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TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE

INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES CAMPUS

PISMP (TESL) YEAR TWO

COHORT ONE
2012

BEHAVIOUR AND CLASSROOM


MANAGEMENT COURSEBOOK
EDU 3104
BEHAVIOR AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

UNIT CODE : EDU 3104

YEAR TWO (Semester 1)

COMPILED BY

DR. BOON PONG YING


DR. LAWRENCE ALOYSIUS AERIA

EDUCATION STUDIES DEPARTMENT


INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES TEACHER
TRAINING INSTITUTE
KUALA LUMPUR
Name of Course Behaviour and Classroom Management
(Pengurusan Bilik Darjah dan Tingkah Laku)
Course Code EDU 3104
Credit 3 (3+0)
Contact Hours 45 hours
Medium of Bahasa Melayu/English Language
Instruction
Prerequisite Nil
Semester First/Second
Learning 1. Explain the concept of primary school classroom management
Outcomes
2. Apply various models of discipline management in the classroom
3. Analyse classroom disciplinary problems and select approaches to
handle them
4. Analyse classroom management concerns regarding students
with special needs
5. Perform teacher tasks and responsibilities in classroom
management
6. Design a plan of an effective classroom management

Synopsis This course discusses classroom management in primary schools, the


roles of teachers in classroom management; models of discipline
management; issues regarding discipline problems of students and
management of special need students.

Kursus ini membincangkan pengurusan bilik darjah sekolah rendah;


peranan guru dalam mengurus bilik darjah; model-model pengurusan
disiplin; masalah disiplin murid-murid dan pengurusan murid-murid
berkeperluan khas

Topic Content Hours


1. Primary School Classroom Management 4
 Concept of classroom management
 Characteristics of an effective teacher in managing a
classroom
- Personal qualities
- Teaching-learning competency
- Disposition and moral practices
2. Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management 8
 Conducive learning environment
- Physical environment
- Psycho-social environment
- Classroom rules and regulation
- Classroom routines
 Management of classroom assessment
- Test and examination planning process
- Test and examination administration
 Managing students’ information resource
- record keeping of students’ personal
information
3. Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management 5
 Teacher-student relationship
- The significance of building teacher-student
relationship
- Factors influencing teacher-student relationship
- Strategies in building positive teacher-student
relationship
- Pastoral care
- Classroom dynamics

4. Management Of Classroom Discipline 6


 Concept of classroom discipline
 Models of classroom discipline and its application
- Behaviour Modification (Skinner)
- Assertive Discipline (Canter)
- Logical Consequences (Dreikurs)
- Group Management (Kounin)
- Reality Therapy

5. Disciplinary Problems And Problematic Behaviour 6


(Misbehaviour)In The Classroom
 Types of disciplinary problems
 Problematic behaviour in the classroom
 Causes of disciplinary problems and problematic
behaviour (misbehaviour)
6. Management Of Disciplinary Problems In The 6
Classroom
 Teacher’s Role and Action
 Hindrance in managing disciplinary problems
 Intervention in handling disciplinary problems
- Pastoral care
- Guidance and Counseling
- Behaviour modification techniques

7. Classroom Management Of An Inclusive Classroom 6


 Dyslexia
 Autistic
 Late development
 Hyeractive (ADHD, ADD)
 Gifted

8. Planning Of An Effective Classroom Management 4


 Preparation of an effective classroom management
plan

Total 45
Assessment Course work (50%)

Examination (50%)
Main References Charles,C.M. & Senter,G.W.(2005).Elementary classroom
management.(4th ed.)Boston: Pearson Educational Ltd.

Burden.P.(2003). Classroom management:Creating a


successful learning community.New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Weinstein,C.S. & Mignano, A.J.(2003).Elementary classroom


management: Lessons from research and practice.(2nd
ed).New York: McGraw Hill.
Additional Arends, R.L. (2001). Learn to teach. (5th ed).Boston:McGraw Hill.
References
Charles, C.M.(2001). Building Classroom Discipline. New York: Allyn and
Bacon.

Edwards,C.H.(2000). Classroom discipline and management. (3rd ed).New


York: John Wiley & Sons.

Good,T.L. & Brophy,J.E.(1997). Looking in classrooms.(7thed).


New York:Addison-Wesley Educational Pub.Inc.

Hardin,C.J.((2004). Effective classroom management:Models


and strategies for today’s classrooms.New Jersey: Pearson
Educational Ltd.

Myint Swe Khine, Lourdusamy,A., Quek, C. L. & Wong, F.L.(Eds).(2005).


Classroom management. Singapore: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Swanson,H.L.,Harris,K.R. & Graham,S.(Eds.)(2005).Handbook of


learning disabilities.London:The Guiford Press.

Wright,D.(2005).There’s no need to shout!:The primary teacher’s


guide to successful behaviour management. London: Nelson
Thornes Ltd.
BEHAVIOUR AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
CONTENT PAGE

UNIT TOPICS PAGE


Primary School Classroom Management
1
 Concept of classroom management
 Characteristics of an effective teacher in managing a
classroom
- Personal qualities
- Teaching-learning competency
- Disposition and moral practices

2
Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management
 Conducive learning environment
- Physical environment
- Psycho-social environment

3 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management


 Conducive learning environment
- Classroom rules and regulation
- Classroom routines

4 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management


 Management of classroom assessment
- Test and examination planning process
- Test and examination administration
 Managing students’ information resource
- record keeping of students’ personal information

5 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management


 Teacher-student relationship
- The significance of building teacher-student
relationship
- Factors influencing teacher-student relationship

6 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management


 Teacher-student relationship
- Strategies in building positive teacher-student
relationship
- Pastoral care
- Classroom dynamics
UNIT TOPICS PAGE
7 . Management Of Classroom Discipline
Concept of classroom discipline
Models of classroom discipline and its application
- Behaviour Modification (Skinner)
- Assertive Discipline (Canter)
- Logical Consequences (Dreikurs)

8 Management Of Classroom Discipline


Models of classroom discipline and its application
- Group Management (Kounin)
- Reality Therapy

9 Disciplinary Problems And Problematic Behaviour


(Misbehaviour) In The Classroom
 Concept & General Discussion
 Types of disciplinary problems
 Problematic behaviour in the classroom
 Causes of disciplinary problems and problematic
behaviour (misbehaviour)

10
Management Of Disciplinary Problems In the Classroom

 Concepts
 Teacher’s Role and Action
 Hindrance in managing disciplinary problems
 Intervention in handling disciplinary problems
- Pastoral care
- Guidance and Counseling
- Behaviour modification techniques

11 Classroom Management Of An Inclusive Classroom


 Concept of managing children with special needs
 Dyslexia
 Autistic
 Late development
 Hyeractive (ADHD, ADD)
 Gifted
UNIT TOPICS PAGE
Planning Of An Effective Classroom Management
Summary of effective classroom management
12
 . Preparation of an effective classroom management
plan
Behaviour and Classroom Management
Introduction

Behaviour and Classroom Management is designed to develop in the students a basic


understanding of classroom management in primary schools, the roles of teachers in
classroom management; models of discipline management; issues regarding discipline
problems of students and management of special need students.

Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the major models of discipline and
their implications for classroom practice. Within this models, learners will be exposed to the
different strategies each model in promoting classroom discipline amongst students.

At the end of the component, students should be able to demonstrate a basic understanding of
relevant models and their future role as teachers and to classroom practice.They should be
able to prepare an effective classroom plan.

Mode and delivery will include mass lectures and tutorials. Discussions, presentations, critical appraisals,
case studies and cooperative learning will be used wherever applicable during tutorials.

Assessment will be in the form of coursework, learning portfolio (50%) which will include critical review,
reflections on lectures, reading materials and literature reviews and a written examination(50%).

Primary School Classroom Management


UNIT 1

Synopsis

This unit will introduce the students to the concepts of classroom management and
characteristics of an effective teacher in managing a classroom whereby the personal qualities,
teaching-learning competency and disposition and moral practices of the classroom teacher
will be discussed.

Learning Outcomes

1.1. Explain concepts of classroom management


1.2 Elaborate on the characteristics of an effective teacher in managing a classroom
1.3 Portray teacher’s profesional characteristics towards achieving self excellence

TOPIC 1 Basic Concepts of Classroom Management


1.0 Introduction to Classroom Management

A classroom is a place wherevarious activities are going on, where interactions take place,
social situations are enbanced and norms are built-up in instructional situations.

The classroom is an established organisation in the society. The instructional process that
goes on in the classrooms serves the purpose of cultivating pupills' minds through significant
practices accepted by the teachers. The teacher is often considered to be a manager of the
teaching-learning process. She.he makes efforts to organise teaching-learning resources.
The rhain objective of teaching-learning is to create a conducive classroom environment so
that the students learn and grow in more productive ways. We, therefore, must ledrn how to
create conditions in a classroom wherein the students find it desirable to ledrn. Management
and teaching are closely related in theory and practice. Good classroom managers are often
good teachers. They structure the classroom environment go as to maximise students'
instructional opportunities. The classroom environment is the ultimate responsibility of the
class teacher. The teacher who is actually teabhing the class is expected to control his class
fully.

1.1 Definition of Classroom Management

Classroom management refers to a process that teachers guarantee the classroom


instruction, the order, the effectiveness, deal with some matters, and arrange the time and
space, and some other factors. The traditional viewpoint was that, the purpose of classroom
management is to deal with student’s misbehavior. In fact, the significance of classroom
management and discipline cannot be equal; the significance of the former is more
widespread than the latter one.

Classroom management refers to managing the student, studying in classroom, the teacher
and student’s behavior and the activity; it is the way teachers organize what goes on in the
classroom. It contributes directly to the efficiency of teaching and learning as the most
effective activities can be made almost useless if the teacher does not organize them
efficiently. But discipline has different meanings. In other words, the teacher adopts certain
methods and measures to deal with student’s misbehavior issues.

Classroom management means how the teacher works, how the class works, how the
teacher and students work together, and how teaching and learning happen. For students,
classroom management means having some control in how the class operates and
understanding clearly the way the teacher and students are to interact with each other. For
both teachers and students, classroom management is not a condition but a process.(
www.sagepub.com/upm-data/9330_Bosch_Chapter_1.pdf)

Classroom management can be viewed in three dimensions. The dimensions are the
classroom, the teacher and the learners. Now look at the illustration below.
In managing the classroom, the teacher has to keep in mind the above dimensions. These
three dimensions must be managed effectively if learning is to occur.

1.2 Characteristics of an effective teacher in managing a classroom

Learning the basic skills necessary for you to become an effective educator can be especially
difficult for a first year teacher. Becoming an effective teacher takes practice and special
guidance from mentors and administrators. Effective teaching does not involve presenting
your exciting lessons or activities to the class, it is a craft learned over time. Effective
teaching is a teaching philosophy that can distinctly change given the situation. For example,
a classroom with five students is a much different situation than addressing a class of forty
students. Having the skills and abilities necessary to become an effective teacher will allow
you to craft your lessons and teaching style to accommodate any size of class.

Characteristics of an effective teacher:


1. Positive expectations
2. Enthusiasm
3. Effective classroom manager / Organization
4. Ability to design lessons and activities
5. Rapport with students

(a) Personal Qualities


An effective teacher is one who runs an effective classroom, and
touches the lives of children. An efficient teacher is one who knows
what they are doing and does the right thing consistently. To be and
effective and efficient teacher you must have three very important
characteristics for student success. Positive expectations, good
classroom management and designing lessons for student mastery.

Effective teachers use their personal skills with the students as these skills play an important
role in students learning process, achievement, and behaviour.

Caring

Effective teachers care about their students in order to bring the best of each one to
encourage learning. According to Gurney (2007), learning has been considered as an
emotional exercise which will allow the students to get engaged as it appeals to be
emotionally. Besides, Eisner (2002) suggests that “teaching is a caring exercise” which
takes an important role in effective learning process. Showing care includes listening to the
students, not only when they are in the classroom, but also about their particular lives and/or
personal problems. The role of the effective teachers, in this situation, is to be good
listeners, paying attention to, and showing understanding through tenderness and patience.
According to Stronge et al. (2004) students perceive effectiveness when teachers show
kindness, gentleness and encouragement. Effective teachers demonstrate genuine concern
and empathy toward students through understanding the students´ concerns and questions.
Stronge et al. (2004) stated that effective teachers listen to the students’ arguments and
help and/or indicates them how to resolve their problems, and are willing to talk about their
personal lives and experiences respecting the confidentiality issues. Therefore, there is a
more effective achievement when the teacher demonstrates that cares about the students
and knows them individually.

Knowing the Students Individually

Effective caring teachers also know the students individually and give them individual
attention and develop productive relationships with their students. They treat their student
with respect and expect the same in return, enhancing the students learning progress. It is
not enough to know the students in their formal setting (in the classroom: their learning
strategies or learning style), but also, to know them in their informal setting (outside the
classroom: likes and dislikes, background, their motivation, aptitude and attitude to learn).
These have great effect on behaviour and performance in the classroom, and in their
learning process (Cruickshank & Haefele, 2001). In addition, according to Stronger et al.
(2004) caring goes beyond listening, understanding and knowing the students, it is also
being patient, kind, warm, sensitive, human with them. It is to be adaptable to particular
students’ situations, honest, trustworthy, encouraged, and having and showing affection and
love for them. Sizer (1999) stated that students cannot be taught well if we do not know
them.
Teacher-Students Relationship

Effective teachers do not only have a teacher-student relationship in the classroom, but also
demonstrate interest in students´ lives beyond the classroom, using a wide variety of
strategies to interact with them outside the class, and the educational institution. This also
encourages students to perform their best in the classroom (Kohn, 1996). The election on
the type of social event can be easier if the teacher knows the students preferences.
Students really appreciate the teacher who attends social event with them, such as the
graduation, the end course dinner, a visit to a museum, a local event, a Effective teachers
-profesional and personal skills concert, etc. According to Stronge et al. (2004) the social
interactions between the teacher and students encourage students leaning and
achievement. Besides, this helps introvert or low self-esteem learners to be better integrated
in the group. This increases students´ participation and motivation, which enhance a more
favourable leaning environment, and challenge the students to succeed. Wolk, (2002) stated
that a strong relationships with the students helps to decrease discipline problems.
Therefore, a teacher who spends more time interacting socially with the students, working
directly with them, and demonstrates a sense of fun and willingness to participate, in a
friendly and personal manner, is considered to be effective. Knowing the students and
having a teaching-student relationship with them creates a warm classroom and learning
environment. Positive expectations, extremely good classroom management skills, and
know how to design lessons for student mastery. Positive expectations are essential to
student success. When the teacher has high expectations, not high standards, the students
will perform to your expectations. If you believe that all students are above average and that
they all are capable learners, these expectations will transmit to the student, and the student
will succeed. If these expectations are apparent toward all students it will benefit both the
teacher and the students. By setting high standards for a student, the teacher is
encouraging the student to do the same and will eventually develop high expectations for
him or herself. Effective teachers should have high expectations for their entire class.
Whether a student constantly makes hundreds on tests or a fifty, each student should be
given positive reinforcement in class. Effective teachers should exhibit positive expectations
to ensure each student believes they can excel. Transmitting positive reinforcement by
telling each student they have high abilities and are a capable learner will allow students to
excel to their highest abilities. In addition, setting positive expectations in the classroom will
help students who do not have proper motivation and support at home.

(b) Teaching-learning competency

Effective teachers are distinguished by their dedication to the students and to the job of
teaching, and feel responsible for the achievement and success of the students and own
professional development. Effective teachers really believe that all students can learn,
although all learn differently. They strive to motivate and engage all their students in learning
rather than simple accepting that some students cannot be engaged and are destined to do
poorly.

Educators need to have proper classroom management skills in order to be effective


teachers. Classroom management is not about disciplining your class, it deals with how to
effectively manage the classroom. Classroom management deals with how to take roll, keep
an effective grade book and how to discipline students.

One of the most important skills for an effective teacher to master is how to design and
implement lessons in the classroom. Designing lessons involves how to cater the needed
curriculum into discussions, activities and assignments. In addition, an effective teacher
should also be able to evaluate whether or not their students mastered the lesson.

Effective teachers should always exhibit enthusiasm in the classroom. Enthusiasm will allow
your students to be interested in class discussions and classroom activities. Effective
teachers should speak in expressive ways, not a monotone style. In addition, gestures with
arms and constantly moving around the classroom will allow your students to be interested
in the classroom discussion. Effective teacher should also maintain eye contact with their
students at all times

There are many different types of teachers. For instance, among many others, there are
those who walk into the classroom, and some students do not even notice them; also there
are some who seem to be authentic dictators, and students are even afraid to ask anything
in the classroom. There are those who read from a book, or talk constantly, during the whole
session, while students keep just copying; or even those who just talk, and by the end of the
lesson, students do not even know what the lesson was about, because the objectives,
structure and/or theme were not clear, even for the teacher.

Content Knowledge

For many, including teachers, the most obvious requirement to be an effective teacher is the
content knowledge of the subject. Reynolds and Muijs (1999) considered good content
knowledge responses to spontaneous and demanding students questioning. According to
the McBer Report (DFES, 2000) students expect a teacher to have good content knowledge
to be considered effective, which inspire the students’ confidence in the teacher. In addition,
Ferguson & Womackl (1993) stated that “effective communication of content knowledge is a
hallmark of good teachers”. However, having good content knowledge is just one of many
vital factors and qualities, which an effective teacher needs to have in order to enhance
learning and achievement.

Good Planning

Having good content knowledge is not so effective without a well planned lesson. A lesson
plan makes the content and the session interesting and involving. Good planning facilitates
clear explanations, and it provides a wide range of resources suitable to students needs. It
assists with effective use of oral questioning, giving instructions, being flexible, and having
an impact on the students´ stimulation to encourage their interest and participation. Effective
teachers should give meaning to the subject by facilitating relevant material to the students
wherever possible, and by finding means to stimulate interest on it. Besides, they must be
prepared to reconsider whether the material and methodology is suitable to be re-presented
in the classroom. Craig and Dickenson (2003) pointed out that good planning ensures that
lessons include periods where students are allowed to have discussion in open or close
groups or in pairs. Good planning organizes the material which allows doing more and better
during a session. Gurney, (2007) also pointed out that should allow the students to give the
teacher their feedback in order to improve own knowledge, methodology and learning
environment if needed. Cruickshenk & Haefele (2001) stated that “effective teachers are
able to qualitatively do more with the same amount of time” However, good planning also
implies classroom management and organization to achieve learning. Chelo Moreno Rubio
Classroom Management and Organization

Effective teachers manage and organize the classroom, in the beginning of the year,
according to the students’ needs and preferences to create an optimistic and warm learning
environment for all the students, and enhance learning. Emmer et al. (1980, 2003) stated
that “effective teachers takes time in the beginning of the year and especially on the first day
to school to establish classroom management, classroom organization and expectations for
students behavior”

According to Sokal et al. (2003) classroom management seem to be a high priority for
novice and experience teachers. However, management is not parallel to strict rules; in fact,
management is to anticipate students´ needs, and then prepare a suitable year plan,
procedures, activities, assessment, evaluation criteria, and above all, clear instructions to
the students to promote students motivation, enthusiasm and learning. Effective teachers
use low classroom rules, and more routines to maintain a relaxed and warm environment to
enhance learning. Marzano et al. (2003) stated that “minimum number of classroom rules,
which tend to focus on expectations of how to act toward one another, maintain a safe
environment, and participate in learning”. McLeod et al. (2003) distinguished from rules, and
stated that is more effective and efficient to use routines in the classroom. Stronge et al.
(2003) also suggested that effective teachers use more routines for daily tasks than rules.
Wong and Wong (2005) distinguished between routine as what the students do
automatically, and procedure as what the teachers want to be done.

While classroom management focus on instructions which influences the students in terms
of psychological behaviour to learn, classroom organization influences the students’
motivation to learn created from the physical learning environment. Effective teachers
organize the classroom to promote learning and interaction, and have to create an optimal
learning environment where students feel comfortable and relax in terms of decoration,
accessibility and mobility. According to Stronge et al, (2004) part of the classroom
organization is the furniture arrangement, the accessibility of material, and the decoration.
Kohn (1996) stated that the furniture arrangement facilitate interaction.

Classroom Behaviour

Good classroom management and organization, and a good lesson plan also minimises the
likelihood of misbehaviour. Craig and Dickenson (2003) stated that almost all classroom
behaviour is learned and that students must clearly understand what is expected of them.
The responsibility lies with the teachers to explain how and why they want them to work in
that way, and to give positive feedback when students respond positively. In the McBer
Report (DFES, 2000), it is stated that students themselves want a teacher to keep discipline
in the classroom. According to Kyriacou, (1998) maintaining discipline is necessary for
learning to be effective. He also suggested that students’ misbehaviour can be minimised by
generally skilful teaching. Wong and Wong (2005) differentiate between manage and
discipline. They stated that “effective teachers manage their classrooms with procedures
and routines. Ineffective teachers discipline their classrooms with threats and punishments”.
They also underlined that discipline has to do with how students behave, and management
has to do with procedures on how students have to work in the classroom. Many ineffective
teachers use reward stickers, incentive gifs, infractions cards to discipline their classroom
with punishments. They only waste time, and do not solve the problem, effective teachers
manage the classroom with procedures and routines to maximise and engage learning time.
Misbehaviour such as luck of silence can occur. Some seemed to obtain virtual silence all
the time. Others obtain almost perfect silence, but pupils need regular reminders, while
others, seldom achieved any silence and pupils behaviour needed regularly keeping in
check. Craig and Dickenson (2003) pointed out that it is unreasonable to expect total silence
for extended periods. On the other hand, an effective teacher is aware that some students
might prefer to sit quietly and have low active participation in the classroom activities,
although will know how to make the student participate.

Individual Differences

Many teachers still teach their students in the same way they were taught. Some because
they, erroneously, think that the traditional teaching is more effective, others because they
just do not worry much about alter their own and bad routine by laziness, and other because
they think that students have to adapt to the teacher own methods. Wickham (2003) warned
that the teaching styles used by each teacher can be strongly influenced by their own
learning style. Effective teachers should be able to personalize the leaning for their students.
They understand that students develop as different rates and that in every classroom there
will be a range of student abilities and aptitudes. The teacher must feel the pulse of a
classroom and modify the teaching methods to maintain a high level of interest, no matter
what the subject is. They also use their knowledge of learning processed to determine which
will be most effective to help the particular students in their classes learning successfully.
Effective teachers strike the right chord with the students and have a sixth sense about
those who need more help. For these reasons, it is vital to know the students` needs, their
learning strategies and style, personality, motivation, attitude, abilities, even background to
be able to help them.

In addition, effective teachers use techniques that best serve the learning needs of their
students. They use them to have each student working on tasks that engage and challenge
them to achieve personal best. There are many things that students can learn themselves
through discovery, and/or in a more direct way. Some students learn by being exposed to
learning opportunities, while others will need concerted direct teaching and correction by the
teacher before they master the learning requirements. Effective teachers help students learn
on their own, as well as from others, from outside the school, and from various sources such
technology, (Lowman, 1995) Effective teachers must be prepared to reconsider whether the
material and methodology is suitable to be re-presented in the classroom. In addition,
effective teachers understand that students learn best if their particular culture, background
and abilities are acknowledged by the teacher and the methodology and procedure can be
adapted to the students´ needs, (Zeichner, 1993).

Communication Skills

Communication skills are vital for anyone who has a teaching job. Effective teachers are
always effective communicators. They communicate clearly about course objectives, content
and testing, making sure to provide a rationale for learning particular material and adapt
instruction to their student's level of knowledge and skill. Lacks of communication mean that
the students will not understand key concepts at all, or they will do incorrectly. Effective
teacher can take something that is complex and present it in a way that can be easily
absorbed by the students, and through different verbal and non-verbal communications
(Prozesky, 2000).
Teachers’ confidence pays an important role in effectiveness. Confidence to teach subject
matter influences the teaching outcomes (Bandura, 1997). If effective teachers believe in
themselves, they achieve a lot in the classroom, and students know who is in charge, and
the teacher knows what material to cover, and how to teach it.
Effective teachers are passionate about teaching and the subject. If the teachers do not love
their job, the students perceive it, influencing in their low motivation. Besides, if they do not
love the subject, therefore, how can the students are going to love it? Effective teachers
have an energy that almost makes them glow and they tackle each lesson with a sense of
challenge, rather than routine. Wolk (2001) stated that when the teacher is passionate about
learning can create an “infectious classroom environment” Besides, Gurney (2007) pointed
out that when the teachers show enthusiasm, and there is interaction in the classroom, the
work of learning process is turned into a pleasure. In addition, teachers who are enthusiastic
about their subjects and learning, motivate students, and therefore increase achievement
(Stronge et al., 2004).

Motivation for Learning

Motivating students make them to be more receptive and excited about the subject, make
them be aware of the value and importance of learning, and have a better attitude to learn.
Effective teachers makes the students increase their academic self-concept, their interest in
the subject and the desire to learn more, and therefore to have a high level of achievement
(NWREL, 2001). It also been stated that students see the effective teacher as a motivational
and a leader when the teacher encourages them to be responsible for their own learning.
Also when high standards and challenge tasks and a variety of strategies such as
cooperative learning (Fisher, 2003); and when relevant reinforcement and feedback have
been provided during the process, enhancing learning as a result. Humour can be a
powerful ingredient in every lesson. Effective teachers do not need to be clowns, but it is
beneficial to have good sense of humour, and been willing to share jokes with the students
to break negative-cold barriers.

Respect, Fairness and Equity

Respect, fairness and equity are identified as the prerequisite of effective teaching in the
eyes of students. Kyriacou, (1998) stated mutual respect as an essential feature of the
classroom to establish the right climate for effective teaching and learning. He also added
that respect requires the students to know that the teacher is competent, interested in their
progress and is committed. Effective teachers should avoid situations of luck of respect
among students who do not respect their peers. Fairness is so appreciated by the students,
and effective teachers respond individually to misbehaviour, rather than to the whole class,
(Stronge et al. 2004). He added that students expect to treat them equitably in any situation,
either in case of misbehaviour, assessment results, religion, ethnic background, age, etc.
and to avoid favouritism (Peart & Campbell, 1999). Therefore, effective teacher continually
demonstrate respect to their students (inside or outside the classroom), fairness and equity
regarding individual situations, age, background, ethnicity, religion, economical status, and
so forth).

Assessment and evaluation

Effective teachers really believe every student is capable of achieving success, and they do
all they can to find ways of making each student successful. Effective teachers´ expectations
towards the students, in terms of standard of learning and their behaviour,
are high, and they help their students to meet those high expectations which are essential.
According to Graham et al. (2001), a good way to communicate high expectations is through
challenging tasks, case-base approach involving real-world problems, sample cases, and
praise.

Assessment can be an effective learning process. Effective teachers have good expertise in
a variety of assessment methods, equitable practice, and a good and fair evaluation system.
They teach to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning. They
also make sure that their students know what the objectives and goals of the learning
program are; understand how these goals will be assessed; know whether they are on the
pathway to achieve success; and are actively involve in evaluating their own leaning.
Effective teachers request formal and informal responses from students during the
semester, and use the information to improve their courses as they are being taught.
According to Cameron (2002), students should be able to understand that assessment is a
part of their learning process and not just one activity to fill the subject. This benefits
students from learning environments which help peer tutoring, co-operative learning and
questioning, summarising and collaborative reasoning. Graham et al. (2001) highlighted that
if students are allowed to choose their own project topics relevant to the course, they are
encourage to express their own diverse points of view. In the Six Traits of Writing Report
(2010), it is stated that when students write about something they like, they do it better.
According to Graham et al. (2001), well designed discussion assignments facilitate
meaningful cooperation among students. He also stated that effective teachers also give
positive feedback regularly through the course to inform the students about the learning
process. He distinguishes between information feedback (grades or comments), and
acknowledgment feedback (confirmation of reception of assessment), and added that
deadlines encourage students to spend time on tasks and help with busy schedules.
Besides, evaluation techniques should be clearly related to course objectives, and have to
provide a fair and objective evaluation of learning.

Teacher Learning Development

Effective teachers have high expectations of students in terms of both their standard of
learning and their behaviour, but they also have high expectations of themselves and their
own learning development. Effective teachers constantly self-evaluate, critique and reflect
on how well they are getting through to their students, and search for better ways of
teaching, new tools, materials and methodologies especially for those who are not achieving
learning as well as others. In order to achieve some of these skills, many British institutions
of higher education require attendance at a short introductory course on university teaching
and learning, but in many systems voluntary participation is the norm. Effective teachers are
willing to promote their own learning by investing on training and/or inviting observation and
suggestions from colleagues. Collings (1994) stated that a teacher should be in constant
training-learning process, and have capacity to reflect upon own practice. Stronge et al.
(2004) stated that staff development is vital to effective implementation, and can help
teachers to learn new strategies to be applied. They also work collaboratively with other staff
members, are willing to share their ideas, and assist other teachers with difficulties and
volunteer to lead work teams and to be mentors to new teachers, (NETI, 2009). They are
informal leaders who are not afraid of taking risk to innovate or improve education.
Therefore, effective teachers participate in creating a collaborative environment of a positive
working relationship.
An effective teacher should always establish rapport with their students. Establishing
interpersonal relationships with students is crucial to form a trusting bond with each student.
Effective teachers should be available outside of class to answer questions and provide
additional help to students. In addition, an effective teacher should show tolerance to
differing points of view during class.
(Moreno Rubio, C(2009). Effective teachers –Professional and personal skills. en
ENSAYOS, Revista de la Facultad de Educación de Albacete, Nº 24, Retrieved
8 Dec.2011 at http://www.uclm.es/ab/educacion/ensayos)

(c) Disposition and moral practices


Five Dispositions of Effective Teachers

1. EMPATHY- Seeing and accepting the other person’s point of view. Believes that a true
grasp of the learner’s point of view, and an accurate communication of that
understanding, is a most important key to establishing a significant teaching/learning
relationship. Commits to sensitivity and to establishing a relationship with each learner.
Sees that the beginning point of learning is dependent upon a clear acceptance of the
learner’s private world of awareness at the time. Respects and accepts as real each
person’s own unique perceptions.

2. POSITIVE VIEW OF OTHERS- Believing in the worth, ability and potential of others.
Believes that trust and confidence in the learner’s worth, ability and capacity for change
is a key to learning. Sees other people in essentially positive ways. Honors the internal
dignity and integrity of each learner and holds positive expectations for her or his
behavior. Typically approaches others feeling that they “can” and “will” rather than that
they “can’t” or “won’t”.

3. POSITIVE VIEW OF SELF- Believing in the worth, ability and potential of themselves.
Having an established self concept that is fundamentally positive and provides an overall
sense of self-adequacy. Sees himself/herself as essentially dependable and capable and
thus is accepting of inadequacies. Sees herself/himself generally but not exclusively in
positive ways—with a positive, abiding and trustworthy sense of actual and potential
worth, ability and capacity for growth. Honors the internal dignity and integrity of self and
holds positive expectations for his/her own actions.

4. AUTHENTICITY- Feeling a sense of freedom and openness that enables her or him to
be a unique person in honesty and genuineness. Seeks ways of teaching (procedures,
methods, techniques, curricular approaches) that are honest, self-revealing and allow
personal-professional congruence. Sees the importance of openness, self-disclosure
and being “real” as a person and teacher. Develops a personal “idiom” as a teacher and
melds personality uniqueness with curricular expectations. Does not feel that one must
“play a role” to be effective.

5. MEANINGFUL PURPOSE AND VISION-Committing to purposes that are primarily


person-centered, broad, deep, freeing and long range in nature. Feels a compelling and
abiding sense of allegiance to democratic values, the dignity of being human, and the
sacredness of freedom. Sees the importance of being visionary and reflective as a
teacher. Commits to growth for all learners in mental, physical and spiritual realms
through a sense of “mission” in education. Seeks to identify, clarify and intensify
knowledge and personal beliefs about what is really most important.
Nurturing Dispositions

Dispositions are primarily learned as a consequence of experiences that are related to the
self of the person. The proposed five dispositions of effective teachers are natural
outgrowths of the basic human need for self-adequacy. It is not necessary to force, make,
cajole or bribe people to develop these dispositions, it is only important that they be free so
as to grow in these directions. If they are truly free--free from restriction, and free to be and
become-- these five dispositions will develop. The development of these perceptual qualities
also requires other people. We are social beings and we are free to be and become when
we feel loved, wanted, respected, and revered by others. Only when we have a deep sense
of identification with others can we grow into the larger, non self- centered Self that is able to
successfully minister to the learning needs of students.

Dispositions of effectiveness are nurtured through experiences that are not only perceived
as self-related but that are also engaging for the whole person—body, mind and spirit.
Experiences that involve a physical investment (movement, touch, etc.), a mental effort
(thoughts, feelings, etc.) and a spiritual sense (inspiration, release, faith, etc.) are the most
potent and contributory experiences for the nurturance of dispositional growth. Activities that
engage the whole person in a meaningful way contribute to the growth and nurturance of
dispositions. Session “P” emphasized aspects of the whole person with the use of such
activities as; person-focused introductions, information provision, dramatic and creative
tableau formation, stress breakers and relaxation training, and, though the presenters failed
to anticipate time wisely, discussion about what these ideas mean to the group. It was the
intention of the presenters to focus on nurturance of the participants’ dispositions so as to
better understand how such ideas might be infused into teacher education.

( Retrieved from
Activity (Tutorial)

Dennis and Wee shared their images of the types of teachers that they would like to have
when they wrote in the forum of The Strait Times (“Caring teachers valued by students”

......it is the little things his teacher does that are important to him. If someone wants to be a
teacher, he should first care genuinely for
Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management
UNIT 2

Synopsis

This unit will introduce the students to the role of teacher in classroom management. It will
discuss the role of teacher in creating a condusive learning environment from the physical
and psychosocial aspects. The physical and psychosocial characteristics of a conducive
learning environment in the classroom will be identified. Some examples of the conducive
classroom will be given.

Learning Outcomes

1.1. Identify characteristics of conducive learning environment from the physical and
psychosocial aspects

2.2 Synthesize information from various sources produce critical, creative and innovative
solution

Role of teacher in creating a conducive physical learning


TOPIC 1
environment in classroom

2.0 Introduction

One of the most critical aspects of working in large classes, namely, managing the
classroom’s environment so that it is a comfortable space in which to teach and learn.
The classroom environment encompasses the physical environment – including learning
resources for lessons – as well as the psycho-social environment; for instance, using
ways to promote learning as a community to reduce the feeling of crowdedness and to
deal effectively with misbehaviour. Your ability to create well-managed physical and
psycho-social environments can make the difference between a calm and functioning
classroom and a classroom in chaos.

2.1 Role of teacher in creating a conducive physical learning environment

Ideally, a class is held in a bright, clean, well-equipped room that accommodates every
student comfortably and allows them to move around and work well either individually
or in groups. To encourage active learning and student involvement, seats are arranged
so students can see
each other as well as the teacher.

Unfortunately, very few classrooms are ideal settings for learning and, especially in
large classes, space is usually limited. Often hot, crowded, and noisy, small classrooms
overflowing with many students offer a poor learning setting for you and your
students. You will need all of your ingenuity and planning skills to create a classroom
that is a comfortable place in which to learn. But your hard work will be worthwhile,
since it will make your job easier and more r ewarding. Below are some areas associated
with the classroom’s physical environment
that you might consider as you plan on how to accommodate all of your students and
reduce feelings of crowdedness, confusion, and frustration that often plague large
classes.

Seating arrangement

Arranging desks and furnishing is often a compromise between what teacher would like and
what is possible. The physical space of a classroom is managed as the teacher prepares the
classroom for the students. Teachers should think about their room arrangement when they
plan, change according to their goals and experiment to see what works best for them (as
cited in Eggen, & Kauchack, 2004). However, there is no single arrangement that works for
all situations.

Activity structures vary in the extent to which they elicit and sustain cooperation. Similarly,
arrangements of space and furniture in ways that bunch students together or obstruct the
teacher’s view make it more difficult for a teacher to detect behaviour task initiations early
(Duke and Rehage, 1979).

Seating arrangement must depend on type of lesson to be taught, and the type of classroom
furniture. Whether using traditional serried ranks or desks of less formal group tables, each
teacher needs to establish who sits where. Not only does this avoid an undignified scramble
to sit nearest to or further from a particular child, the possession of a seating plan helps the
teacher to learn names more rapidly (Laslett and Smith, 1984).
Proper arrangement of furniture also contributes to the functionality of classrooms. Furniture is
arranged so that students are oriented to the primary source or sources of information (e.g., the
teacher, audio-visual materials), while at the same time having access to other sources are
activities (e.g., work areas, computers) without disturbing in the classroom (Nitsaisook and
Anderson, 1989).

According to Anderson (1991) desks, chairs and tables can be arranged in a variety of ways;
light and temperature can be increased or decreased. Paint wall coverings, art work and plants
can be used to enhance or detract from the attractiveness of the physical classroom
environment.
Example of the Physical Arrangement of a Classroom

The Class Shop. You can set up a make-believe store or market in your classroom.
Students can pretend they are shoppers or shop-keepers in order to practise a number of
skills, including language, social skills and mathematical skills.

The learners and you need to collect the following empty basic household items for your
class shop: cans of beans, beef soup powder, cartons of milk, cans, boxes of matches and
maize meal containers.
If your classroom does not have shelves, you will need to request the school or some
parents for help. Some of the parents might volunteer to build them for you. Since your
classroom is flexible, you might need movable mobile shelves.

Children can pretend to buy using coins and bank notes made from cardboard or, where
possible, specimen or ‘play money’. You and the learners need to prepare a price list for all
the items. Make sure that all of the children have an opportunity to ‘work’ or ‘shop’ in the
classroom store.

Reading Corner. This is an area to which you and the learners could bring relevant
teaching material such as readers, magazines, games, stories and compositions written by
the learners. This area must to be comfortable. You could bring floor mats and cushions for
the learners to sit on. Perhaps, the cushions could be donated by parents.

Dress-Up or Home Corner. Learners like to have space in which they can role play. For
example, young learners like to pretend they are family members or other people in the
community. This activity also helps in the development of their language skills. The older
learners can help the younger ones develop these skills. You could have a box full of old
clothes such as dresses, shoes and hats in the area. Learners enjoy dressing up when they
do drama.

Learning Centres
Learning centres can be used to enhance multigrade teaching activities. The centres can be
arranged so that learners are in groups. Materials appropriate for different age levels could
be placed in different areas so that the learners can work on their own. If there is enough
space, partitions could be used to separate the centres.

Thus a teacher’s role in the classroom is to manage the classroom in such a way as to
optimize space and to create a conducive learning environment.

Maximize classroom space. While many of us don’t have control over where we
teach, we may have the opportunity to arrange our assigned classroom as we see fit.
The arrangement of a classroom may be flexible or a challenge, but the idea is to draw
students into the group and to create a physical space that makes them comfortable
and want to enter into a discussion or group situation.

In large class settings, space is often a luxury. To maximize what learning space is
available, consider removing unnecessary furniture to reduce the feeling of
overcrowding and to facilitate movement. If you really don’t need a large teacher’s
desk, ask for a small one. Instead of desks or chairs for students, consider using mats
or rugs with your students being seated so that everyone sees each other and feels a
part of the group. In some classrooms for instance, the lack of desks and chairs is
beneficial. A large learning space, covered with a clean, locally made carpet or mat, can
be easily changed from a science investigation space to a drama space, and groups can
easily be formed and reformed without disturbing other classes. Several chalkboards
may also be found around the classroom at the children’s level, so that they can sit in
groups and use the chalkboards for planning, discussing ideas, problem solving, etc.

Store books, instructional materials (such as chalk, rulers, paper, paint, and scissors),
and teaching tools (such as portable chalkboards, easels, chart paper, and work tables)
so that they can be obtained and put away easily, and, in crowded classrooms, do not
take up valuable space. If certain items take up too much space, such as worktables,
remove them from the classroom and, if possible, place them outside, maybe under a
shady tree, where students can use them easily. If possible, keep your belongings,
lesson materials, and any other items that you do not use during class time in the
teachers’ lounge or in another safe place outside of the classroom.

Facilitate movement. Develop plans in advance for how students can best enter and
exit the classroom; for instance, students who sit in the back of the classroom can
enter first, followed by those seated in the middle, and lastly by those seated at the
front. A reverse strategy can be used for exiting the classroom. Plan in advance how
you will change the classroom arrangement depending on what is being taught, such as
moving from a whole class arrangement for test taking to small groups for art or
science lessons. Plan on how routine activities will be conducted, such as handing out
written assignments and then handing them back to students after grading. Also plan
so that your students’ individual needs can be met, such as when they need to sharpen
their pencils or to get supplies for learning.
(Malone, K. and Tranter, P. (2003). Children’s Environmental Learning and the Use, Design
and Management of Schoolgrounds. Children, Youth and Environments, Vol. 13( 2)

Use space outside of the classroom. School grounds can be a rich resource for
learning, and they can serve as an enjoyable complement to crowded classrooms. They
are also important sites for students to develop both social and cognitive skills and to
learn important lessons about cooperation, ownership, belonging, respect, and
responsibility. Look around your school, identify good areas for learning, and
incorporate them into your lesson plans. For instance, different areas of the school
grounds can be used as activity centres to support what is being learned about a
subject in the classroom. In learning about geometric shapes, for instance, students
can explore the school grounds and identify as many geometrically-shaped objects as
possible. Then they can sit under a tree and write down as many as they are able to
recall.Monitor their progress! Before class ends, bring them all together, either in the
classroom or outside, to present their findings.

Display student work creatively. Space is needed to display student work.


Rather than display boards or tables, which take up space, students’ work can be hung
on a classroom wall or displayed just outside the classroom door for everyone to see.
Strings can be used onto which each student’s work is attached with clips, tape, or even
blunt thorns. Decorating the room with student work will also help add to the
attractiveness of the room and make it more welcoming, even if there are a lot of
students in it.

Involve your students. Students can be very helpful in managing the classroom’s
physical space, and it helps them to develop a sense of responsibility. Teachers should
involve the students in many aspects. For example, they can hang up student work,
create bulletin boards, and put away instructional materials at the end of each lesson.
Students can also be helpful in solving space problems. When a problem occurs, such as
students bumping into each other or inadequate seating space, ask them to suggest
solutions. It is important to remember that what makes you feel comfortable may not
be the same as what makes your students feel comfortable. At the beginning of the
year, teachers can organize
classroom, and then ask
students if they are
comfortable with it. It would be
better if you divide them into
groups and ask each group to
look around the room and its
contents, and then to draw a
picture of how they would like
the room to be organized. Use
ideas from their drawings to
design your students’ “personal”
classroom. Try the arrangement
for one or two weeks, and then
ask your students if they are
comfortable with it. Change the
classroom arrangement if they
feel a new one would be more
comfortable. Moreover, change it whenever you sense that your students are becoming
bored with sitting in the classroom.

An Example of a Classroom Arrangement for Story time

The above Model physical arrangement of a classroom looks different because the learners
will be listening to a story told by the teacher and the learners themselves. Therefore, the
classroom furniture was rearranged to accommodate the story-telling session. You will need
to keep in mind that the teacher will have chosen a story that the learners in all four grades
will enjoy. There will be times when the story will only be appropriate for the youngest or the
oldest learners. The arrangement will then change, depending on the story to be told and
the learners involved.

Role of teacher in creating a conducive psychosocial learning


TOPIC 2
environment in classroom
2.2 Role of teacher in creating a conducive psychosocial learning environment
A classroom is often called a “learning community.” It is that place within your school where
you and your students can be found regularly, where everyone hopefully knows everyone
else, and one in which everyone works together – teacher and students alike – to learn new
things about
the world. In large classes, it is very important to create a sense ofcommunity, one that
shows your interest in and accessibility to students and which encourages your students to
learn about you and participate in the learning process. The goal is to get you and your
students to better understand each other. Creating this sense of community and its positive
psycho-social environment can motivate your students to learn, get them involved, and help
them to learn to their fullest, even under seemingly crowded conditions. Moreover, students
have reported a greater sense of value in their learning and earn better scores when a
teacher is truly willing to help them learn.

The climate in the classroom is of course more than the physical classroom environment. It
is a process that builds the psychological framework for all activity that happens in the
classroom. The classroom climate is not just about motivation and student well being, it is a
major ingredient of the context for successful learning. Real learning cannot take place in a
negative classroom climate, in the same way that plants will not grow if the soil is not right.

If, however, the teacher gets the classroom climate right, the evidence suggests that
students do learn more effectively and their achievement does increase, partly because they
respond better to their classroom environment and in particular they respond better to their
teacher.

How can teachers create a positive psychosocial classroom climate?

It seems that three particular features are present in all successful classrooms.

The first key factor is the quality of the relationships, in other words how much everyone
helps and supports each other. The relationship between teacher and students is clearly
important but relationships between students is equally important in ensuring a successful
classroom climate.

The second key feature is the personal development of students, and how easy we make
it for them to grow as learners and fulfil their potential.

The third key factor is the smooth running of the classroom, characterised by an orderly
environment where teacher expectations and standards of personal behaviour and
achievement are high and clearly understood by everyone.

The three broad pillars mentioned above are solidly present in successful classrooms but
the components of good relationships, student personal development and the smooth
running of the classroom are not discrete entities, but rather fluid elements skilfully managed
by good teachers and brought together to make a warm, positive and successful classroom
environment.

Although some teachers have a personality type that makes it easier for them than for other
teachers to establish a successful classroom climate, all teachers can learn the skills and
classroom management strategies that are the components of a successful classroom.
How teachers play their roles in building a psychosocial classroom climate?

(a) They create a warm classroom environment

Research studies seem to suggest that students respond best to teachers who are at the
warm end of the spectrum in terms of how they relate to their students. In other words,
teachers who are approachable, friendly, helpful and supportive and who can control the
class and impose themselves without appearing too strict or overbearing.

The opposite side of this coin is that students seem to respond less well to teachers who are
inconsistent, uncertain and who tend to criticise students frequently and draw attention to
students' shortcomings. The key finding here is not just how well or badly students relate to
their teachers' relative warmth or lack of it, but that the quality of learning outcomes is
affected by how warm and approachable students perceive their teachers to be.

When teachers make it clear to students that they are concerned about their students'
emotional needs, as well as their curriculum and learning needs, students seem to
participate better in class, and in particular seem more prepared to ask for help when they
are in difficulty. Research shows that it's often the least able students, who have the most
need of help, who feel least able to ask for help, if they sense that their teacher is unaware
of their emotional needs. The result is their need goes unanswered.

The steps teachers can take to create a warm supportive classroom climate include:

 show understanding and openness so students feel confident to speak openly about
their needs and to talk about problems, in an atmosphere that is not confrontational
 be friendly and let students see the teacher sees them as people and values them as
individuals - students need to feel they can trust the teacher before they'll open up about
difficulties they may have, either personal problems or problems with understanding the
learning
 help students by making it clear that it's acceptable to make mistakes when learning, in
fact making mistakes is important for true learning to take place. One of the posters in
my classroom that I refer to often with students says 'The only dumb question is the one
you don't ask'
 be principled by making sure you treat students fairly and justly, that you can tell the
difference between the person and the behaviour they may display, and that you impose
classroom discipline appropriately, not just because you can

(b) They are enthusiastic

Another classroom management strategy that promotes a positive classroom climate is


enthusiasm on the part of the teacher. The research shows that teachers who consistently
send positive messages about the subject being studied do have an influence on how
students respond, by motivating students more than teachers who are less enthusiastic.
Students never get inspired by teachers who are not enthusiastic, or who create a negative
classroom climate.

Of course, in real life, it's not possible to be enthusiastic all day every day, but at the very
least we can avoid sending obvious messages to our students that we are unenthusiastic,
and, in particular, we should avoid telling our students that we're only covering a topic
because it's on the syllabus, especially if we also send the message, however subtly, that
we think the topic is too difficult for the students. Instead we can try to focus on a particular
angle that will show our students how they can gain a particular learning benefit from the
topic in question.

Enthusiastic teachers often come across as confident specialists who really enjoy teaching
their subject and can 'wrap up' the learning in many different ways to make it interesting and
accessible to all learners.

(c) They have high expectations

One of the most consistent research findings is the effect on student performance of teacher
expectations. In short, students do better when they believe their teachers expect them to do
well and create a supportive academic climate. By contrast, students who think their teacher
does not have high expectations of them, are caught in a self fulfilling prophecy and tend do
less well.

Teachers often communicate their own perceptions in subtle ways, and perhaps
unintentionally. It is easy, for example, to believe we are praising students, but actually be
undermining them by saying things such as: 'Well done, I was surprised how good your
answer was.' The subliminal message picked up by students here is that the teacher
perception actually is that these students are of low ability .

Sometimes there are other, possibly unintentional, behaviours that students interpret as
negative perceptions. For example, it's easy for a teacher to ask more questions to students
they perceive as being more able, and in so doing create fewer opportunities for students
who are seen as not so able.
In the same way, low teacher expectations may result in some students being asked only to
answer low order questions, which do not take learning forward in a meaningful way.

The real danger of basing teacher expectations on mistaken perceptions is that students
realise what's going on and start to internalise these perceptions, with the result that
everyone in the class starts to behave in ways the teacher expects them to behave. This can
lead to a very positive cycle for those 'high expectation' students, who may become high
achievers. The opposite is also true for the 'low expectation' students who sink further and
further down their negative cycle. As principled educators we can't accept this kind of
'collateral damage'.

Teachers with high expecatations of students seem to have these things in common:

 they pay very close attention to the progress their students are making, and check
against objective data that their perceptions or 'gut feelings' about students are backed
up by facts, and so avoid acting on mistaken perceptions of students' abilities
 they take great care not to communicate low expectations: students may have limited
abilities, but teachers need to communicate their faith that students will do the best they
can within the limits of their abilities
 make sure students get useful feedback on their progress, feedback that is honest but
constructive and focused on continuous improvement, it's the 'I wan't you to show me
how well you can do' approach, not the 'This is what you've shown me you can't do'
approach
 take great care about how they ask questions in class - they ask high order questions,
usually involving open questions [What/Where/When/ Why/How [particularly How], that
encourage deep rather than superficial answers. These questions are sometimes called
'fat questions', and teachers need to allow students enough time to construct well
thought out answers
 they emphasise good presentation of student work as much as the content, and,
crucially, expect all students to meet these high presentation demands, because they
expect all students will take a real pride in their work

Good teachers know how important it is to build and maintain a classroom climate that is
positive and supportive, and are proactive in their aproach because they want to take as
much responsibility as they can for creating a classroom environment that:

1. promotes good quality of life for learners and teachers


2. helps to deliver a curriculum that promotes social and emotional learning as well as
academic learning
3. helps teachers to be effective with a wide range of students
4. stimulates intrinsic motivation for teaching and learning

Tutorial Activity:

Discuss some strategies teachers can used to build a conducive psychosocial learning
environment.

Know your students – match names with faces. Although it may seem frightening
in a large class setting, learning your students’ names is the first step in creating a
comfortable classroom that will encourage student participation. It also shows students
that you are interested in
them as individuals. Fortunately, there are many simple ways for learning students’ names
and getting to know them:

Make a seating chart. Ask students to sit in the same seats for the first few weeks
and prepare a seating chart. Try to memorize four or five names at each class session.

Actively use students’ names. Have students give their names each time before
they speak. This can be continued until everyone feels they know the people in the room.
Use students’
names as often as possible.

Conduct interactive “getting to know you” activities during the first two or
three days of the school year so that the students learn about each other, and you can
learn about your students. For large classes, ask six or eight students to introduce
themselves at the beginning and end of each school day. Another activity is called the
name game. While this game works well with smaller classes, it can easily be used in large
classes by grouping students or when the class has been made temporarily small through
some other method. The game begins with a student giving her name. The second student
gives the name of the first person and his own name, and the third student gives her name
and the names of the first two students. The chain continues until it returns to the first
person, with the teacher preferably near the end.

You can also develop a “getting to know you” form with fill-in-theblanks
like,
After school I like to _________________________________
My favourite food is ___________________________________
My favourite activity is ________________________________
My favourite subject in school is_________________________
I want to be like______________________________________
I want to be a _________________________when I finish school.

You can use this form as a way for students in large classes to get to know each other
better, even if they have been together in the same class before. On the sheet of paper
with this information, add a column on the right side of the paper but leave it blank. After
your students
have filled in their blanks, ask them to find other students with the same response to each
statement and to write each student’s name in the column.

Be personal. Personalizing a large class means presenting yourself “as a person” to your
students, not simply their “teacher.” You are showing them how much you want to know
about them, as well as how much you want them to know about you. While it is not
necessary to
share very personal information with your students, including information about yourself in
lectures and during learning activities can help personalize the learning environment. The
process can begin on the first day when you are talking about what your students will be
learning, and your experiences in how students learn best. Remember: humour and showing
that you can laugh at yourself can help establish a positive relationship with your students

Allow students to express themselves. Giving each student the chance to talk in
class during the first two or three weeks of school will encourage them to participate in
large class discussions. Remember: the longer a student goes without speaking in class, the
more difficult it will be for him or her to contribute, and you will lose a valuable
opportunity to learn just what they have learned. You might want to have students work
initially in small groups during the first few weeks of school, because this may make it
easier for shy students to later contribute in the large class setting.
Encourage questions and comments. Many students are too shy, or embarrassed,
to ask questions or make comments in front of their peers. Some teachers actually do not
like students to ask questions because they feel it threatens their authority. Questions,
however, are a valuable means of getting feedback on what your students are learning,
what they are having difficulty with, and how you can make your teaching more meaningful
- and enjoyable - for you and your students.

Reading List
Anderson .L.(1991). Increasing Teacher Effectiveness. UNESCO. International Institute for
Educational Planning, Paris.
Callahan, S.G. (1996). Successful Teaching in Secondary schools, Foresman and Company,
Atlanta.
Duke, L. D & K, J, Rehage (1979). Classroom Management, the University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Laslett, R & C, Smith (1984). Effective Classroom Management: A Teacher’s Guide, Croon
Helm Ltd, London, UK.
Nitsaisook, m. & Anderson, W. L (1989). An experimental Investigation of the Effectiveness of In
service Teacher Education in Thailand, department of Teacher Education, Ministry of
Education, Bangkok.

UNIT 3 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management

Synopsis

This unit will introduce the students to the role of teacher in classroom management. It will
discuss the role of teacher in creating a conducive learning environment by creating rules,
procedures and routine for the classroom. The classroom rules and routines will be discussed
and some examples of the rules and routines commonly used that result in maintaining a
conducive classroom will be given.

Learning Outcomes

1.1 Clarify the roles of teachers in managing a conducive learning envieonment in the
classroom

1.2 Relate the importance of classroom routines and rules towards creating a conducive
learning environment

Role of teacher in managing classroom – Rules and


TOPIC 1
Regulations and Classroom Routines
3.0 Introduction

Effective planning for classroom control begins with an analysis of the individual students
that compose the group to be taught. At the level of thought not at all level of action, the
teacher must examine the causes of behaviour in the unemotional light of reason. Then he
can plan intelligently how to forestall disciplinary infractions before they occur. When
infractions do happen, as they inevitably will, appropriate steps can be taken so that as little
injury as possible is done to the learning process.

A teacher establishes classroom rules and routines either with his or her students or before
the school year begins. There is no research that one approach is better than the other.
Generally, rules are best if they are few in number, simple and easy to understand, and
fair.Also rules should be posted in the classroom for all to see, and the teacher should go
over the rules on the first day of school.

3.1 Classroom Rules

All teachers, regardless of years of experience, will encounter numerous disciplinary


problems throughout the school year. One of the first applications of effective classroom
management begins with the establishment of classroom rules on the first day of school. In
planning procedures and rules for the classroom, we have to consider the students’
characteristics and the physical environment.
Procedures
Procedures are steps for the routines students follow in their daily learning activities, such
as how they turn in papers, sharpen pencils and make transitions from one activity to
another. Expert teachers plan and teach procedures until they become routines that
students follow automatically. These routines provide a sense of regularity and equilibrium
for both students and teachers. ccording to Sokal et al. (2003) classroom management
seem to be a high priority for novice and experience teachers. However, management is not
parallel to strict rules; in fact, management is to anticipate students´ needs, and then
prepare a suitable year plan, procedures, activities, assessment, evaluation criteria, and
above all, clear instructions to the students to promote students motivation, enthusiasm and
learning. Effective teachers use low classroom rules, and more routines to maintain a
relaxed and warm environment to enhance learning. Marzano et al. (2003) stated that
“minimum number of classroom rules, which tend to focus on expectations of how to act
toward one another, maintain a safe environment, and participate in learning”. McLeod et al.
(2003) distinguished from rules, and stated that is more effective and efficient to use
routines in the classroom. Stronge et al. (2003) also suggested that effective teachers use
more routines for daily tasks than rules. Wong and Wong (2005) distinguished between
routine as what the students do automatically, and procedure as what the teachers want to
be done.

Rules are descriptions of standards for acceptable classroom behaviour, such as “listen
when someone else is talking”. Figure 9.11 lists other examples of rules making by the
teachers.
: Examples of teachers’ rules.

Research confirms that:


“The values of rules in creating productive learning environments and many evidences exist
indicating that clear, reasonable rules, fairly and consistently enforced, not only can reduce
behaviour problems that interfere with learning, but also can promote a feeling of pride and
responsibility in the school community.”
(Purkey & Smith, 1983 as cited in Eggen, & Kauchack, 2004)

A cognitive approach to management requires that learners understand the reason behind
rules so they can accept responsibility for their own behaviour.
The following principles as listed in the Figure above can guide teachers in their efforts to
promote this understanding.
Six principles to promote understanding of
rules

.
Classroom rules are at their most effective when they are negotiated between the teacher
and the pupils; they are not effective if they are simply rules imposed and maintained by the
teacher. Nor is it a straightforward matter to establish the rules. Teachers and pupils will
need to communicate thoroughly and see mutual benefits in the rules. There is no merit in a
complex set of rules: they need to be simple and memorable. Pupils need the help of the
teacher and other pupils to learn how to apply the rules. Lastly, it is important to review the
classroom rules regularly to explore the possibility of amendment or reduction. For the
language teachers use to be fully effective, the classroom has to be an environment in which
pupils are clear as to the expectations placed upon them and in which there are clear
protocols for behaviour. Most classroom rules can be grouped under these five headings
(Hargreaves,Hestor and Mellor 1976):
• talk;
• movement;
• time;
• teacher–pupil relationships;
• pupil–pupil relationships.
(Extract from Deviance in classrooms, Hargreaves, Hestor and Mellor (1976)
Routledge and Kegan Paul. © Taylor & Francis Group plc.)
Example of a Set of Classroom Rules

3.2 Classroom Routines

Regular classroom activities help children to start work quickly and meaningfully at the
beginning of their school day. Children should agree on the rules and routines and,
better yet, they should organize them. For example, a student group or committee can
be in charge of taking the register and reporting to the teacher about absences.When
developing routines with children, it is important to explainand decide upon: (i) what is
to be done; (ii) who is to do it; (iii) when is it to be done; and (iv) why is it important to
do this routine activity regularly.

Following are some ideas about routines that you can organize with your children:
 what work they need to do at any one time, particularly for those who may arrive
late because they have far to walk, as well as for those children who are waiting for
the class to start;
 how books and other learning materials should be distributed,collected, and stored,
and who should take responsibility for theseactivities (perhaps rotating this
responsibility among individualchildren, girls as well as boys, or teams of children);
 how children can get help from each other when they need it and the teacher is
unavailable;
 what to do when they have finished an activity;
 how to get the teacher’s attention in a non-disruptive manner;
 what are acceptable levels of noise;
 how to move around the classroom in a non-disruptive manner; and
 how to leave the classroom.

Children should actively develop some of these rules because they are more likely to
abide by them if they have participated in setting the rules. However, some rules may
be non-negotiable, especially when they are intended to protect children; for instance,
rules about when they can leave the classroom, or rules about contacting the teacher
before leaving the school grounds, especially if they are being accompanied by an adult
who is not their parent or guardian.

Classroom routines help to create a nurturing environment. Providing a student centered


classroom with expected routines and a predictable classroom set up means students will
be able to focus and learn.

Routines help with time management in the classroom. They also help children to know
what is expected of them and how to perform independent tasks. The classroom set up,
management and classroom organization are all part of effective classroom routines.

Predictable schedules, rules and transitions are all a part of creating a nurturing classroom.
Develop a sense of ownership with students by providing students an opportunity to
contribute to these areas at the beginning of the year.One of the most important things
about establishing classroom management is that students must be taught the routines.

When teachers create a nurturing environment, they are showing students that they are
valued. An organized classroom that students understand how to use reduces stress in
children and the teacher.

Focus on classroom organization at the beginning of the year:

 Plan activities to personalize students' entry into your room (be at the door, welcome
letter)
 Meet with all the parents early on - they want to see you and know who will be
working so closely with their child
 Classroom set up: arrange materials in a predictable manner that are easy for
students to access
 Organize and label all materials. Labeling is essential for students who are learning a
second language and are in the preproduction or early prediction stages.
 Make the classroom feel like home. Adding a few plants, softer lighting and dedicated
areas for a reading library can help.
 The classroom set up should include a personal space for each child that belongs to
them only. Examples of this are name tags on desks, lockers, pouches over the back
of each chair, and a book box for each child's independent reading.
 Develop a predictable daily schedule that you post in the classroom. If your students
are non-readers, use pictures to show the order of the day.
 Develop a classroom discipline plan that follows your management plan and students
can easily understand.
 Give students specific jobs and responsibilities makes it a student centered
classroom.
 Design the classroom so that there are areas for both social interaction and quiet
areas not associated with punishment.

Facilitating Transitions with Classroom Setup and Routines


 Plan a predictable daily schedule with activities that are appropriate in length for
your age group.
 Schedule longer blocks of time in the classroom to minimize transitions.
 Give a "heads-up" before a transition is going to occur. Classroom management
ideas always include a way of letting students know when a change is coming so
they can anticipate redirection.
 Develop transition activities to help children switch gears (a song, calling students in
order, a quick game).
 Ask students to repeat instructions
 Use multi-modal signals to prepare children for transitions. This is particularly
important for different kids learning styles.
 Always practice transitions through modeling and repetition. Show the students
desired and undesirable behaviors.

Essential Activities that Require Classroom Routines

 Beginning the day


 Entering and exiting the classroom
 Heading papers
 Sharpening pencils or retrieving supplies
 Collecting and handing out papers
 Leaving the classroom for a bathroom or drink break
 Signaling the teacher during guided reading time
 Asking a question
 Tornado, hurricane, fire or lock-down procedures
 What to do when finishing work early
 Lunch and attendance count
 Snack time, if needed
 Cleaning the room; when to perform classroom jobs
 Dismissal

Remember to always have copies of your classroom routines for both students and
parents. You must review it, discuss it and practice them for kids to internalize your
expectations about your organized classroom.

The Benefits Of Routines

Routines which are known as classroom procedures help to rid students of distractions that
waste time and interfere with learning. Guesswork is minimized. Minor frustrations and
inconveniences are fewer, as are opportunities for misbehavior. The students, then, are left
to focus on learning.

If your students know what to do and how to do it during every transitional or procedural
moment of the school day, they can more easily attend to what is most important.
Furthermore, adding more responsibility and purpose is a surefire way to boost morale.

Well-executed routines also save time and lessen a teacher’s workload.


Instead of giving directions ad nauseam and talking students through transitions, passing
out papers, leaving and entering the classroom, and dozens more, these tasks are
automated into routines, allowing you to merely observe and focus your thoughts on the
next activity.

Read more: Classroom Routines: The Key to Classroom Organization


http://www.primary-education-oasis.com/classroom-routines.html#ixzz1frG5bkmI

UNIT 3 Role Of Teacher In Classroom Management

Synopsis

This unit will introduce the students to the role of teacher in classroom management. It will
discuss the role of teacher in managing classroom assessment that is test and examination
planning process as well as test and examination administration aspects in the classroom.

Learning Outcomes

1.1 Clarify the roles of teachers in managing classroom assessment

1.2 Explain steps in managing assessment in the classroom

Role of teacher in managing classroom assessment – Test and


TOPIC 1
Examination Planning Process

3.0 Introduction

Assessment can be an effective learning process. Effective teachers have good expertise in
a variety of assessment methods, equitable practice, and a good and fair evaluation system.
They teach to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning. They
also make sure that their students know what the objectives and goals of the learning
program are; understand how these goals will be assessed; know whether they are on the
pathway to achieve success; and are actively involve in evaluating their own leaning.
Effective teachers request formal and informal responses from students during the
semester, and use the information to improve their courses as they are being taught.

According to Cameron (2002), students should be able to understand that assessment is a


part of their learning process and not just one activity to fill the subject. This benefits
students from learning environments which help peer tutoring, co-operative learning and
questioning, summarising and collaborative reasoning. Graham et al. (2001) highlighted that
if students are allowed to choose their own project topics relevant to the course, they are
encourage to express their own diverse points of view. In the Six Traits of Writing Report
(2010), it is stated that when students write about something they like, they do it better.

According to Graham et al. (2001), well designed discussion assignments facilitate


meaningful cooperation among students. He also stated that effective teachers also give
positive feedback regularly through the course to inform the students about the learning
process. He distinguishes between information feedback (grades or comments), and
acknowledgment feedback (confirmation of reception of assessment), and added that
deadlines encourage students to spend time on tasks and help with busy schedules.
Besides, evaluation techniques should be clearly related to course objectives, and have to
provide a fair and objective evaluation of learning.

3.1 Planning Test and Examination

One essential step in planning a test is to decide why you are giving the test. (The word
"test" is used although we are using it in a broad sense that includes performance
assessments as well as traditional paper and pencil tests.)

Are you trying to sort the students (so you can compare them, giving higher scores to better
students and lower scores to poor students)? If so you will want to include some difficult
questions that you expect only a few of the better students will be able to answer correctly.
Or do you want to know how many of the students have mastered the content? If your
purpose is the latter, you have no need to distribute the scores, so very difficult questions
are unnecessary. You will, however, have to decide how many correct answers are needed
to demonstrate mastery. Another way to address the "why" question is to identify if this is to
be a formative assessment to help you diagnose students' problems and guide future
instruction, or a summative measure to determine grades that will be reported to parents.

Airasian (1994) lists six decisions usually made by the classroom teacher in the test
development process:

1. what to test,

2. how much emphasis to give to various objectives,

3. what type of assessment (or type of questions) to use,

4. how much time to allocate for the assessment,

5. how to prepare the students, and

6. whether to use the test from the textbook publisher or to create your own.

As a teacher, one has to decide what to assess. The term "assess" is used here because
the term "assess" is frequently associated only with traditional paper and pencil
assessments, to the exclusion of alternative assessments such as performance tasks and
portfolios. Classroom assessments are generally focused on content that has been covered
in the class, either in the immediate past or (as is the case with unit, semester, and end-of-
course tests) over a longer period of time
Now that we have made the what decision, we can move to the next step: deciding how
much emphasis to place on each objective. We can look at the amount of time in class we
have devoted to each objective. We can also review the number and types of assignments
the students have been given.

Then a table of specifications which is a two-way table that matches the objectives or
content you have taught with the level at which you expect students to perform will be
created. It contains an estimate of the percentage of the test to be allocated to each topic at
each level at which it is to be measured. In effect we have established how much emphasis
to give to each objective or topic. The table of specification will show the number of
questions, the types of questions and the level of thinking skills in accordance to the
Bloom’s Taxonomy.

The number of questions and the type(s) of questions used both affect the amount of time
needed for completion of the test. Nitko (2001, p. 117), provides some estimates of time to
complete various types of questions for junior and senior high school students. Oosterhof
(2001, p. 161), gives similar estimates but indicates that elementary students and poor
readers might need more time.

True-False questions 15-30 seconds per question


Multiple choice (recall questions that are brief) 30-60 seconds
More complex multiple choice questions 60-90 seconds
Multiple choice problems with calculations 2-5 minutes
Short answer (one word) 30-60 seconds
Short answer (longer than one word) 1-4 minutes
Matching (5 premises, 6 responses) 2-4 minutes
Short essays 15-20 minutes
Data analyses/graphing 15-25 minutes
Drawing models/labeling 20-30 minutes
Extended essays 35-50 minutes

These estimates provide information needed to decide what type(s) of questions and how
many of them to use. More true-false questions can be answered during a given period of
time than multiple choice or short answer questions. However, our choice of question types
must be based on the level of learning at which we are assessing our students. We can
decide to use true-false and short-answer questions for the knowledge component, and
multiple choice for the comprehension. We will award the lowest number of points per
question (1 per question) for the easiest questions (in this case the true-false and short
answer).

In estimating the time needed for the test, teachers for example can do some calculations.
For example, students would probably need from 5 to 10 minutes for the 20 True-False
questions (15-30 seconds each), 5-7 1/2 minutes for the five comprehension questions (60-
90 seconds each), and 20-30 minutes (rough estimate) to read the material and write the
four questions measuring application. The total time needed would be from 30 to 48
minutes. If you are a middle or high school teacher, estimated response time is an important
consideration. You will need to allow enough time for the slowest students to complete your
test, and it will need to fit within a single class period.
The final step in planning the test will be to write the test questions. If more information is
needed on item writing,

Role of teacher in managing classroom assessment –


TOPIC 2
Administration of Test and Examination
3.2 Administration of Test

A teacher's test administration procedures can have great impact on student test
performance. As you will see in the guidelines below, test administration involves more than
simply handling out and collecting the test.

Before the test:

* Avoid instilling anxiety

* Give as many of the necessary oral directions as possible before distributing the
tests, but keep them to a minimum.

* Tell students purpose of the test.

* Give test-taking hints about guessing, skipping and coming back, etc.

* Tell students the amount of time allowed for the test. You may want to put the length
of time remaining for the test on the board. This can be changed periodically to help
students monitor their progress. If a clock is prominently available, an alternative
would be to write the time at which they must be finished.

* Tell the students how to signal you if they have a question.

* Tell the students what to do with their papers when they are finished (how papers are
to be collected).

* Tell the students what they are to do when they are finished, particularly if they are to
go on to another activity (also write these directions on the chalkboard so they can
refer back to them).

* Rotate the method of distributing papers so you don't always start from the left or the
front row.

* Make sure the room is well lighted and has a comfortable temperature.

* If a student is absent, write his/her name on a blank copy of the test as a reminder
that it needs to be made up.
After Distributing Test Papers

* Remind students to put their names on their papers (and where to do so).

* If the test has more than one page, have each student check to see that all pages
are there.

During the Test

* Minimize interruptions and distractions.

* Avoid giving hints.

* Monitor to check student progress and discourage cheating.

* Give time warnings if students are not pacing their work appropriately.

* Make a note of any questions students ask during the test so that items can be
revised for future use.

After the Test

* Grade the papers (and add comments if you can); do test analysis (see the module
on test analysis) after scoring and before returning papers to students if at all
possible. If it is impossible to do your test analysis before returning the papers, be
sure to do it at another time. It is important to both evaluation of your students and
improvement of your tests.

* If you are recording grades, record them in pencil in your gradebook before returning
papers. If there are errors/adjustments in grading, they (grades) are easier to change
when recorded in pencil.

* Return papers in a timely manner.

* Discuss test items with the students. If students have questions, agree to look over
their papers again, as well as the papers of others who have the same question. It is
usually better not to agree to make changes in grades on the spur of the moment
while discussing the tests with the students but to give yourself time to consider what
action you want to take. The test analysis may have already alerted you to a problem
with a particular question that is common to several students, and you may already
have made a decision regarding that question (to disregard the question and reduce
the highest possible score accordingly, to give all students credit for that question,
etc.).
Administration of test and examination has an impact on the attitude of the students. A good
test administration will emphasise on the importance of examination and this will give
students a serious perception on this. This will encourage students to take a serious view
of assessment. They will also feel confident and place trust on the teachers and the school
system. A positive attitude towards the school system will influence the behaviour of
students. They will give their fullest cooperation to the organisation and administration of
test and these will contribute to the socioemotional condition in the classroom.

(Reference: Alabama Profesional Modules. Planning, preparing and administrating


classroom test. http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/plan/plan_b.htm)

 Role of teacher in managing classroom assessment –


TOPIC 3 Managing students’ information resource

3.3 Managing students’ information resource

A well organized classroom that can practically run itself is easy to achieve. A classroom where
files, supplies, and forms can be easily found, where you can easily identify and access student
records, and where a substitute teacher can come in and pick up where you left off without any
hitches..

Organize student records.

As soon as you get your student list, set up a system that will allow you to access student
records quickly and easily. Here are a few suggestions:

 Assign numbers to students. Assign the same number to each student that you used
in your gradebook. Have each student write his or her number on every assignment. Use
corresponding student numbers to label all student materials, including mailboxes.
 Use an online gradebook. Online gradebooks allow you to automatically give out online
assignments and record grades..
 Make labels with each student's name. Have your students write their names and
numbers on labels, which you can peel off and use for all folders, notebooks, and other
materials that need student identification, including forms. This is a real time-saver.
 Be prepared for new students. Have packets of information for new students prepared
ahead of time so that when a new student enters your class in the middle of a lesson,
you're ready.
 Create a seating chart. As soon as your class list is final, create a seating chart from
your perspective at the front of the class. This should help you learn students' names
and help keep some order in the classroom.
 Create an assignment basket or tray. Use a basket or tray for students to turn in
assignments. You can have a different basket or tray for each class or subject. Then
train your students to turn in assignments in these places.

3.3.1 Record keeping of students’ personal information

School records are books, documents, diskettes and files in which are embodied
information on what goes on in school (e.g. social, academic and non academic activities,
important events etc)(Olagboye, 2004).Meanwhile, Durosaro (2002) explained that school
records are official transcript or copies of proceedings of actions, events other matters
kept by the school manager, school records could be viewed as authentic register or
instruments or documents of official accounts of transaction or occurrence which are
preserved in the school’s office.

However, Olagboye (2004) citing Adepoju (1998) & Ojelade (1998)listed some general
reasons or importance of keeping school records

 facilitate continuity in the administration of a school


 facilitate and enhance the provision of effective guidance and counseling services for
pupils in the social, academic career domains.

 provide information needed on ex-students by higher and other related institutions


and employers of labour for admission or placement.

 facilitate the supply of information to parents and guardians for the effective
monitoring of the progress of their children/wards inschooling or performance

 provide data needed for planning and decision making by school heads, ministries of
education and related educational authorities

 provide a basis for the objective assessment of the state of teaching and learning in a
school, including staff and studentperformance by supervisors and inspectors.

 provide information for the school community, the general publicemployers as well as
educational and social science researchersfor the advancement of knowledge

 enable school heads to collate information on pupils and staff for decision making by
higher authorities, the law courts securityagencies and other related government
agencies when occasion demands

 provide a mechanism such as the school timetable for theproductive management of


time and coordination of school workand activities.

 serve as data bank on which both the school head and staff andeven students can draw
on.

Yahaya (2007), Olagboye (2004), Durosaro, (2002) & Akubue, (1991), also listed some
specific importance which peculiar to each school records as;

1. Admission and withdrawal Register:


This is a permanent record book into which is entered information regarding the entry and
exit, including the details of the education and progress of each pupil that ever passes
through the school.

The importance includes


i. Serves as a historical document or reference with detailed records of every child who
was admitted into the school
ii. The admission register is a reference for tracing the entryprogress and exit of any
student admitted into the school
iii. It is useful in supplying information on the personal andfamily background of student.
iv. It becomes a vital document for the settlement of legal controversies and claims.
v. Yielding reliable data which may be needed for the planning and administration of the
educational system.
vi. Showing student(s) who withdraw from the school
vii. Promoting accountability as well as enhance planning.

2. Attendance Register

An attendance register is a book in which the presence or absenceof students in a school is


recorded on a daily basis. It is a statutory recordthat must be kept by every school. This
record is kept on individual classbasis.The class teacher is the custodian of this record.Its
importance includes:

 Providing necessary data that may be requested from time totime either by
researchers, planners or ministry officials
 Information from it could assist considerably in determining theamount of grant to be
given to a particular school.
 It could be used to identify a child’s interest and problems and totake administrative
decisions.
 It is also helpful in identifying sick students, truants, absentees and students who
attend school regularly.

Students’ personal files


It is necessary that the school should have as much information on every one of students
as possible without violating their privacy.It provides current and first hand information on
student situation. It makes it easy to locate a student’s relatives during emergency.

Corporal punishment book


The book contains the names of pupils who create disciplinary problems in school and the
nature of punishment awarded mostly canning,flogging, whipping and hard knocks.This is
to ensure that proper procedure is followed in punishing offenders, It reduces cases of
misuse of punishment.. Recording and noting student name in the book naturally reduces
indiscipline in schools.

Commulative Record folder


Students’ commulative record folder is a storehouse of informationon student cognitive,
affective and psychomotor development. The importance of these records is that It reflects
continuous assessment on students educational or academic progress.. It also reflect
students performance in extra curricular activities.. It could be useful by researchers on both
child development study andschool management.

Students report sheet/card


i. it keeps data on students academic performance in termly basis
ii. It assists in monitoring students academic progress
iii. It is a compliment to commulative record folders.

Transfer and leaving certificate


Transfer and leaving certificate shows the formal exist of the pupils after completion of study
or leaving during the course of study in a school.Other vital school records which are very
paramount to the effective management of the school system are, report book, heath record,
report files, board of governors minutes book and others, subject curricula,
anecodotal/record,report on guidance and counseling programme etc

The roles of head teacher and school records are synonymous because effectiveness and
efficiency of head teacher depends largely on these vital documents. However class
teacher should complement this task by effectively discharging their duties by proper keep
and maintain these academic records for which they have direct responsibility

Tutorial Activities

i. A child left home for school and he does not show up in the class. When marking the class
register the teacher marked him present, later in the day the parent come to check the child in
the School. How effectively can this case be treated?

ii. The head teacher of a school discovered that a teacher abused the use of corporal
punishment on a erring student. What are the necessary solutions you as a head teacher
will profer on thisCase?

UNIT 11 Classroom Management Of An Inclusive Classroom


Synopsis

This unit will introduce the students to classroom management of an inclusive classroom. It will
discuss the concepts of managing children with special needs namely Dyslexia, Autistic,Late
development, Hyeractive (ADHD, ADD) and the Gifted.

Learning Outcomes

1.1 Explain concept of students with special needs

1.2 Identify characteristics of students with special needs from dyslexia, autistic, late
development , hyperacttve , and gifted

1.3 Study from various sources on managing special education, inclusive and integrated
education in Malaysian classroom

1.4 Try to handle various challenges in education particularly dealing with children with
special needs

TOPIC 1 Managing students with Special Needs

Introduction

The international move towards inclusion of special needs children into mainstreaming
classrooms rather than educating them in an isolated environment has been a main concern
raising, issues and interest for educators, policy-makers and researchers in recent times
(Chalmers, 1998).

The effective teacher in the inclusive classroom possesses such characteristics as: efficient
use of time; good relationships with students; provides positive feedback; has a high student
success rate; and in general provides support for the students with and without disabilities
(Larrivee, 1985).

Banerji and Dailey(1995) in their study about the effectiveness of an inclusive outcome on
students with learning disabilities, found that students with specific learning disabilities
demonstrated academic progress at pace comparable to that of students did not possess
such disabilities, in addition their teachers and parents indicated progress in self-esteem
and motivation. The inclusive programme was applied to grades 2 and 5 (Banerji & Dailey,
1995). Vaughn, Elbaum and Schumm in their study about social function the students with
learning disabilities in an inclusive classroom (peer acceptance, loneliness, self-concept and
social alienation) found that such students demonstrated lower academic self-concept.
Teaching students with disabilities in an inclusive classroom may be regarded, as a
challenge for teachers accustomed to teaching in the regular classroom; therefore teachers
should require the basic characteristics of effective teaching. To be a successful teacher in
inclusive classrooms is not easy, because usually in such cases the teacher is dealing with
different abilities. Most of the effective teaching evidence comes from the research which
involves the classrooms directly using several different techniques (Westwood, 1995).

Westwoo( 2003) in his review of the literature on the effective teacher, found the effective
teacher should be a good classroom manager, focusing on academic skills, with good
expectation, enthusiasm, using effective strategies to keep students on task and using
variety of teaching and resources styles, covering the material content. Also the effective
teacher uses easy presentation of material, is direct in teaching, explains and outlines
instruction clearly, frequently observe what students are doing taking into account
differences between the students and re-teaching when necessarily, gives frequent
feedback for all students and checks for understanding by using probing questions.

Stanovich and Jordan (1998) indicate that effective teachers who are able to monitor the
classroom and the students’ behaviour in their class also demonstrate the ability to use body
language. Further more they are able to manage the instruction time for the students and
themselves and have good expectations for the lesson. In terms of academic ability, the
effective teacher has the ability to review the previous days lesson, before start a new
lesson which is important in connecting the previous and the new knowledge for the
students, also ensuring their understanding by using questions and monitoring students
progress frequently

Effective teachers according to Murphy and others, are patient, caring, respect their
students, organize their classrooms, and as a result their students are enthusiastic (Murphy,
Delli, & Edwards, 2004). In a study by Larrivee a sample size of 118 teachers in primary
inclusive classrooms was used, and concentration was paid to the students with learning
difficulties. She reported that students with special needs demonstrated a greater level of
achievement in the mainstream classrooms when the teacher: used the time efficiently, his
or her relationship with the students was good, gave the students positive feedback, made a
high rate of success for learning tasks and responded for all students positively (Larrivee,
1985).

Including the students with disabilities and having the knowledge of how to treat them are
important characteristics of the effective school, and in this regard, Ainscow indicated that
the effective school has effective leadership and staff who are able to deal with all students
and their needs, is optimistic that all the students can progress and develop their abilities
toward successful achievement, has a willingness to support its staff by meeting their needs
and taking into account the curriculum and ensuring that the curriculum meets all the
students needs and also effective school reviews its programmes (teachers, curriculum,
students progress) frequently making sure there is progress in terms of the effective teacher.
Successful teachers challenge the students’ abilities by setting good quality tasks, providing
students with opportunities to choose their tasks, variating learning strategies and providing
facilities that contribute to student learning (Ainscow, 1991).

(Refer to : Mohammad Sakarneh.( ).Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classroom: Literature


Review. The University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia)
11.1 Managing Children with disabilities

A disability involves the limitation on a person’s functioning that restricts the individual’s
abilities. A handicap is a condition imposed on a person who has a disability. This condition
couldbe imposed by society, the physical environment or the person’s own
attitudes(Lewis,2002). Educators increasingly use “ children with disabilities” rather than
“disabled children” to emphasise the person and not the disability. The disabilities discuss
will be sensory disorder, physical disorders,mental retardation, speech and language
disorders,learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and emotional and
behavioural disorders.

(a) Sensory Disorders- Visual Impairment and hearing impairment

Being visually impaired means that someone has such poor vision that even when
corrected, it can still negatively affect his or her educational performance. Students with
visual impairments can have partial sight or low vision, or be fully blind. They cannot see
well enough to learn without assistance or in general education classrooms. People with
partial sight and low vision can have some sight, while people who are blind usually have
little or no sight.

Being hearing impaired means that someone cannot hear, with or without amplification, to
the point that it negatively affects his or her educational performance. Like the visually
impaired, the hearing impaired usually cannot hear well enough to learn without assistance
or in general education classrooms. Being hearing impaired does not mean deaf, though
the deaf are fully hearing impaired. There is also a third, related category: deaf-blind. Most
people who are deaf-blind often have another disability as well because the condition is
usually caused by rubella, meningitis, or genetic or chromosomal syndromes. Deaf-blind
students are often in their own special education classes because they have severe
communication, developmental, and educational needs due to their condition.

Managing students with visual Impairment


 Seating arrangement consistent for students to know the position of the
materials,equipments and the facilities in the classroom
 Furniture and equipment that may obstruct movement of students to be located at
suitable place
 Students are supplied with reading materials that are of high quality and larger print
 Students to sit nearer the blackboard or the screen of OHP/LCD
 Other students are encouraged to help students with visual impairment
 Encourage students to use audio recording and computer
 Teacher and students exposed to reading and writing through braille system

Managing students with hearing impairment

 Students have to sit in the front row in order to hear the teacher
 Teachers have to face the students and give instructions clearly
 Use teaching aids to support explanation
 Key words, main points and brief phrases are written on the board
 Encourage buddy system so that a friend can pass important information to the
student during activities in the classroom
 Teach lip reading and use sign language
 Reduce distractions and noise in the background
 Speak distinctly and do not shout
 Face student to whom you are talking, because students need to see your lips and see
your gestures
 Use computer in the teaching and learning process

(b) Physical Disorders

Physical disabilities as orthopedic impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational


performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g. clubfoot,
absence of some member, etc.), impairments cause by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone
tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations
and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

Cerebral palsy is a disorder that involves a lack ofmuscular coordination,shaking or unclear


speech. Common cause of cerebral palsy is lack of oxygen at birth.Common type of
cerebralpalsy is spastic, that is children’s muscles are stiff and difficult to move.Another type
is ataxia, the child’s muscles are rigid one moment and floppy the next moment, making
movements clumsy and jerky.

Managing children with cerebral palsy:


 Use computers to help them to learn
 With coordination of the keyboard, they can do written work on the computer
 Use of speech and voice synthesizer,communication boards, talking notes and page
turners can help improve their communication

Seizure disorder such as epilepsy, a nervous disorder characterised by recurring


sensorimotor attacks or movement convulsions.Epilepsy comes in different forms. One
common form is the absent seizures where the child’s seizure is brief in duration and can
occur many times in a day. Often it occurs as brief starring spells, sometimes accompanied
by motor movements like twitching of the eyelids.

Managing children with seizure disorder:

 Remain calm -- if you panic, this will often spread to your other students and you will
find yourself not only managing a seizure, but also managing the emotional needs of
a group of distressed students.
 Think step-by-step -- take yourself mentally through what you know about the
situation already (the student, their epilepsy needs, the action plan that would
already be documented for the student in many cases).

 Look for help -- in a school there will generally be other staff around who can help
when needed. This might be bringing a blanket to cover a student who has wet
themselves during a seizure (thus protecting their dignity and privacy needs) or
calling an ambulance if the situation is beyond your skills or is required according to
the situation.

 Act -- remember there are some simple things to do to keep the student safe (move
hard objects away, protect their airways etc) and make them comfortable after a
seizure has passed; although you can't really do anything at all to stop the seizure
while it is occurring.

 Document -- after the seizure has been managed, remember to document what
happened and what actions you took (note the time the seizure started and stopped,
any problems or observations you think are important, and what you did during and
after the seizure).

(b) Learning Disabilities

A learning difficulty or learning disability is commonly referred to as an LD, and this term
means that the student has a problem learning in one or more areas caused by brain
dysfunction, other disabilities, a brain injury, or even developmental aphasia (lack of
language abilities). There is a spectrum of LDs from mild to moderate to severe to
profound. LDs are difficult to define, however. Even under federal laws related to special
education, the definition of an LD focuses on what it is not rather than what it is. For the
most part, the working definition of an LD is a divergence between a student's abilities,
achievements or IQ, and his or her actual achievement. There is no one standard or test for
this discrepancy, making the definition of what an LD is vary widely from person to person.
Sometimes, the definition of an LD can include mental retardation, which means having a
significantly under-functioning intellect and having deficiencies in adaptive behavior, and/or
suffering from disorders like Down syndrome, a chromosomal defect that profoundly affects
both physical and intellectual development and creates other medical problems. Students
with LDs often benefit from specific teaching strategies geared towards their unique
problem.

A child with a learning difficulty is a child who’s difficulties do not relate to an intellectual
disability, significant hearing or vision impairment, nor are they emotionally disturbed
(Chapman and Tunmer, 2000). Children with learning disabilities are more likely than the
general student population to have a low self image (Elbaum and Vaughan, 1999). To
address low self image or low self esteem of students with learning disabilities a teacher
may focus on the students self image or their academic achievement. A dual focus is most
effective in improving academic performance and self esteem (Elbaum and Vaughan, 1999;
Chapman and Tunmer, 2000). There are a range of techniques that can be used to
effectively teach a child with a learning disability. Any techniques that will assist a child with
learning difficulties are also effective for the general classroom population.

Dyslexia and dyscalculia are two different types of learning disabilities. A learning disability
is a disorder in which one or more psychological process involving any kind of language
affects a person's ability to correctly do things like write, read, spell, complete mathematical
calculations, or the like. A learning disability is caused by differences in how someone's
brain processes information or works overall. Dyslexia is usually defined as a difficulty with
reading, writing, and spelling. Sometimes, dyslexia can affect a person's ability to speak. It
is one of the most common learning disabilities in children. One of the first signs that a child
is dyslexic is when he or she shows a difficulty in learning to read. There are several types
of dyslexia, including visual dyslexia. Visual dyslexia means that a person reverses letters
(and sometimes numbers as well) and cannot write words in their proper sequence. While
dyslexia affects a person's ability to read or write, dyscalculia involves difficulty with
numbers usually involving math. Someone with dyscalculia can have difficulties learning
how to count or understanding math and math problems. Sometimes, sequences of
numbers will not make sense. Dyscalculia can also manifest itself by having a poor
understanding of the concept of time or a poor sense of direction.

Managing children with learning disabilities:


 Teach children learning strategies to enable processing of information
 Give feedback more frequently
 Present lessons visually on the board or OHP
 Use concrete examples to illustrate abstract concepts
 Improve organizational and study skills of the children
 Work with reading and writing skills

Other Behaviors Related to Learning Disabilities


 Not cooperating
 Class clown behaviors
 Making fun of class work
 Angry outbursts during assignments
 Avoiding or hiding incomplete assignments

These behaviors are common with children who have disabilities because of their
frustration with the difficulty level of the work. Even modified work can be very difficult for a
child and cause frustrated behaviors. Likewise, these children often learn coping
mechanisms that prevent them from being “found out” by their peers to avoid being made
fun of so always address these problems privately.

The best way to handle these behaviors is to ignore the behavior and provide one-on-one
assistance for the assignment. Quick and quiet modifications to the assignment, like finish
only the first three, or write just one paragraph instead of 2 can help as well.

(c) Autism

Autism and severe epilepsy are two conditions linked to brain function, which can affect a
person's ability to not only learn in a classroom, but also how he or she functions in the
world. Autism is an all-encompassing developmental disorder that affects about one in 500
children. Autism usually begins before the age of three. Autism characteristics include
noticeable delays and deficiencies in the ability to communicate, repetitive and stereotyped
patterns of behavior, and an inability to relate to others or function well in social situations.
Autism is now more commonly known as autism spectrum disorder.

Autism is a complicated disability because an individual child can fall anywhere along the
spectrum and display very unique personality traits. A child who is mildly autistic will behave
very differently than a child who is non-verbal, for example. Here are some basic behaviors
teachers might see in an inclusion classroom:

 Not responding to questions


 Not willing to try something new (can throw a fit if forced)
 Anger/frustration when forced to communicate
 Fights with other students
 Disregard for basic classroom rules
When managing these behaviors, it is important to have input from the special education
teacher in the school. A conversation with the speech therapist might also be helpful given
the tendencies to become frustrated with communication. Here are some ideas that
teachers can try:

 Work in small groups whenever possible to give more attention to the child with autism.
 Use role playing to teach appropriate ways to handle various social situations. (never
expect a child with autism to “pick up” the right way to do something, explicitly teach
appropriate behaviors)
 Educate the other classmates about the student’s behaviors.
 Separate the child from the group for a “cool down” time
 Create a behavior plan to target specific behaviors and provide incentives for proper
behavior.

(d) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Students with behavioral challenges often have issues with appropriate communication,
social interaction, and/or sensory behaviors. There are a number of medical conditions that
result in challenging behavior, including ADHD and ADD. Both of these disorders are difficult
to diagnose, but can generally be described as being fidgety with hands or feet, talking
excessively, forgetting daily activities, having trouble sitting still, having trouble controlling
behavior, having trouble paying attention in class, and making careless mistakes on school
work. Such qualities can be found in many children, but a professional must determine if
these characteristics have reached a level beyond normal for the child's age and become a
disability. It is unclear what causes ADHD and ADD, but the conditions make a general
education classroom experience quite difficult. Some critics believe that neither ADHD nor
ADD exist and that students so diagnosed are behaving inappropriately and just lack
discipline. Another concern about a diagnosis of ADHD and ADD includes what many
believe is an excessive number of children receiving medication for the disorder instead of
learning how to control themselves and manage their impulses.Common behaviors teachers
might see when observing a child with ADHD:

 Getting out of seat repeatedly without permission


 Distraction – not paying attention or following directions
 Not following directions
 Disruptive repetitive behaviors (such as tapping pencil)

These behaviors are a part of the disability. While these are not acceptable in the classroom
and can be quite disrupting, teachers need to realize when disciplining the child that these
behaviors are not always a choice. Here are some ideas to help manage these disruptive
behaviors:

 Redirect the child’s attention


 Assign a buddy student to help the child focus/follow directions
 Give simple directions one step at a time and have the child repeat the step back before
starting.
 Seat the child in a location where allowing the child to stand instead of remain seated
would be possible.
(e) Mental Retardation

The term "intellectual disability" is often misunderstood and seen as derogatory. Some think
that retardation is diagnosed only on the basis of below-normal intelligence (IQ), and that
persons with intellectual disabilities are unable to learn or to care for themselves.

Actually, in order to be diagnosed as a person with intellectual disabilities, the person has
to have both significantly low IQ and considerable problems in everyday functioning. Most
children with intellectual disabilities can learn a great deal, and as adults can lead at least
partially independent lives. Most individuals with intellectual disabilities have only a mild
level. Intellectual disabilities may be complicated by several different physical and
emotional problems. The child may also have difficulty with hearing, sight or speech.

In the past, parents were often advised to institutionalize a child with significant intellectual
disabilities. Today, the goal is to help the child with intellectual disabilities stay in the family
and take part in community life. In most states, the law guarantees them educational and
other services at public expense.

It is very important that the child has a comprehensive evaluation to find out about his or
her strengths and needs. Since no specialist has all the necessary skills, many
professionals might be involved. General medical tests as well as tests in areas such as
neurology (the nervous system), psychology, psychiatry, special education, hearing, speech
and vision, and physical therapy are useful. A pediatrician or a child and adolescent
psychiatrist often coordinates these tests.

These physicians refer the child for the necessary tests and consultations, put together the
results, and jointly with the family and the school develop a comprehensive treatment and
education plan.

Emotional and behavioral disorders may be associated with intellectual disabilities, and
they may interfere with the child's progress. Most children with intellectual disabilities
recognize that they are behind others of their own age. Some may become frustrated,
withdrawn or anxious, or act "bad" to get the attention of other youngsters and adults.
Adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities may become depressed. These
persons might not have enough language skills to talk about their feelings, and their
depression may be shown by new problems, for instance in their behavior, eating and
sleeping.

Early diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in children with intellectual disabilities leads to early
treatment. Medications can be helpful as one part of overall treatment and management of
children with intellectual disabilities.

Periodic consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist may help the family in setting
appropriate expectations, limits, opportunities to succeed, and other measures which will
help their child with intellectual disabilities handle the stresses of growing up
Managing mentally retarded students

 Create a play way teaching environment for mentally retarded children. To play with
these children is better than just teaching them A,B,C or 1,2,3 because your duty is to
bring their brain in balance form.

 Motivate mentally retarded children by providing them free gift of books, copies and all
necessary things. Mentally retarded children learn from your motivation faster than
any normal children.

 The vivacity of mentally retarded children when their teachers called them with
their nick names. I think a mental retarded child can also feel your love and affection.
As a teacher, you can only change the behavior of a mentally retarded children by giving
them love.

 We can hearten the mentally retarded children, if local NGO and social organisations
adopt the schools where these students are getting education. After the financial support
from these NGO, teachers can purchase advance, technical and teaching equipments
which can be used for providing better teaching to mentally retarded children.

The whole society is responsible for providing good education to mentally retarded
children. It is also good if you have any planning to open mentally retarded school for
free education to mentally retarded children.

 As teacher you should be more cautious when you are teaching mentally retarded
children. You should manage all medicine in your school. You should not allow to play
mentally retarded children with normal children because sometime mentally retarded
child may fight due to absence of discernment.

 Never give them any hard punishment, if a mentally retarded child does any mistake. As
a good teacher, you should understand that you are doing teaching and social work
same time. You should never leave your discrimination of mind while you are teaching
mentally retarded children.

 Children with mental retardation may learn to sit up, to crawl, or to walk later than other
children, or they may learn to talk later. Both adults and children with mental retardation
may also exhibit the following characteristics:

 Use behavior modification techniques. Many of retarded children act out inappropriately
or engage in unacceptable behaviors simply because they know they are different and
can get away with it. It's important to ignore these behaviors and to reward appropriate
behavior with praise and extra privileges.
(How to Teach Mentally Retarded Children. Retrieved 12 Dec 2011 from
www.svtuition.org/.../how-to-teach-mentally-retarded-children.html)

(f) Slow learners

They simply do not do well in school or a particular subject. In the days before formal
schooling these students would carry on productive lives working and doing tasks that did
not require extensive reading, writing, or math operations. However, today the emphasis is
less on occupational learning and more on academic preparation. Thus there is a growing
need for help to remediate these children to provide them the best possible opportunities in
a changing world.

Here are some general characteristics of slow learners. Students may display some or all of
these depending on their age and degree of problems acquiring knowledge at school. First,
they are frequently immature in their relations with others and do poorly in school. Secondly,
they cannot do complex problems and work very slowly. They lose track of time and cannot
transfer what they have learned from one task to another well. They do not easily master
skills that are academic in nature such as the times tables or spelling rules. Perhaps the
most frustrating trait is their inability to have long-term goals. They live in the present and so
have significant problems with time management probably due to a short attention span and
poor concentration skills capabilities.

It should be pointed out that just because a child is not doing well in one class does not
make that student a slow learner. Very few children excel in all subject areas unless there is
great deal of grade inflation at that school. That is why it is essential that standardized tests
scores be examined in depth by the parent or teacher to look for trends. Also there is a
difference between a slow learner and a reluctant learner. A slow learner initially wants to
learn, but just has a problem with the process. A reluctant learner is not motivated and can
also be passive aggressive creating even more of a problem for teachers and parents
through a ploy that involves non-cooperation. There is seldom anything wrong with the
learning ability of reluctant learners.

Managing slow learners:

 Have a quiet place to work where the child can be easily observed and motivated.
 Keep the homework sessions short
 Provide activity times before and during the homework
 Add a variety of tasks to the learning even if it is not assigned such as painting a picture
of a reading assignment.
 Allow for success
 Ask questions of the child while they are working about the assignment
 Go over the homework before they go to bed and before they go to school
 Teach them how to use a calendar to keep track of assignments
 Read to the child
 Use my “Three Transfer” form of learning in which the student must take information and
do three things with it besides reading. For example, read it, explain it to someone else,
draw a picture of it, and take notes on it.
 Be patient but consistent.
 Do not reward unfinished tasks
 Challenge the child
 Have the child do the assignments that are the most difficult first and leave the easier
ones to later. Call it the dessert principle.
 Don’t be overprotective. Students who have parents that frequently intercede in their
child’s education are teaching that student that the parent does not respect their
abilitites. If you do call a teacher make sure you are seeking a positive outcome.
Remember that most teachers have dealt with numerous slow learners and have a vast
amount of experience. However, sharing your child’s strengths and weaknesses could
make the school year more beneficial for all concerned.
 Contact the teacher if there is a concern. Calling an administrator solves nothing as the
teacher is the sole legal judge of academic success.
 Take you child to exciting places where they can see where academic success is
important. A trip to a local university or community college, a walking tourof city hall, a
visit to the fire station or a behind the scenes tour of a zoo are highly motivating.

Examples of interventions for slow learners:

(a) Environment: Reduce distractions, change seating to promote attentiveness, have a peer
student teacher, and allow more breaks.

(b) Assignments: Shorter and with more variation, repeat work in various forms, have a
contract, give more hands on work, have assignments copied by student, have students
use three transfer method where they have to show the work three different ways.

(c) Assessment: Shorter tests, oral testing, redoing tests, short feedback times, don’t make
students compete

(d) What to avoid: Cooperative learning that isolates the student and places him or her in a
no win situation. Using a standardized test. Ignoring the problem.

(e) What to encourage: Grouping with a patient partner. Learning about the child’s interests.
Placing the student in charge. Mapping, graphic organizers, and hands-on work. Using
Bloom’s taxonomy of tasks to make the assignments more appropriate.

( Refer to http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm)

(g) Gifted and Talented

While many gifted or talented students do not have disabilities, they are often put in special
programs that separate them from general education or special education classmates.
There is no one commonly accepted definition of a gifted or talented student, though having
outstanding intellectual and/or creative abilities and high performance capabilities is often
seen in these students. The typical gifted or talented student fully functions in a general
education classroom, but becomes bored when asked to do work below their skill level on a
regular basis.

There are gifted or talented students with disabled or special needs conditions. They often
excel intellectually in one or more areas, but find this aspect of their educational experience
underserved because of the accommodations that are made to their disability or disabilities.
Many special education students with disabilities find their extraordinary potential limited
because of this situation. For example, a student who is deaf might not be able to
appropriately respond to directions spoken aloud. In addition, the student's condition might
mean that he or she has a limited vocabulary that cannot adequately reflect the complexity
of his or her internal thoughts. Limited life experiences because of impaired mobility also
may mask a gifted or talented nature.

What qualifies a student for gifted or talented programs, both for general education and
special education students, is decided on the local level, as are the related programs. Those
who support special programs for the gifted or talented think that there needs to be a
special, stimulating curriculum because such students often grow uninterested or frustrated
when asked to work continuously below their skill level. Those who oppose separating the
gifted or talented from their peers believe that all students should receive a challenging
educational experience. Opponents also point out that a disproportionately high number of
white and Asian students are labeled as gifted or talented, while a disproportionately low
number of black and Hispanic students are put in such programs.

1. Problem Solve

Always look at all angles and details of the situation. Take a deep breath and try to
remove yourself from the situation. Ask others. Sometimes a fresh view may find the
trigger. Your child may not be defiant in this situation but anxious or embarrassed. Look
at the reaction of the whole environment: friends, teachers, consequences of their
actions (both positive and negative). The reaction of the environment may give you
some clues to the reasons for the behavior. In addition, if you identify the patterns
surrounding the behavior, you may be able to provide some prevention.

2. Serving the Needs of the PG

Most of the parents participating in our seminar had children who had been accelerated
in school. This was designed to meet the needs of the child. However, each PG child
has more needs then this serves. For example, the material still may be too easy, some
of the material may be uninteresting, and the child may have other unrelated needs. Do
not let these needs go unmet. In addition, your child may be performing at a
developmentally appropriate level for his or her age but not grade. Handwriting, social
skills, and organization are examples of skills that an accelerated child may need more
support from the teacher to perform at the same level as their grade level peers. The
school should make accommodations for your child’s needs. Collaborate with the school
but do not feel wrong or guilty for asking for accommodations.

3. Stay One Step Ahead

Anyone with kids has heard this mantra before, however, I feel it is important to stress
the point again. Try to predict problem situations for your child. Look for patterns that
lead to troublesome behavior. Once you identify the patterns, you may be able to provide
some prevention.

4. Pick Your Battles

Again, we have all heard this as parents but we need to teach this concept to PG kids.
The intensity and enthusiasm of PG kids can lead them to attach extraordinary
importance to minor issues. Some battles are worth standing up to authority. Some are
not. Help your child weigh the consequences of winning and losing the battle. In
addition, teach your child how and when it is appropriate to approach an authority figure
about their erroneous actions. Discuss the consequences for your child, their peers, the
teacher, the school as a whole and you as a family. This may be difficult for your child
but it is a beneficial skill to learn and use throughout life.
5. Don't Teach in Crises

When children are in the midst of a behavioral outburst, parents or teachers can do
nothing but manage and calm the behavior. We must teach strategies to prevent or
dissipate the behavior when the child is calm. Practice using modeling, role-play and
analog situations during calm, rational moments and then encourage the skills to transfer
to the times of crises.
6. Motivating the Unmotivated
Many of the children in our discussion experienced difficulty maintaining motivation
during assignments or subjects that they did not enjoy. One of the reasons for the lack of
motivation was the belief that the material was irrelevant to their future. As adults we
knew this was not true. How do we convince the children of this fact? The group
provided the following suggestions. Establish a mentoring relationship with someone in
the field of the child’s interest. This person may be able to stress the importance of a
well-rounded education and relate it to the profession. Find out the goal of assignments.
Can the goal be met by integrating the child’s interest into the assignment. Teachers may
be willing to modify the assignment to accomplish the learning goals.
7. Working in Groups
Children who are PG often have trouble communicating their thoughts in collaborative
group work. Not only do they think their way is best and correct, they believe that the
rest of the group will ruin the assignment. Support your child by modeling and role-
playing prior to group work at school. Teach the child how to appropriately assert their
opinion, present ideas, and LISTEN to others. Try to establish friendships within the
classroom. When creating a social activity, choose one that ensures success to promote
the friendship. To prevent outbursts, approach the teacher about the possibility of
allowing a dissenting opinion from a group member. This may benefit the whole class
and present as many “teachable” moments.

Specific Strategies for Maintaining Behavior

1. Communication and Collaboration


Create a system of communication with your child's teacher before problems arise. Work
with the teacher to prevent any problem behaviors in the classroom by sharing what
works at home and what may trigger your child's behavior. If your child's teacher is not
cooperative, create an ally in an administrator, gifted coordinator or school psychologist.
Do not create the alliance to undermine the teacher but to support your child.

2. Organization Strategies
 Create a different colored folder for each class. Color code all the materials for each
class. Add a special folder for homework and teacher communication.
 Help your child choose an assignment/datebook that works for them. Schedule in all
of the child's activities and homework time. Enlist a teacher or peer to help with
writing assignments in the book.

3. Easing and Preventing Anxiety


o Enlist the aid of the school counselor or school psychologist. They can be a support
at the school and advocate for your child.
o Search for an outside interest that allows your child to excel and experience success
outside of the pressure of school or home.
o Create a "cool-down" strategy
 Guide your child in making positive statements that help them through the anxiety.
For example, the child could say "cool down, I can ask for help, I can do this."

 Create a signal in the classroom that lets the teacher know the child is upset and
needs support. The child could either find the counselor or retreat to a special area
of the classroom.
 Create reasonable goals and expectations for completing class assignments. Set
this up before the child tries to overachieve/reach perfection. Set timelines,
completion plans and schedule time to complete the work.
 Find a creative outlet for the anxiety. One example may be to write a story about a
girl or boy that makes mistakes and successfully corrects or works through them.
This allows the child to discuss strategies and "practice" through the character of
the story.

4. Behavior Management Strategies

Systems designed to provide clear, concrete rules, expectations, schedules and guidelines
that also create clear consequences for both positive and negative behavior are
appreciated by any student. During the seminar, a participating parent described a level
system in the classroom. All children were given different colored cards at the beginning of
the day. Each card corresponded to a different level, super, warning, time out, self-
diagnostic worksheet assigned and finally double alert or contact parents. Children who
have no color changes can turn the number of successful days in for rewards. This is a
simplified explanation but the details of the system are not important. It is the clear
expectations and consequences applied consistently that support appropriate behavior.

Goey,Davidson(2003). Tips for parents: Cool, calm and collected: Managing behavior in the
classroom. Institute for Talent Development
UNIT 12 Planning Of An Effective Classroom Management

Synopsis

This unit will summarise an effective classroom management and prepare an effective
classroom plan. It will also discuss how a teacher should create a conducive environment
for effective teaching and learning process.

Learning Outcomes

1.1 Produce a plan for effective classroom management based on a summary of chapter
1-7 and taking into consideration the suitability of a KBSR classroom environment

1.2 Transfer general and specific curriculum content into meaning learning activities .

1.3 Portray suitable leadership characteristics in line with the responsibilities given.

Summary of effective classroom management


TOPIC 1

Introduction
After reading all the unit 1-11, we will summarise the key points to be taken into consideration
in order to create an effective learning environment in the classroom. A well-organized
classroom is a classroom in which students know how to effectively make use of the classroom
and its resources. Some of the teaching objectives focus on expected academic behaviours,
appropriate use of materials and learning centres, and cooperation with peers. So, teacher
should play a role to create a community of learners where students play an active part in
forming their environment, understand their role students, and learn how to work effectively as
an individual and with peers. All actions taken by the teacher should be focused on minimizing
disruptions and fostering an environment where students can learn.

12.1 Effective Classroom Management.


The goals of classroom management are to create and maintain a positive, productive
learning environment and to foster a safe classroom community.
(a) To create and maintain a positive, productive learning environment.
This goal is not meant for absolute control or to create an inert, docile, and totally compliant
classroom and student body. Rather, an effective classroom management is to maintain
students’ interest, motivation and involvement. Thus, the focus is on activities that create
positive, productive and facilitative learning environment.
(b) To support and foster a safe classroom community.
Another goal of classroom management is to support and foster a safe classroom commu-
nity. It means that students are allowed to make the connections needed for learning to take
place. Each student needs to feel comfortable enough to discuss their previous understand-
ing without fear of being ridiculed for their misconceptions. In order to make the students
comfortable enough to take these intellectual risks, it is necessary to set up the rules and
routines which:
• The rules and routines will give them a structure in which to interact with the teacher and
each other.

• The rules and routines need to be necessary, fair and specific if the students are to be
expected to follow them.

• Each rule or routine should come with a verbal or written description of why the rule is
needed. If the rule is too vague on its own, examples should be given.

Classroom management strategy will not work if a teacher does not know his/her students.
If the teacher takes the time to get to know the students, he or she can not only plan
management issues better, but can also minimize disruptions in a more personal way. This
has the added benefit of letting the students know that you care about them as people as
well as students.

Creating an Effective Learning Environment in Classroom

A conducive classroom environment is the pre-requisite to successful class teaching.In the


absence of good classroom management; even a qualified and intelligent teacher proves
ineffective. Creating a congenial classroom environment and management is one of the
managerial ski1 Is which includes promoting pupil participation, and the guiding hehaviour of
the learners. This is one of the most important skills which is essential for every teacher. The
Teacher's main job is to bring overall improvement of student's Classroom Management
personalities through the process of behaviour modification. A teacher is expected to
promote pupil participation in the process of teaching. The teacher who is inquisitive and is
eager to know about the attending behaviour of the learners succeeds in it. This skill is more
or less of the instructive type. The presence of the teacher in the classroom situations
equips him with this skill. Everything in the classroom depends upon the over all
management of the teacher there. So, as a Head, you must be vigilant about the resources
and how to help your faculty to do it.

In a nutshell, classroom management includes the pupils' initial behaviour, readiness for the
modification of behaviours, their seating in the classroom, setting of the classroom, the
prevailing healthy environment etc. All this is learnt by the teacher gradually in time. When
the overall environment of the classroom is good under the impact of the teacher, practice of
other skills becomes an easy affair for the teacher.

Teaching includes a number of activities to be performed by the teacher like communicating


knowledge, motivating the students, clarity of the concepts, classroom discipline, assigning
and checking the homework and interacting with the students. Classroom environment has
great bearing on the mind of the learners. The ultimate objective of the whole education
process is to help students acquire maximum knowledge, attitude and skills. All this is
feasible when environment is healthy and congenial for learning.
Classroom management does not mean a strict order but the shaping of a positive
environment in the classroom. The teacher's behaviour is the main contributing factor. A
skillful and efficient teacher manages the class in such a manner that he never faces
discipline problems. He stimulates the students to know more and more. It also involves the
ability of the teacher to manage various skills so that the quality of teaching-1 learning
process is maintained and ultimately results in maximum output in terms of students'
performance. Relations between the peer group and with teachers also affect the learning
environment. Students learn more effectively in an environment that meets their basic
personal and psychological needs. It cannot be denied that most of the disciplinary
problems in the classrooms can be prevented or greatly minimised with a favourable
teaching-learning situation. From the above discussion, the following main points emerge:

A good teacher should:

- create an emotionally pleasant and stimulating environment;


- make the learner to have positive attitude towards educational programmes;
- set meaningful goals; and
- make the subject matter meaningful.

Roles of teacher in creating a positive learning environment

The functioning of a normal classroom involves, among other factors, the use of guidance
techniques to encourage students to become sel f-directed. It is not basically coercive in
nature. The end result of successful discipline, then, is intelligent self-direction. Teachers
who help students toward meaningful, conscious self-direction also achieve sound
classroom control.

The experienced teacher knows that if he /she is unable to create and maintain an
curriculum transaction effective but tension-free classroom environment, the effici'ency of
his teaching will be markedly diminished.

Let us be more clear that in a normal functioning of classroom students participate actively
and discuss with the teacher without fear and hesitation. Such activities in the classroom
prepare the learners to confidently face the challenges of life. Normal functioning of a
classroom depends on the attitude of School Head. His/ her behaviour with the teacher
establishes the norms.

Class Discipline and Learning-Free and Democratic Atmosphere

Discipline is derived from the Latin word, "discipulus" which means to learn. It is the same
root rom which the word disciple is taken. Literally, discipline is a mode of life in accordance
with certain rules and regulations. It is a sort of self-control, reflected in action. This control
is not forced upon the individual. It flows out from within. The term 'discipline' implies a
good understanding of right conduct, the formation of desirable habits and attitudes and an
adherence to such standards as are just and necessary. It includes the socialisation of
behaviour, the manner of working and living in cooperation and the sub-ordination of
individual interests to group interests.

In a classroom, order and system in doing things, regularity and obedience to commands
should be observed. Discipline in the class can be maintained by force or fear but that is not
real discipline. In the classroom, discipline should be the result of gradual building up of
habits of self-control and cooperation and carried out by pupils not because it is imposed
from authority but because of the recognition of its necessity and value.

Discipline, thus understood, will result in cultivation of certain desirable attitudes, habits and
values in individual pupil. It was the old concept of discipline where pupils were kept under
control by subjection to authority, obedience to laws and rules, which is not considered
conducive to learning any more.

With the adoption ofthe concept of democratisation every individual is to be respected.The


modern teacher now acts as a friend and guide. The teacher in the classroom is supposed
to arrange teaching activities in a way that provides opportunities for expression and action
to individual pupils. A free and democratic atmosphere should be provided in the classroom
for the proper development of an individual. Such a discipline consists of an exalted source
of responsibility. respect for authority, love of orderliness, eagerness to discharge qne's
duties, desire to be agreeable and helpful to others and capacity to maintain balance of
mind in the face of most trying circumstances. It also instils habits of self discipline anlong
pupils. Here the School Head should be the role model. If a Head wants to instil the above
points in the teachers of his school, he will first have to observe them himself and encourage
them to follow his example, with some degree of liberty.

Activity
Based on you School based Experience, how did teachers create the smooth functioning
of a normal classroom (taking a small group of students). What are some practical
suggestions would you give?

Need for Lively and Interactive Classroom Environment

The lively environment leads to effective learning. The efficiency and management skill of
the teacher in using different teaching strategies will help maintain interest of the students.
Very skilfully, he can create and maintain students' interest by questioning, seeking
claritications, giving their own views, examining other's views, arguing decisions etc. To
create a lively and interactive environment, a teacher has to perform various roles. Some of
them are as follows:

i) Initiator: A teacher should adopt such teaching strategies so that necessary skills to
actively participate in pedagogic interactions and required knowledge among students
can be developed. As our students are not acquainted with group interaction, the teacher
should help them to create epvironment for interaction. Some of the important rules are
follows:

 Participants should raise their hands before asking questions and wait for the
chairperson's permission.
 All the questions should be addressed to the chairperson.
 Participants should also learn to listen. Listening skill needs to be cultivated.
 No participant will interrupt another participants talk and will speak only when the
speaker has completed his presentation.

ii) Motivator: Some students are shy and introvert and hesitate tb participate in discussions.
You, as a teacher, should become a motivator and encourage such students to
participate. A teacher should listen to and apprediate the views expressed by the
students.

iii) Facilitator: When the content is not clear to the students, they expect you to clarify the
issues and ideas. Do so. After the discussion, you can give concluding rernarks and
judgement

iv)Elaborator:You as a teacher should help them to clarify and elaborate the views
expressed by them. If they do need more clarity of quest~onst,h en you, the teacher
should help them out in doing too.

v) Moderator:A teacher should have the skill of moderating the overall environment of
interactive sessions by providing the equal opportunities to may, if not to all,participants.
Repetition should be avoided.

vi) Controller:The success of the interaction session depends on its systematic and
purposeful organisation.

vii) Closing the Interactive Session: Closure part is also significapt. A teacher should
carefully highlight and summarise the views and arguments expressed during the
session. The feelings of any particular student should not be hurt.The School Head can
contribute a lot and help the teachers in laying down and following the above rules.

Check for Understanding

1. How would you help the teachers in your school in creating timely and interactive
environment?

2. How would you guide the teachers in your school to maintain class discipline?

Teachers' Role and Functions

Let us discuss what should be the role of teacher and his'functions, as his role is pivotal
factor in managing the class more than any other equipment and resources. The role and
functions are as follows:

 The teacher should bear in mind that the plan in handling classroom activities should be
adapted to the classroom conditions. The size of the class, the arrangement of the
classroom equipment, and the materials in teaching must be well considered by tlie
teacher.

 The teacher should bear in mind that regulations on absence and tardiness should be
handled according to administrative requirements. Attendance should be checked at the
beginning of the period. The pupils should be required to present their slips for absence
before the class period begins. Tardy pupils should also be required to have admission
slips which would be collected at the close of the period.
 The teacher should bear in mind that the handling of the instructional material should be
routinised to save time and avoid confi~sion. Routine has its place only when it
contributes to this end. Tlie teacher must decide what rules should be applied in his
classroom to achieve this end.
 The nature and needs oftlie pupils should be borne in mind in making the seating
arrangement. Seating should be adjusted to the needs of the pupils and should be
arranged in an orderly and efficient way. Seats should be of the right size and type to
give comfort to the pupils.
 Effective teaching and efficient learning are possible only when the classroom condition
is normal. Tlie teacher should know the working conditions essential to good teaching-
learning and proper behaviour. His chief responsibility lies in making the best of his
conditions and utilising the good features that are at his disposal.
 The teacher has to bear in mind that a positive app:oach to classroom management and
control really means looking for favourable constructive conduct and commending pupils
on it, and on most occasions ignoring conduct that is not acceptable. A positive approach
to classroom management and control is based on self-motivation and control.

Tutorial Activity

What other activities would you suggest in establishing a live and interactive environment in
the class?

Preparation of an effective classroom management plan


TOPIC 2

Some of the aims of effective classroom management plan.


Effective classroom management plan:

• To assist students to keep task focus. Research demonstrates a significant


relationship between the amount of content covered and student learning
(Berliner, 1988).
• To reduce distraction from learning. This is an extension of the goal to keep
student task focused.
• To organize and facilitate the flow of learning activities. Assess to learning is
assisted by the development of rules and routines that increase involvement
and participation. Therefore, management goal must complement learning
goal.
• To help the students to manage themselves. That is, to assist students to take
responsibility for their own actions as they impact their work within the classroom.
(Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, 2003).