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THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY DESIGN AID

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GROUNDING DESIGN AID

0. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Topic
1 General
2 Definitions
3 Codes
4 Ground Grid System
5 Materials and Installation
6 Grounding and Bonding Requirements by Equipment Type
7 Static Grounding
8 Lightning Protection
9 Cable Shield, Screen, and Armour Grounding
10 System Neutral Grounding

1. GENERAL
1.1. This design aid is intended to document the grounding philosophies illustrated in Dow
Engineering Details and to provide guidance to the user in designing grounding systems for Dow
facilities.
1.2. An electrical grounding system shall be provided to perform the following functions:
1.2.1.Ensure the safety of personnel
1.2.2.Prevent damage to equipment and installations
1.2.3.Serve as a common voltage reference and mitigate disturbances to electronic systems
1.3. Electrical grounding systems shall be installed in the following cases:
1.3.1.As called for in Local Codes or Variations
1.3.2.For grounding of electrical systems in process plants, power generation and distribution
facilities, and other Dow facilities
1.3.3.For grounding of exposed conductive parts of equipment or structures
1.3.4.For protection against the effects of lightning
1.3.5.For protection against the effects of static electricity
1.3.6.For mitigation of disturbances to electronic systems, also known as Electromagnetic
Interference
1.4. In general, the earth or ground network shall be designed to have a contact impedance as low
as possible. It should minimize the voltage difference between any two points in the ground
system.
1.5. The design is typically constrained by:
1.5.1.Lightning and personnel safety dictating the design of the earth rod

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1.5.2.Safety consideration and installation protection dictating the sizes of the earth conductors
1.5.3.Electromagnetic compatibility dictating the layout of the grounding system

2. DEFINITIONS
2.1. In this document "Earthing" and "Grounding" are equivalent terms and are used
interchangeably.
2.2. Not all of the terms defined in this section are used in this document, but definitions are
provided as a reference.
2.3. EARTH: The conductive mass of the EARTH whose electric potential at any point is
conventionally taken as equal to zero. The term EARTH in capital letters means the soil.
2.4. Earthing or Grounding: The connection of an electrical system, or piece of equipment, to
the soil in a manner that will limit the voltage imposed by lightning and that will stabilize the
voltage to earth during normal operation.
2.5. Bonding: A low impedance path obtained by permanently joining all non-current-carrying
metal parts to ensure electrical continuity and having the capacity to conduct safely any
current likely to be imposed on it.
2.6. Earth (Ground) Electrode: A conductor or conductive part in direct contact with the EARTH
and used for dissipating current into the EARTH.
2.7. Total Earthing (Grounding) Resistance: The resistance between the main earthing
(grounding) terminal and the EARTH.
2.8. Electrically Independent Earth (Ground): Earth (Ground) electrodes at such a distance
from one another that the maximum current likely to traverse one of them does not
significantly affect the potential of the others.
2.9. Earthing Conductor or Grounding Electrode Conductor: A conductor connecting the
main earthing (grounding) terminal or bar to the earth (ground) electrode.
2.10. Main Earthing Terminal or Main Earthing Bar or Ground Bus: A terminal or bar provided
for the connection of protective conductors, including equipotential bonding conductors and
conductors for functional earthing (grounding), to the means of earthing (grounding).
2.11. Equipotential Bonding: Electrical connection putting various exposed conductive parts and
parts likely to become energized at a substantially equal potential.
2.12. Equipotential Bonding Conductor: A protective conductor for ensuring equipotential
bonding.
2.13. Protective Conductor or Equipment Grounding Conductor: A conductor used to
connect the non-current carrying metal parts of equipment, raceways, and other enclosures
to the system grounded conductor, the grounding electrode conductor, or both, at the service
equipment or at the source of a separately derived system.
2.14. Grounded Conductor: A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.
2.15. Grounding System: A conductive connection of reinforcement wire meshes, rebar,
concrete foundations and piles, single grounding electrodes, grounding bars, cable shields,
casings of electrical equipment, steel structures and all other conductive mechanical
equipment that are connected together and also to the EARTH.
2.16. System Neutral Grounding: Method intended to stabilize circuit potentials with respect to
ground and to control the quantity of ground fault current to a level adequate to operate
circuit relaying or alarms as applicable.

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2.17. Cord and Plug Connected Equipment: A piece of equipment consisting of a flexible cord
“hard-wired” on one end and a plug cap on the other that can be readily moved from one
location to another. This is not temporary wiring. The equipment is considered utilization
equipment which requires frequent interchange. Examples would be movable skid mounted
equipment or shop equipment such as drill presses, bench grinders, or welders.
2.18. Static Grounding: The application of grounding, bonding, static collectors, neutralizers,
conductive belts, etc., with the intent of eliminating static discharges between oppositely
charged materials.
2.19. Lightning Protection Grounding: The application of lightning arresters, air terminals,
surge suppressors, and other conventional grounding equipment to protect personnel and
equipment from the effects of direct or indirect lightning strokes.
2.20. Grounding Electrode: A buried metal water-piping system or metal object or device
embedded in the earth, used for maintaining ground potential on conductors connected to it
and for dissipating current into the earth. Examples include underground metal water pipes,
concrete-encased steel, buried ground conductors, rods, pipes, or plates.
2.21. Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter: A device intended for the protection of personnel that
functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when
an imbalance current exceeds a predetermined value that is high enough to result in
ventricular fibrillation.
2.22. Ground-fault Protection of Equipment: A system intended to provide protection of
equipment from damaging line to ground fault currents by operating a disconnecting means
to open all ungrounded conductors of the faulted circuit. This protection is provided at
current levels less than those required to protect conductors from damage through the
operation of a supply overcurrent protective device.
2.23. Step Voltage: The difference in surface potential experienced by a person bridging a
distance of 1 meter with the feet without contacting any grounded object.
2.24. Touch Voltage: The potential difference between the ground potential rise (GPR) and the
surface potential at the point where a person is standing while at the same time having a
hand in contact with a grounded structure.
2.25. Ground Potential Rise (GPR): The maximum electrical potential that a substation grounding
grid may attain relative to a distant grounding point assumed to be at the potential of remote
earth. This voltage, GPR, is equal to the maximum grid current times the grid resistance.

3. CODES

3.1. Local or Country Codes and Standards shall govern the installation of grounding systems unless
the requirements specified herein exceed those codes.

4. GROUND GRID SYSTEM


4.1. The ground grid system can be comprised of reinforced foundations and pilings, or if there is no
piling or the grid resistance would be too high otherwise, driven ground rods distributed over the
area at proper locations and interconnected via ground conductors. All available grounding
electrodes shall be interconnected to form the system, including concrete-encased reinforcing
steel, where required by local codes.
4.2. All systems in one plant or facility shall be connected to a common ground grid system by
grounding conductors.

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4.3. Refer to G7C-0104-01, Ground Grid Design Aid, for more detailed information on the design and
installation of a ground grid system. This document also details the criteria for when a step and
touch voltage study is required.
4.4. Ground grid systems for electrical substations, substation buildings, and adjacent outdoor
equipment yards require further consideration before interconnecting them with process plant
ground grid systems. If the installations have special surfacing material with a high value of wet
resistivity for control of step and touch voltages, their ground grid systems shall not be
interconnected to areas without such surfacing unless studies can show that there is not a
hazard created in those other areas from transferred potentials.
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4.5. For Category 2 and 3 process plants, power plants, and high and medium voltage substations,
the design criteria shall be a maximum grid resistance to remote earth of 1 ohm. This is referring
to a measurement of the total grid resistance, typically done using the fall-of-potential method.
This is particularly important in high and medium voltage substations containing surge arresters,
as the grid must dissipate surges from lightning or arrester discharge.
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4.6. For Category 1 process plants and ground grid installations including only equipment served by
6kV or lower, high resistance grounded sources and not containing any surge arresters, the
design criteria shall be a maximum grid resistance to remote earth of 5 ohms.
4.7. G7C-0104-03 contains information on how to determine the expected resistance to remote earth
of an individual ground rod. For any new installations where the expected ground rod resistance
to remote earth will be greater than 5 ohms, a documented grounding calculation must be
performed as part of the design. Individual ground rods shall be tested upon installation as
required by G7M-0111-00 and G7C-0104-02. Pass/fail criteria is contained in G7C-0104-03
4.8. The resistance to ground of a group of two or more rods, at a minimum spacing of 3 m (10 feet),
may be approximated by multiplying the resistance of a single rod by the percentages as follows:
2 rods - 55%
3 rods - 41%
4 rods - 35%
5 rods - 30%

4.9. Ground grid testing methods and requirements are contained in G7M-0111-00.

5. MATERIALS AND INSTALLATION


5.1. Ground rods shall be 19 mm (3/4 inch) diameter rods or bare copper 50 sq mm (1/0 AWG) wire
with a steel drive-in rod. Rod lengths are typically 3 m (10 feet) but can be as long as 9 m (30
feet) depending on soil conditions and ground grid design requirements. Rods can be either hot
dipped galvanized steel or copperweld depending on site and soil conditions. The grounding
plans or drawings shall detail rod type and length specific for the location. Rods shall be driven
to a minimum depth of 450 mm (18 inches) below the finished grade. When rods must be
located below equipment or building foundations or area paving, they shall be driven to a
minimum depth of 450 mm (18 inches) below the bottom of the concrete or paving. Rods shall
extend below the permanent moisture level wherever practical.
5.2. Buried grounding conductors should be at least 450 mm (18 inches) below grade and be laid
slack to prevent breakage. Local codes may require a greater depth. The intention is to keep
the ground grid conductors below the level at which they could be damaged by minor excavation
or surface traffic and below the moisture level in the soil.
5.3. Grounding conductors installed above grade are typically PVC insulated. Grounding conductors
installed below grade may be bare or may be insulated, depending on site conditions. This
choice is typically driven by soil conditions or the desire to minimize galvanic corrosion of buried

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piping and equipment. See G7C-0104-01, Ground Grid Design Aid, for more information on
choosing the materials of construction for these items.
5.4. Insulated ground grid and grounding conductors shall be stranded copper and shall be identified
by a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
5.5. Grounding conductors must be large enough to carry the anticipated maximum fault current for
the anticipated maximum time without exceeding a predetermined allowable temperature rise.
See G7C-0104-01, Ground Grid Design Aid, for detailed information on sizing the conductors.
5.6. Connections between rods and cables shall be made by means of compression connectors,
bolted connectors, or exothermic welded connectors. When used with insulated conductors, all
connections shall be completely covered and sealed, leaving no copper exposed.
5.7. All connection points of grounding bars, steel structures, process containment equipment and
other equipment shall be located above ground, protected against damage and corrosion, and
accessible for inspection and testing purposes. Concrete-encased reinforcing steel is an
exception.
5.8. All earthing bars including the connected cables shall be numbered or marked.
5.9. The connection of the transformer starpoint or wye, of TN-C, TN-S or TN-C-S networks to the
protective earth shall be by means of a PVC insulated copper cable sufficiently sized for the
maximum current likely to be imposed.
5.10. All grounding cable connections to electrical equipment shall be made only at the points
provided by the manufacturer.
5.11. Refer to G7C-0132-00, Surge Arrester Application Guide, for detailed information on materials
and installation of surge arresters.
5.12. Air terminals may be of any form of solid or tubular cross-section and shall be at least the
equivalent in weight and stiffness of a copper tube having an outside diameter of 15.8 mm (5/8-
inch) and a wall thickness of 0.8 mm (No. 20 gauge = 0.032-inch). 15.8 mm and 19 mm (5/8
and 3/4 inch) ground rounds, installed point up, are commonly used as air terminals.
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5.13. Both embedded ground pads and pigtails are acceptable methods of providing a bonding
means from above-grade equipment to the below-grade ground grid. There are engineering
details in the G7C-0114-xx series for various configurations of each. The following criteria
shall be used when deciding which to use in a particular application.
5.13.1. Consider utilizing embedded pads rather than pigtails for the following applications:
• Use pads when equipment locations are not well defined by the time the civil
contract must be issued. Strategically place pads in locations that would be
convenient for future connections after equipment locations are finalized.
• Use pads in indoor applications to help minimize tripping hazards.
• Use pads in outdoor applications where there is the possibility of snowplows
shearing off ground conductors. The jumper from the pad to the equipment is
easily replaced.
• Use pads if there is a considerable amount of time between the civil contract and
equipment setting contract, to minimize loose pigtails becoming both an obstacle
and a safety hazard.
• Use pads if there will be a frequent need to disconnect and move the grounding
conductor. The jumper from the pad to the equipment is easily replaced if it
fatigues due to frequent movement.
• Use pads when grounding penetrates coated dike areas to maintain the integrity of
the coating.

5.13.2. Consider utilizing pigtails rather than embedded pads for the following applications:

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• Use pigtails in high voltage substations to minimize the number of connections
between the equipment and the ground grid.
• Use pigtails in lightning protection installations to minimize the number of
connections.
• Use pigtails due to lower cost in applications where pads do not offer an
advantage.

5.13.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Ground Pads


5.13.3.1. Ground Pad Advantages
• Minimization of tripping hazards
• Future ground connections can be made without tapping conductors
• Multiple ground connections can be made at one point
• Cable between pad and equipment can be replaced if damaged
• No interference with equipment footprint
• Minimal concerns about grounding system damage if concrete is drilled

5.13.3.2. Ground Pad Disadvantages


• More parts and more labor resulting in higher cost of installation
• More physical connection points and thus more possible points of failure
• A separate wire lugged on both ends must be specified to run from the pad to the
equipment

5.13.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Pigtails


5.13.4.1. Pigtail Advantages
• Less parts and less labor resulting in lower cost of installation
• Fewer physical connection points that can fail

5.13.4.2. Pigtail Disadvantages


• Possible pigtail damage during construction
• Loose or unused pigtails become tripping hazards
• If a pigtail is broken or not long enough a splice must be used
• Possibility of interference with equipment footprint
• Possibility of being severed during later drilling of concrete
• Higher cost of repair if pigtail is damaged
• Possibility of damage to concrete foundations from freeze/thaw cycles when
moisture gets between wire and concrete
• Can compromise situations where sealed concrete surface for containment is
required
• Pigtails exiting the side of foundations requires drilling of forms

6. GROUNDING AND BONDING REQUIREMENTS BY EQUIPMENT TYPE


6.1. Where not specified in this document, minimum grounding and bonding conductor sizes shall be
per G7C-0102-00.
6.2. If no specific grounding connection type is provided by the manufacturer, the grounding cable
shall be connected by means of a compression type lug.
6.3. Motors

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6.3.1.All motors shall have a ground conductor from the MCC or distribution panel ground bus to
the motor, connected in the motor terminal box. The following types of ground conductor
may be used:
A separate ground conductor in the multi-conductor power cable.
The concentric conductor of the armoured power cable.
A separate ground conductor in the raceway system.
6.3.2.In addition to the motor ground specified in 6.3.1, all motors shall have a visible, external
ground connection from the motor frame to the local ground grid, sized per G7C-0102-00.
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Acceptable methods of making the connections are illustrated in G7C-0118-01 and are
described as:
A grounding conductor from the motor frame (separate ground bolt on the frame) to the
local grid or grounded structural steel.
A grounding conductor from a grounding connector threaded into the motor terminal
box, to the local grid or grounded structural steel.
The motor frame bolted directly to grounded structural steel.
6.4. Switchgear and Motor Control Equipment
6.4.1.There shall be two ground connections between the apparatus ground bus and the local
ground grid.
6.4.2.The two ground conductors shall run in as widely separated locations as practical so that
the possibility of simultaneously severing both conductors is remote.
6.4.3.Apparatus with main buses of less than 600-ampere rated capacity shall have minimum 70
sq mm (2/0 AWG) tap conductors. Apparatus with 600-ampere and larger main buses shall
have minimum 120 sq mm (4/0 AWG) tap conductors. Calculations shall be used to verify
the choice of conductor size.
6.4.4.When possible, the two ground connections should exit the apparatus in a manner such
that their presence can be visually verified without removing covers.
6.5. Transformers
6.5.1.This section applies to power and lighting transformers. It does not include control
transformers or pole mounted transformers.
6.5.2.Power transformers shall have two ground connections between the tank and the local
ground grid. Lighting transformers shall have one ground connections to the station ground
bus. Ground connections shall be visible without removing covers.
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6.5.3. The grounding conductor shall be sized according to rated secondary current of the
transformer or per local codes, whichever is more stringent.
200 amperes or less minimum 25 sq mm (4 AWG) conductor
201-400 amperes minimum 35 sq mm (2 AWG) conductor
401-600 amperes minimum 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG) conductor
Above 600 amperes minimum 120 sq mm (4/0 AWG) conductor and shall be verified
by calculation in relation to the short circuit capacity of the transformer.
6.6. Raceways
6.6.1. Conduit
6.6.1.1. Rigid steel conduit is generally grounded at both ends through its connections to the
apparatus. The connection is a screwed hub or lock nuts.
6.6.1.2. When non-metallic conduit is used underground, the turn-ups out of the ground are
rigid galvanized steel. These turn-ups shall be bonded together and grounded.
6.6.1.3. In some cases, such as at motor control centers, panelboards, or switchgear, conduit
is brought through sheet metal enclosures and lock nuts or the screwed conduit hubs

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are relied on as a ground connection. In most cases, this type of ground connection is
adequate. The following are exceptions:
6.6.1.3.1. All conduit containing circuits above 1000 volts shall be bonded together
using approved threaded grounding bushings and the bonding cable
connected to the apparatus ground bus if available or otherwise to the
apparatus sheet metal enclosure with a compression type lug. The grounding
conductor shall be 25 sq mm (4 AWG).
6.6.1.3.2. All conduit, regardless of voltage, containing circuits of 150 amperes or larger
shall be grounded as in paragraph 6.6.1.3.1.
6.6.2.Cable Tray (all types)
6.6.2.1. Cable tray in new installations or extensions to existing installations shall have a 70
sq mm (2/0 AWG) ground conductor installed in or on the tray running the entire
length of the tray. At each end of the tray, the ground conductor shall be bonded to
grounded structural steel and the equipment ground bus if applicable. At each cable
tray to conduit transition, either the conduit must be clamped directly to the metallic
tray with a clamp approved for bonding or a bonding jumper must be installed from the
cable tray ground conductor to a conduit grounding bushing. For metallic tray, the
ground conductor shall be bonded to each tray portion separated by expansion joints
or discontinuities using an approved cable tray ground clamp. If the installation
environment is highly corrosive, each tray section should be bonded to the ground
conductor using an approved cable tray ground clamp.
6.6.2.2. For modifications or repairs to existing metallic tray systems without a ground
conductor installed in the tray, the tray may be utilized as the equipment grounding
conductor provided that all of the following criteria are met:
6.6.2.2.1. The entire tray system (existing and new), including tray sections and fittings,
must be labeled by the manufacturer as suitable for grounding purposes.
6.6.2.2.2. The tray system must have sufficient cross-sectional area of metal for the
largest current likely to be imposed on it.
6.6.2.2.3. Expansion joints and discontinuous tray sections must be bonded across
using suitable jumpers.
6.6.2.2.4. At each cable tray to conduit transition, either the conduit must be clamped
directly to the metallic tray with a clamp approved for bonding or a bonding
jumper must be installed from the cable tray to a conduit grounding bushing.
6.6.2.2.5. The tray must be bonded to grounded structural steel at intervals not to
exceed 18 m (60 feet), at each end, and to the equipment ground bus where
available.
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6.7. Small Conductor Enclosures


6.7.1.Exposed conductive materials enclosing electric equipment or forming a part of such
equipment are grounded and bonded to protect personnel. This includes items such as
cabinets, junction boxes, outlet boxes, controllers, service raceway, conduit, couplings,
fittings, cable armor, lead sheath and grillwork. Minimum size electrode grounding
conductor in such applications shall be 25 sq mm (4 AWG). Equipment Grounding
Conductor shall be sized as per the ampacity of the largest ungrounded conductor in the
circuit.
6.8. Branch Circuit Distribution Panelboards

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6.8.1.This type of apparatus shall have one grounding electrode conductor run to and connected
to its box (can) with a compression type lug and shall be visible without removing covers.
6.8.2.The grounding conductor size shall be determined from the following table based upon
feeder protective device size, or as per local codes.
200 amperes or less minimum 25 sq mm (4 AWG) conductor
201-400 amperes minimum 35 sq mm (2 AWG) conductor
401-600 amperes minimum 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG) conductor
Above 600 amperes minimum 120 sq mm (4/0 AWG) conductor and shall be verified
by calculation in relation to the short circuit capacity of the system.
6.8.3. The bonding of a neutral conductor to the box does not constitute a ground. At no point
past the system bonding jumper shall the neutral be allowed to come into contact with ground.
6.9. Lighting Fixtures
6.9.1.All lighting fixtures shall be grounded.
6.9.2.Fixtures supplied through a flexible cord and plug (cap) shall have a grounding conductor in
the cord with separate contacts in the plug and receptacles. Conductor should not be
smaller than the branch circuit conductors in the cord and in no case be smaller than 1 sq
mm (18 AWG). Ground conductor shall be green or green with yellow stripes.
6.10. Portable Tools and Equipment
6.10.1. This classification refers to appliances 3 kW and smaller. Generally, these appliances
are supplied by the manufacturer with a flexible cord and a plug that provides for grounding.
Conductor should not be smaller than the branch circuit conductors in the cord and in no
case be smaller than 1 sq mm (18 AWG). Ground conductor shall be green or green with
yellow stripes.
6.10.2. Grounding type receptacles and plugs shall be used to provide power connections to this
equipment.
6.10.3. Listed double insulated tools shall not be required to be grounded.
6.10.4. All cord and plug connected equipment shall be grounded and connected with a plug and
receptacle that includes a contact for an equipment grounding conductor.
6.10.5. For portable skid mounted equipment, a supplemental grounding conductor 35 sq mm (2
AWG) copper connecting to the metal frame of the skid and the nearest grounded steel
shall be utilized for equipotential bonding. If a pad or connection point for grounding of
skids has been provided by the manufacturer, the grounding conductor can be connected
to it. If no grounding pad has been supplied, the frame of the equipment will be drilled to
attach the grounding conductor.
6.11. Current Limiting Reactors
6.11.1. Insulator base frames at the bottom of single-high and stacked current limiting reactors
shall be grounded.
6.11.2. All metal parts of enclosures surrounding current limiting reactors shall be grounded.
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6.11.3. Ground grid installation in the vicinity of air-core reactors as well as any taps from the
ground grid to the reactor frame and enclosure should be arranged in a radial
configuration with no closed loops. This is to avoid induced currents and unintended
heating. The same consideration should be given to concrete reinforcing rods in the
vicinity of the air-core reactor where the rebars should be insulated from one another
where they cross. Consult the reactor manufacturer for the applicable distances from the
reactor where these considerations should apply.
6.12. Building Framework, Metal Doors and Miscellaneous Equipment

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6.12.1. The steel framework of buildings should be grounded at the base of every corner column
and at the base of intermediate columns at distances not greater than 18 m (60 feet).
6.12.2. Where required by local codes, metal doors in buildings shall be bonded to their
associated support posts by flat, extra flexible copper braid or flexible cable. Cross-
section area shall be minimum 25 sq mm (4 AWG equivalent). Door support posts shall
be grounded where required by local codes.
6.12.3. Disconnect switches directly bolted to a grounded steel structure need no further ground
except that operating pipes of all gang-operated disconnect switches should have a
minimum 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG) extra flexible copper cable or equivalent connected
directly above the operating handle and run to the nearest part of the grounded supporting
structure.
6.12.4. Pipe stanchions shall be grounded at every other stanchion to the ground grid where
available or to individual ground rods, when the pipe stanchions are connected through
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steel stringers. If the pipe stanchions are not connected, such as in individual t-supports,
each t-support shall be bonded together as a system, either through a cable tray ground
or to a grounding lateral (cable interconnecting the ground rods for each support)..
6.12.5. Instrument panels shall be grounded at each end of the panel lineup with separate
minimum 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG) grounding conductors run to the system ground grid.
6.13. Fences
6.13.1. Substation and Electrical Equipment Enclosure Fences: A metal fence surrounding an
outdoor electrical equipment installation shall be grounded. The substation and
equipment ground grid should be extended approximately 1 m (3 feet) beyond the fence,
with ground rods installed at each corner and at 3 – 12 m (10 – 40 foot) intervals around
the perimeter. All corner fence posts and posts adjacent to ground rods should be
bonded to the ground grid. If the substation has a surface layer of high wet resistivity
material, that layer shall be extended beyond the fence to the perimeter of the ground
grid.
6.13.2. Plant Protection Fences: These fences should be grounded at intervals not to exceed 150
m (500 feet). Fences should also be grounded at all power line crossings and again
within 45 m (150 feet) on each side of the crossing. Posts should be grounded with
minimum 25 sq mm (4 AWG) copper wire.
6.13.3. Gate Grounding: All elements of swinging metallic fence gates shall be bonded to their
associated support posts by means of flat, extra flexible copper braid. Cross-sectional
area of braid shall be minimum 25 sq mm (4 AWG equivalent). Gate support posts should
be grounded.
6.14. Process Containment Equipment
6.14.1. The term "Process Containment Equipment" is used here as a general term to include any
metal enclosures, commonly called tanks, columns, heat exchangers, bins, silos, etc., that
are designed to hold either a gas, liquid, or solid material. Non-metallic process
containment equipment may require special considerations for static protection. Refer to
Section 7.0 of this document.
6.14.2. Any relatively small equipment in a pipe line, such as a strainer, filter, dropout drum, or
trap shall not be classified as “Process Containment Equipment” but shall be treated as a
part of the piping.
6.14.3. Process Containment Equipment located at grade level shall be bonded to the ground
grid. Metal piping connected to Process Containment Equipment serves as a secondary
ground path. Process Containment Equipment larger than 168 cubic meters (6000 cubic
feet) or with a top height greater than 6 m (20 feet) above grade shall have at least two

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ground connections. See G7C-0124-04 for typical tank grounding methods. If non-
conducting piping is used, the limits shall be larger than 168 cubic meters (6000 cubic
feet) or a top height greater than 3 m (10 feet) above grade. If the Process Containment
Equipment is the tallest in the area and is to be used for lightning protection, further
considerations are necessary. See Section 8.0 of this document.
6.14.4. Process Containment Equipment that is located in a process structure, bolted to the
grounded structural steel, and is not insulated from the structure shall be considered
grounded through the steel supports.
6.14.5. The highest Process Containment Equipment in a structure shall be given special
consideration. If the highest point on the Process Containment Equipment is more than
15 m (50 feet) and less than 30 m (100 feet) above grade, the Process Containment
Equipment shall be bonded to the structural steel with a 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG) jumper. If
the highest point on the vessel is 30 m (100 feet) or higher, a 70 sq mm (2/0 AWG)
ground connection shall be run to the nearest structure column that has a ground
connection at its base.
6.15. Piping
6.15.1. Steel piping is generally considered adequately grounded through the Process
Containment Equipment and pipe supports. Only in special cases will additional
grounding be required.
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6.16. Rail Tracks
6.16.1. At tank car loading and unloading stations, the rails shall be bonded to the loading station
structural steel and grounded through ground rods to earth. All cable-to-rail connections
must use purchased material from a supplier of rail bonding products and be installed per
the manufacturer’s instructions. Site rail owner/operator must concur with the method
used. Typical methods of connection are Cadweld or bolted connections to a hole drilled
in the rail web.
6.16.2. In the rail industry, insulated rail joints are used to separate track sections where the track
is used as a conductor for transmission of signal communications. In loading station
installations, Dow uses isolated joints on either end of the loading zone to limit the amount
of static charge that the ground grid may be required to dissipate to the immediate area
only. These insulated rail joints are usually installed within 30 meters (100 feet) on either
side of the loading station. This dimension may be adjusted to coincide with a naturally
occurring rail joint location. If the track dead-ends within 30 meters (100 feet) of the
loading station, an insulated joint is not required.
6.16.3. Rails that enter a high voltage substation can possibly transfer potentials from the
substation to a remote point during a ground fault. This hazard is best mitigated by
removing rail sections at the substation perimeter after their use to transport the substation
equipment. Insulated rail joints are not necessarily rated for preventing the transfer of high
voltage potentials along the track. If for any reason it is necessary to rely on insulated rail
joints for the prevention of transferred potentials, multiple sets should be installed so that a
rail car cannot shunt a single set, and care should be taken to eliminate other inadvertent
conductive paths around the insulated joints.
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6.17. Marine Loading Installations
6.17.1. The Supply Chain Tech Center is the owner of MET for marine loading installations. For
information on ship-to-shore isolation and bonding, see the Supply Chain Tech Center
website, Marine Technology MET Technical Information Packages, documents
“Controlling Sources of Ignition During Vessel Transfer Operations” and “Marine Loading
Arm MET”.

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6.17.2. On the shore side of marine loading installations, the bases of loading arms shall be
bonded to the ground grid of the dock or pier facility.
6.17.3. Insulating flanges in the pipe risers to the hose connections provide the best assurance
against arcing at points of connection and disconnection of the hose. Insulating flanges at
the shore to pier piping are effective where stray currents arise from on shore facilities.
Insulating flanges at both locations are employed to prevent arcing at hose connections
and to prevent stray or cathodic protection current flow between the pier and shore piping.
Refer to paragraph 6.17.1 for references to documents further explaining this MET.
7. STATIC GROUNDING
7.1. This section is intended to cover general principles related to static grounding. The reader
should refer to Loss Prevention Principle (LPP) 3.6 and other LPPs and documents that it
references for more information and for mandatory requirements and recommended practices.
7.2. Theory of Static Electricity Control: Under certain process conditions, some materials
accumulate an electrical charge. Some means must be found to prevent the build up of the
electrical charge to the point where a disruptive spark takes place. If the materials or containers
being charged are good conductors, then bonding between two materials having opposite
charges or connecting both to ground will equalize or drain off the charge. If the materials or
containers being charged are good insulators, then other means of equalizing charges must be
employed. Some methods of reducing charge buildup are covered below.
7.3. Static Conditions Requiring Grounding
7.3.1.Where operating personnel may be subject to discharge of static
7.3.2.Where quality of material is affected by static
7.3.3.Where operating efficiency of machines is impaired by static
7.3.4.Where explosions or fires from flammable liquids, gases, dust and fibers may be caused by
a spark
7.3.5. Where flammable liquids or gases are being transferred to different containers, such as at
a rail car or truck loading station.
7.4. Static Problems and Routine Control: Static control principles are discussed for vapor and
gases, liquids, dusts and granules, and sheets and films.
7.4.1.Vapor and Gases static controls: Bonding and grounding pipelines, grounding nozzles and
openings.
7.4.2.Liquids static controls: Bonding and grounding pipelines handling flammable liquid.
Grounding all tanks and pumps unless handling a non-flammable material. Grounding tank
cars or trucks handling flammable liquids. Static chains inside of vessels to provide
equipotential surface for fluid.
7.4.3.Dust and Granules static controls: Application of a continuous source of radio-active alpha
radiation. Grounding rods inserted into containers.
7.4.4.Sheets and Films static controls: Application of anti-static additives. Application of anti-
static devices.
7.5. Non-Routine Static Controls
7.5.1.Many static problems can be solved by bonding the various parts of the equipment together
and grounding the entire system.
7.5.2.Grounding is not always the only method of mitigation. For example, if the material being
processed has high dielectric characteristics, the charge on the upper portion of the
material will be effectively insulated from ground and may result in spark discharge. Films

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or other sheet materials, either because of the area in contact or the speed of separation,
may accumulate charges that cannot be drained off adequately by grounding. In these
situations, the following methods of control are often utilized.
7.5.2.1. Humidity Control: Where high humidity does not affect the material, steam may be
injected into the area, especially near the point where static is accumulating. The
minimum value of relative humidity will vary with the process and surrounding
conditions. A general guideline is that static accumulations are not likely to reach
dangerous levels when the relative humidity is maintained in the range of 60 percent.
7.5.2.2. Static Collectors or Electrostatic Induction Ionization: Metallic combs or bars of tinsel
are sometimes effective if placed very close to the sheeting at the point of greatest
static accumulation. Tinsel may be placed in contact with the material if the material
will not be affected by such contact.
7.5.2.3. Neutralizers: Neutralizers ionize the air when placed near the moving material.
These neutralizers either accomplish ionization by the use of radioactive materials
which emit alpha particles or by high-voltage stressing of the air. In the latter case,
two types are employed. The first requires a ground bar in close proximity to the
material and the second does not employ a ground bar and operates at a higher
potential. In the application of neutralizers, care must be taken to protect operating
and maintenance personnel from high-voltage circuits or from harmful radiation in the
case of radioactive neutralizers.
7.5.2.4. Conductive Belts: Most belts are constructed of insulating materials. These belts,
when pressed into contact with pulleys, constitute one of the most prolific generators
of static charges. In locations where such charges are a hazard, consideration
should be given to direct drives rather than belted drives. Where it is necessary to
use belted drives, consideration should be given to the use of conductive rubber
belts, which have the ability to drain off at least a certain amount of static charge.
7.5.2.5. Conductive Floors: Where extremely hazardous operating conditions exist, such as
in the production of some explosives or those involving gases or certain solvent-air
mixtures, the use of conductive flooring may be required. Where such flooring is
required, it must be of non-sparking materials, such as a conductive rubber, lead or
other conductive compounds. The electric resistance, as measured between ground
and a five-pound electrode in direct contact with five square inches of floor area,
must not exceed 250,000 ohms. The electrode should be moved about the floor to
determine if any high resistance areas exist. Conductive floors may increase in
resistance with age and should be tested at regular intervals.
7.5.2.6. Conductive Shoes: When conductive flooring is used, operators or others entering
the area must wear conductive, non-sparking shoes. The shoe resistance should be
checked at regular intervals and before entering the work area.

8. LIGHTNING PROTECTION
8.1. General
8.1.1.Based on analysis and observation of actual lightning behavior, a system for protection of
buildings, structures and equipment has been developed to provide adequate lightning
protection. This is normally provided by means of an air terminal system and/or an
overhead ground wire connected with a metallic conducting path to driven ground rods or
ground grid. Lightning can exhibit unpredictable behavior, and not all lightning related
failures can be avoided, but the principles described here are generally considered
reasonable and adequate protection.

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8.1.2.NFPA 780, "Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems" is the North
American industry standard for lightning protection design criteria. The document is
intended to provide methods of practical protection of personnel and property from lightning
related hazards. Much of the content of this section is based on NFPA 780. Additional
information to guide the user in deciding where and by what means to apply lighting
protection within Dow facilities is contained in G7Z-0110-00, Lightning Protection Guideline.
Outside of North America, if other standards or codes for that jurisdiction do not exist, NFPA
780 can be utilized for lightning protection guidelines.
8.1.3.In general, NFPA 780 describes a zone of protection that is based on the structure or
equipment height. For structures that do not exceed 7.6 m (25 feet), the zone of protection
is considered to be the area beneath a one-to-two slope (63-degree angle from vertical)
from the highest point of a strike termination device down to grade. For structures that do
not exceed 15 m (50 feet), the zone of protection is considered to be the area beneath a
one-to-one slope (45-degree angle from vertical) from the highest point of a strike
termination device. For structures and equipment exceeding 15 m (50 feet) in height, the
rolling sphere model of protection is applied. The zone of protection is considered to be the
area beneath a 46 m (150 foot) radius sphere that contacts the earth and/or any strike
termination devices. Some countries may have other criteria in local codes or standards
which must be followed.
8.1.4.Electrical substations and installations may require additional protection to mitigate
electrical interruptions or equipment damage from lightning and surge related effects in
addition to protection from structural damage. Direct stroke protection is achieved by the
use of tall static masts or by static wires above the equipment or transmission lines. The
rolling sphere model described above can be applied to determine the zone of protection
provided by these devices. Application of surge arresters for additional protection is
described in G7C-0132-00, Surge Arrester Application Guide.
8.1.5.Protective conduits for lightning protection or surge protection conductors shall be of plastic
or non-ferrous materials.
8.1.6.In general, metal structures with a thickness of 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) or greater are
considered to be sufficient to prevent lightning from damaging or penetrating them.
Provided that these structures are bonded to the ground grid, they are considered self-
protecting and may also serve as an air terminal to protect other items within the zone of
protection as described above.
8.2. Structure Protection
8.2.1.Building Protection - The required conditions of protection for buildings are generally met by
placing metal air terminals on the uppermost parts of the building or its projections, with
conductors connecting the air terminals to each other and to ground.
8.2.2.Air Terminal Installation - Air terminals shall have a minimum height of 254 mm (10 inches)
projecting above the protected surface. Any air terminal exceeding 600 mm (24 inches) in
height shall be braced at a point not less than one-half its height. Air terminals shall be
placed within 600 mm (24 inches) of the ends of ridges, corners, or edges of main roofs.
Air terminals 600 mm (24 inches) tall or less shall be placed at intervals not greater than 6
m (20 feet). Air terminals taller than 600 mm (24 inches) shall be placed at intervals not
greater than 7.5 m (25 feet). For roofs exceeding 15 m (50 feet) in width, additional
terminals shall be placed inside of the perimeter at maximum intervals of 15 m (50 feet).
8.3. Steel Frame Buildings: The steel framework structure of a building may be utilized as the main
conductor of a lightning protection system provided it is electrically continuous or made so by
bonding together all sections to provide complete continuity. Air terminals may be individually
bonded to the framework through the roof or parapets or they may be joined together with
exterior conductors, which shall then be bonded to the framework in not less than the same

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number of locations as there are ground rods for the structure. Grounding shall be made at
approximately every other steel column about the perimeter and in no case shall the average
spacing be greater than 18 m (60 feet) apart. Connections of conductors to the steel framework
shall be made on cleaned areas.
8.4. Steel Frame Buildings with Metal-Covering: In addition to the requirements for steel frame
buildings listed above, air terminals must be placed along the ridge of the structure and bonded
underneath to the steel framework to protect the metal covering from lightning damage.
8.5. Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Reinforcing rods in concrete buildings shall not be used as the
only conducting path in lightning protection systems. There is a possibility of the reinforcing rods
being discontinuous or without a good electrical bond, and this condition is impractical to
ascertain once the concrete is poured.
8.6. Above Ground Storage Facilities: Metallic process containment equipment and stacks of riveted,
bolted, or welded construction with or without supporting members are considered to be self-
protected against lightning without additional lightning protection measures if they conform to the
following:
8.6.1.All pipes entering the equipment are metallically connected to the tank at the point of
entrance.
8.6.2.The metal equipment is at least 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) thick to withstand lightning strokes.
8.6.3.The roof of a fixed roof-type tank is continuously welded to the shell to provide a continuous
electrical connection.
8.6.4.The equipment is bonded to the area ground grid.
8.7. Above Ground Storage Facilities - Floating Roof: All the requirements of 8.6 shall apply along
with the following additional requirements when applicable:
8.7.1. The internal structural supporting members shall be bolted, riveted, welded, or otherwise
metallically bonded to the tank roof at intervals not greater than 3 m (l0 feet).
8.7.2. Any bonding conductor between the expandable roof and the rigid supporting structure
should be as short as possible but sufficiently long to prevent breakage due to the
movement of the roof.
8.7.3. The conductor should be flexible and of a size not less than 50 sq mm (1/0 AWG).
8.8. Vents Emitting Flammable Vapors or Gases.
8.8.1. Air terminals shall be no closer than 1.5 m (5 feet) from the vent opening on atmospheric
storage tanks and no closer than 4.5 m (15 feet) from vents or relief valve discharge on
pressured storage tanks.
8.9. Flagpoles: Flagpoles composed entirely of or covered entirely with metal and resting on
foundations of non-conducting material with the top so constructed as to receive a stroke of
lightning without appreciable damage, need not be provided with air terminals or down
conductors, but shall be bonded at their base to a ground rod or to a grounding grid system.
8.10. High Masts: Equipment on the sides of very high masts, such as TV, FM or microwave
antennas, can be protected from direct stroke damage by the addition of lateral spikes
projecting outward from the sides of the mast. These spikes should be applied at heights above
the critical radius of 60 m (200 feet) and suitably spaced to achieve the protection required.
8.11. Marine Facilities: Piers and wharfs require both lightning and stray current protection. Piers
and wharfs are similar in many respects. The main difference is that a pier is constructed with
its long axis at right angles to the shoreline and a wharf is constructed with its long axis parallel
to the shore line. A pier therefore extends farther out from the shore line and is more
susceptible to lightning strokes.

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8.12. Wharfs and Piers: Ships and barges moored do not require lightning protection because of the
large areas of steel in contact with the water. The piers require lightning protection and should
be protected by solidly grounded masts or other high steel structures.
8.12.1. Buildings and sheds located on piers shall be protected from lightning damage in the
same manner as buildings located on land, and covered elsewhere in this document.
8.13. Substation and Electrical Equipment Protection
8.13.1. All surge arresters, air terminals, static masts, and overhead static wires shall be bonded
to the station ground grid system.
8.13.2. Lightning protection requirements for the electrical system protection can take the form of
direct stroke protection and surge protection.
8.13.2.1. Direct stroke protection
8.13.2.1.1. For indoor substations, direct stroke protection is applied to the building itself
as necessary to protect the building. The equipment within the building is
considered to be protected from direct strokes by the building structure. It
may be necessary to give consideration to protecting the lines that radiate
out from the substation.
8.13.2.1.2. For outdoor substations with open buswork and equipment, the substation
must be protected from direct lightning strokes by establishing a protection
zone using the rolling ball theory described in section 8.1.3.
8.13.2.1.3. In some cases, substation steel structures such as dead-end towers provide
an adequate zone of protection as described by the rolling ball theory.
Where adequate protection is not supplied by such structures, supplemental
direct strike protection shall be provided. This typically takes the form of
static masts or static wires. Static masts are tall steel air terminals,
extending upward either from grade or from the top of other substation
equipment. Static wires are grounded conductors supported by wood or
steel poles and stretched over the top of the electrical equipment or around
the perimeter of the station. Static masts may have a higher initial installed
cost than static wires, but are typically a zero-maintenance item, while static
wires have maintenance concerns related to corrosion. If static wires are
utilized, give consideration during design to their placement such that a
falling static wire will not relay out multiple buses in the station. A lightning
protection study shall be performed to validate that all critical areas of the
station are within the zone of protection of other equipment, static masts, or
static wires.
8.13.2.2. Electrical Equipment Surge Protection
8.13.2.2.1 Power equipment insulation must be protected from the voltage surge of a
traveling wave coming in on the lines. This protection is accomplished by
means of surge arresters located as near as possible to the equipment to be
protected. A surge arrester at the equipment terminals limits the voltage to
the discharge voltage of the arrester. An arrester whose discharge voltage is
lower than the BIL rating of the equipment insulation must be chosen. Refer
to G7C-0132-00, Surge Arrester Application Guide, for detailed information
on where to apply surge arresters and on best practices for selecting,
installing, and maintaining surge arresters.
8.14. Open Wire Transmission and Distribution lines: The basic principles underlying the protective
design of an open wire line are as follows:

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8.14.1. Static wires are typically employed as direct stroke protection for open wire transmission
and distribution lines. The size of the static wire is typically dictated by mechanical rather
than electrical considerations.
8.14.2. Materials of construction of the static wire shall take into consideration the corrosion
characteristics of the location.
8.14.3. Adequate clearance from static wires to conductors must be maintained, including mid-
span clearance under the full range of design conditions. In all cases, the static system
must be engineered along with the power conductor system to specify tensions and
clearances.
8.14.4. The static wire shall be bonded to the supporting steel structure and to the structure
ground grid at each end of the line and at every other structure as a minimum.
8.15. Pole mounted distribution equipment
8.15.1. Pole mounted distribution transformers with their protective devices are very similar to
that of the larger substations and must be protected from direct lightning strokes. Since
economy may not permit overhead shields and expensive protection systems on smaller
distribution lines, it becomes extremely important that protective devices be located and
connected properly with respect to the apparatus they are to protect.
8.15.2 Single-phase pole mounted transformers shall be specified as self-protecting type
transformers containing lightning protection with high voltage arresters and low voltage
arc-gap bushings.
8.15.3. Three-phase pole mounted transformers shall be protected with distribution class MOV
arresters.
8.16. Aerial Cable
8.16.1 Aerial cable consists of fully insulated single conductor triplexed cable or three conductor
cable support by a messenger. Direct stroke lightning protection is accomplished by
supporting the aerial cable on the pole within the zone of protection of air terminals, an
open wire line or a static line. The cable shield and messenger cable should be bonded
and grounded at a minimum of one location.
8.17. Above Ground Cable Trays
8.17.1. Cable tray, when installed above ground on steel or wood supports, is subject to direct
strokes of lightning which could destroy or damage the cable being supported by the tray
or the tray itself.
8.17.2. When the tray is within the zone of protection of other overhead structures, it shall be
considered as protected when bonded and grounded.
8.17.3. Trays mounted on top of structures and not within the zone of protection provided by
other items shall be protected by overhead static lines or air terminals.
8.18. Underground Duct Banks
8.18.1. At a point where a lightning flash strikes the ground, the electrical energy is dissipated
downward into the ground. If the soil has a low conductivity, the intensity of the electrical
currents can still be appreciable near the surface of the ground for considerable
distances. Underground cables passing through these areas of low conductivity soils
offer a low resistance path to these currents. If these cables subsequently pass through
moist soil of high conductivity, the lightning surge current tends to follow these cables into
the moist area. Concrete duct banks with non-continuous steel reinforcement sections
can be seriously damaged or cracked by the heavy current jumping across this electrical
discontinuity. Protection shall be obtained in these areas by burying a 70 sq mm (2/0
AWG) bare copper cable in the earth above the duct bank.

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9. CABLE SHIELD, SCREEN AND ARMOUR GROUNDING


9.1. Shielded cables are grounded to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of power frequency
induced currents and circulating currents from lightning strikes or switching surges.
9.2. Cable armour shall be bonded to the ground grid at both ends with an approved grounding
connector. For instrument cables, the grounding conductor shall be a minimum 4 sq mm (12
AWG) and be kept as short and straight as possible to minimize impedance. Any bends
required for the grounding conductor to reach the grounded back plane in the junction box or
ground grid shall be long radius. Sharp bends are not allowed.
9.3. Communications and Instrument Cable Shield Grounding
9.3.1.Earth currents and induced currents circulating through the shield can be undesirable in
instrumentation and communication cables. Correct practices for grounding surge shields,
overall shields, and individual pair shields must be followed to achieve the protection
desired.
9.3.2.In lightning prone areas the use of a ZETABON® sheath or aluminum armour over the
communications or instrumentation cables offers additional surge protection. Instrument
cables with ZETABON or REYSHIELD tape surge shields shall be bonded to the ground
grid at both ends with an approved connector as shown on G6E-0801-04. The grounding
conductor shall be a minimum 2.5 sq mm (14 AWG) and be kept as short and straight as
possible to minimize impedance. Any bends required for the grounding conductor to reach
the grounded back plane in the junction box or ground grid shall be long radius. Sharp
bends are not allowed.
9.3.2.1. Exception: 2 and 4 pair/triad count instrument cables with ZETABON or REYSHIELD
tape surge shields will have a drain wire under the tape surge shield which shall be
used for grounding instead of the connector shown on G6E-0801-04.
9.3.3.Overall aluminum/Mylar foil shields over instrument or control cables shall be grounded at
one end only at the control room junction box / switchroom equipment and the shield carried
through all junction boxes in the field. This shield shall be spliced on insulated terminal
blocks and shall not be connected to the back plate or to any other shield or ground at the
junction box location. The shield shall be clipped and taped at the final connection point in
the field to keep it isolated from ground.
9.3.4.Individual aluminum/Mylar foil shields over individual pairs/triads in multi-pair/triad
instrument cables shall be grounded at one end only at the control room junction box /
switchroom equipment and the shield carried through all junction boxes in the field. This
shield shall be spliced on insulated terminal blocks and shall not be connected to the back
plate or to any other shield or ground at the junction box location. The shield shall be
clipped and taped at the final connection point in the field to keep it isolated from ground.
9.3.5.Instrument cables connected to a process control system shall be grounded in accordance
with G6C-0300-29 and G6C-0300-28 for cables with armour / ZETABON or REYSHIELD
tapes and non-armoured types, respectively.
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9.4. Power cable shield grounding
9.4.1.Power cable shields shall be grounded per the guidelines listed below. The number of and
location(s) of shield grounds is dependant on the type of system grounding, the
configuration of the conductors, and the length of the conductors. Installation drawings
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should be created to convey this information to the installing contractor. See details G7C-
0171-00 and G7C-0171-01 for graphical representation and installation details for the
correct grounding of power cable ground braids.
9.4.1.1. High resistance grounded systems

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9.4.1.1.1. For single core and three core shielded power cables installed on high
resistance grounded systems (typically medium voltage motor feeders and
medium voltage cables or cable bus between transformer secondaries and
switchgear) the shield ground braids shall be installed and brought out at the
source end only and shall be attached to the power source equipment
ground. At the load end, the cable internal grounding conductor(s) in three
core cables or any separate grounding conductor run with single core cables
shall be attached to the load equipment ground, but the termination kit shield
ground braid shall not be installed.
9.4.1.2. Low resistance grounded systems
9.4.1.2.1. For single core and three core shielded power cables installed on low
resistance grounded systems, the ground braid shall be installed and brought
out of the termination kits on both ends of the circuit and shall be attached to
the equipment ground at both ends. Any application of shields grounded at
one end only shall be supported by engineering calculations to demonstrate
the reasons for the practice and the safety of the installation. In this case,
the termination kit ground braid shall be folded back and taped to the cable
jacket to prevent contact with any grounded parts.
9.4.1.2.2. For long lengths (>200 m or 650 feet) of single core shielded power cables
where the phase conductors are triplexed (XYZ configuration), in addition to
the shields being grounded at both ends, selected splice locations may have
a shield ground. The grounded shield splice locations are determined by
calculation to maintain a value of ground fault current which will not impact
the operation of the ground fault relays. Installation drawings should be
created to specifically convey the grounded and ungrounded splice locations
to the installing contractor.

9.4.1.2.3. For single core shielded power cables where the phase conductors are
physically separated (X, XX, or XXX configuration), the correct practice is to
make a one-point earth ground by grounding the cable shield at one end of
the cable only. In the case of long circuits (>200 m or 650 feet) where the
voltage differential between the ends of the circuit could approach or exceed
70-100 volts, it becomes necessary to gap the shield and sectionalize the
shield into multiple sections, with the shield in each section grounded on one
end only. This limits the shield voltage and prevents the cable shield from
becoming a path for induced circulating currents and from being used as part
of the lightning protection system. The voltage build-up is dependent upon
the current in the cable and the conductor size. Therefore the maximum
length of cable before a shield gap is necessary to limit the shield voltage to
a safe level (approximately 70-100 volts) must be calculated for each
installation. Installation drawings should be created to specifically convey the
shield grounding locations and shield gapping locations to the installing
contractor. Cross bonding of shields is another method that may be
considered for this application instead of shield gapping.

9.4.2.When ground braids are required to be grounded, the grounding conductor size shall be in
accordance with G7C-0102-00. The ground braids shall be connected to the equipment
grounding conductor using approved removable connectors. The equipment grounding
conductor shall be connected to the equipment ground using approved compression
connectors. Connectors shall be crimped with the manufacturer’s recommended tool and
die.
xvi
10. SYSTEM NEUTRAL GROUNDING

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10.1. The required methods for system neutral grounding are as follows. Deviation from these criteria
is only permitted where required by local codes, as noted in Local Variations for a site, or if a
new process is integrated into an existing system where another method is already in use. The
intention is that all process and production-related motors are served from a resistive grounded
system. The exception would be motors for Category I facilities located in Category I sites with
not more than two production plants.
10.1.1. 230V and 400Y/230V (IEC) and 120V, 120/240V, and 208Y/120V (ANSI) systems that
have phase to neutral loads, shall be solidly grounded.
10.1.2. 400V and 690V 3-wire (IEC) and 480V and 600V 3-wire (ANSI) systems that have no
phase to neutral loads shall be high resistance grounded with a ground fault current less
than 3 amps and a pulsing ground fault current less than or equal to 5 amps, for ground
detection and alarming. Verify by calculation that the ground fault current exceeds the
system charging current. A ground fault condition shall be alarmed to a continuously
attended location.
10.1.3. 6kV 3-wire (IEC) and 2.4kV and 4.16kV 3-wire (ANSI) systems neutral grounding method
shall be chosen based on system charging current. If calculations show that the system
charging current is less than 5 amps, utilize high resistance grounding with a ground fault
current of 5 amps for ground detection and alarming. A ground fault condition shall be
alarmed to a continuously attended location. If calculations show that the system
charging current is greater than 5 amps, utilize low resistance grounding with a ground
fault current of 50-100 amps or as required for proper protective device operation. Isolate
the faulted circuit or equipment on a ground fault condition.
10.1.4. 10kV to 15kV 3-wire (IEC) and 13.8kV to 14.4kV 3-wire (ANSI) systems shall be low
resistance grounded with a ground fault of 100 to 2000 amps or as required for proper
protective device operation. Isolate the faulted circuit or equipment on a ground fault
condition.
10.1.5. High voltage transmission systems shall be solidly grounded. Isolate the faulted circuit or
equipment on a ground fault condition.
10.2. Any existing ungrounded systems shall have provisions to alarm a ground fault condition to a
continuously attended location.
10.3. If there are isolating devices that can open the neutral connection (disconnect switches or
neutral breakers), their open/closed status shall be alarmed to a continuously attended location.
10.4. Medium voltage power plant and distribution systems may have multiple neutral connections that
can be used to provide a system neutral. This is usually a combination of generator neutral
breakers and tie-line transformer secondary neutral breakers. On such systems, the status of
each neutral switching device shall be taken to a continuously attended plant DCS or SCADA
system for alarming and logic processing. Where possible, process automation should be used
to automatically open or close neutral switching devices as necessary to maintain the system
neutral integrity. Logic processing shall be performed to alarm “No Neutral Closed” and “Too
Many Neutrals Closed” conditions. The intent is to have these alarms perceived as a high
priority such that corrective actions are initiated promptly.

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i
15-APR-2008; MOC 2008_06024; By: Terrell Goudy; Supersedes Issue Date 09-APR-2008; Reviewed.
Updates to paragrapgs 6.6.2.1, 6.6.2.2, 6.6.2.2.5 and 9.4.1.1.
ii
07-NOV-2006; MOC 2006_04301; By: David Latta; Supercedes Issue Date 01-MAY-2006; Complete
review, reorganization and rewrite by the TRN.
iii
23-OCT-2008; MOC 2008_06750; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 03-SEP-2008; Revised
paragraphs 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7. New paragraph 4.9
iv
02-MAY-2007; MOC 2007_04822: By: David Latta; Superseded Issue Date 09-APR-2007; Para 4.6 new
sentence to clarify when there is a 5 ohms resistance to ground requirement.
v
03-SEP-2008; MOC 2008_06502; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 03-JUN-2008; Added new
paragraph 5.13 and sub-paragraphs for aid in selection of ground pads or pig tails.
vi
09-APR-2008; MOC 2008_06013; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 05-SEP-2007; Para 6.3.2
added reference to G7C-0118-01.
vii
14-NOV-2006; MOC 2006_04301; By: David Latta; Supercedes Issue Date 07-NOV-2006; Corrected
paragraph numbering at 6.5.3 (was 6.4.3)
viii
06-DEC-2006; MOC 2006_04380; By: David Latta; Supercedes Issue Date 14-NOV-2006; Deleted
paragraphs 6.6.3 and 6.6.3.1
ix
09-APR-2008; MOC 2008_06013; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 05-SEP-2007; New
paragraph 6.11.3 to avoid induced currents and heating of rebar, etc.
x
05-SEP-2007; MOC 2007_05280; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 06-JUN-2007; Para 6.12.4
modified to clarify t-support grounding requirements.
xi
09-APR-2008; MOC 2008_06013; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 05-SEP-2007; Para 6.14.3
updated the sentence wording.
xii
09-APR-2007; MOC 2007_04732; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 06-DEC-2006; Added
Section 6.16 Rail tracks and subparagraphs.
xiii
06-JUN-2007; MOC 2007_04936; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 02-MAY-2007; Added new
section 6.17 with sub-paragraphs for Marine Loading Installations.
Deleted paragraph 8.12.2.
Renumbered paragraph 8.12.3 to 6.17.3
xiv
03-Jun-2008; MOC 2008_06237; By Terrell Goudy; Supersedes Issue Date 15-Apr-2008; Rewrite of
Section 9.4 clarifying when to ground or not to ground the power cable shield.
xv
18-DEC-2008; MOC 2008_06741; By: David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 23-OCT-2008;
Paragraph 9.4.1 updated the hyperlinks to new EMETL practices.
xvi
03-Jun-2008; MOC 2008_06237; By David Latta; Supersedes Issue Date 15-Apr-2008; Added sub
paragraph numbering to Section 10.

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