons free from HCl shall be used for
heating purpose
The molten plastic is taken out and subjected to
depolymerization

5. Reactor Section:
The molten waste plastic free of chlorine is allowed
to flow over a heated surface at 300 - 350 OC
polymers are highly heat sensitive due to the limited
strength of the covalent bonds
Hence The breaking of chemical bonds under the
influence of heat occurs
Conclusion:
This study shows without doubt that one-way PET
bottles are as ‘ecologically favourable’ as refillable
glass under non-deposit circumstances. A plausible
alternative could be to revise the Packaging
Ordinance, such that ecologically favourable
packaging systems would be included in a deposit
without being discriminated when compared to
refillable packaging. It cannot be explained to
consumers that they should return the empty bottles
to the store if they are
subsequently transported to the other side of the
world for recycling. This way we are losing
environmental gain that is the prime reason behind
bottles collection. This study has shown that it does
not matter whether collected PET is recycled into
polyester fibre, sheet, strapping or back into PET
bottles: they all offer equal benefits to the ecological
profile of PET. Mandatory or semi mandatory
requirements to recycle PET bottles into PET bottles
would be ridiculous. Public perception does not
always match reality. Not many people comprehend
that PET bottles, even for single use, are as good as
their glass counterparts. This calls for further
improvements in balanced, reputable education, and
independent and irrespective of local political

Reference
 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science
 http://biodegradableplastics.wordpress.co
m/2008/04/15/fuel-from-plastic-waste/
 http://www.indiacar.com/infobank/Plastic
_fuel.asp
 http://www.tradekey.com/selloffer_view/i
d/828854.htm