You are on page 1of 92

# STUDENT MANUAL

PN 2400 COURSE
PNEUMATICS

DEGEM® SYSTEMS
rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any
form without prior written permission from I.T.E. This publication is based
on the exclusive methodology of Degem Systems Ltd.

## In the interest of product improvement, circuits, components or values of

components may be changed at any time without prior notification.

## First edition printing: 1986

Second edition printing: 1987,1988,1991
Reproduced from Degem PN 2400 Courseware: 2003
Lesson 1 – The Hall Effect Sensor 1-1
Lesson 2 – The Optical Sensor 2-1
Lesson 3 – The Capacitive Sensor 3-1
Lesson 4 – The Inductive Sensor 4-1
Lesson 5 – The Pick Boring System 5-1
Lesson 6 – Use of Two Spring-Return Valves 6-1
Lesson 7 – The Logic Circuit 7-1
Lesson 8 – The Electrical Cascade Circuit 8-1
Lesson 9 – Sequence of Operation 9-1
Lesson 10 –The Simple Split Control Circuit 10-1
Lesson 11 – Basic Counting Circuit 11-1
Lesson 12 – The Shortened Cascade Circuit 12-1
Lesson 13 – Basic Counting Circuit by the Electrical Cascade 13-1
Method

## Lesson 14 – A Simple Counting Control Circuit with 2 Cylinders 14-1

Lesson 15 – Design a Counting Circuit Using the Cascade Method 15-1
Lesson 16– The Electronic Counter and its Operation 16-1
Lesson 17– Control Circuit with Counter 17-1
Lesson 18 – The Stepper Motor 18-1
Lesson 19 – Control Circuit with Stepper Motor 19-1
Lesson 20 – Solutions 20-1
N -2400 1-1

## LESSON No. 1: THE HALL EFFECT SENSOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the properties and operation of the Hall effect sensor.
 Use a Hall effect sensor in a control circuit.
 Build the control circuit according to the given diagrams.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay, (two change-over contacts) RL1 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Hall effect sensor (HES) MS-6 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Indicator lamp I1 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
1 Set of various metal and nonmetal bodies
N -2400 1-2

DISCUSSION
1. UNIVERSAL PLC I/O OPERATION PANEL
This PLC I/O operation panel is an interface between the pneumatic workstation
and the PC. It can operate the real electro -hydraulic circuit built on the
workstation from the ladder diagram for the simulated circuit of the courseware
on the PC.
The panel consists of the following components:
1. Electrical power supply plug-in socket with fuse: to connect the power cable.
2. Slide switch: to choose the proper power
voltages.
3. Power switch with led: when the unit is switched on, the led lights.

4. USB port with led: to connect the interface to the PC. The led flashes during
the data transfer.
5. RS232 port with led: to connect the interface to the PC. The led flashes during
the data transfer.
6. External DC IN: must connect to the power supply 24 VDC on the HYD-2001
universal master board to get the same potencial level as the workstation.
7. Inputs F1 - F8: to activate the inputs of the interface, connect the negative
outputs of the sensors or limit switch to these inputs.
8. Outputs F9 - F16: these are relay contacts operate the solenoids of the valves
or lamps etc.
N -2400 1-3

## 2. THE HALL EFFECT SENSOR

With this sensor (see in figure 1.1), an external magnetic flux affects both
sides of a resistor, through which electronic current flows. A change in the
magnetic flux is measured and passed to the controller. The change in
magnetic flux is the result of a change in the location of the magnet.

Figure 1.1
3. DESCRIPTION - CIRCUIT 1
Switch operation based on the Hall effect principle is shown in figure 1.1. The
sensor is activated by a magnet. When the magnet approaches the sensor, a
NO contact closes.
An indicator lamp activating system is shown in figure 1.2. The lamp is
activated by the switch HES (MS-6).

Figure 1.2
4. DESCRIPTION - CIRCUIT 2
A control circuit with a hall effect sensor is shown in figures 1.3 and 1.4.

Figure 1.3
N -2400 1-4
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electrical circuit that
should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation.

Figure 1.2
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 2
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.

Figure 1.3
N -2400 1-5

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting
components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "fault insertion" switches on PN-2320 panel are in
the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system to activate the indicator lamp I1, shown in figure 1.2.
4.3 Operate the electrical circuit:
4.3.1 Turn the magnet of hall effect sensor to the central
position until
the lamp responds.
4.3.2 Turn the magnet to left, after that to right until the lamp is switched off.
4.3.3 Place different bodies between the sensor and the magnet and
observe the results. These bodies could be: a wooden plate, an
aluminum plate, a steel plate and a plastic plate.
4.4 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply, before disconnecting
components.
4.5 Check the components:
- Push button S2, and identify its NO contact.
- Limit switch MS-5, and identify its NC contact.
- Relay RL1 and identify the NO and NC contacts.
- Hall effect sensor MS-6 and the magnet.
4.6 Review the control circuit shown in figures 1.3 and 1.4, check
how the circuit functions and try to understand its operating cycle.
N -2400 1-6

4.7 Build the control circuit shown in figures 1.3 and 1.4.
4.8 Operate the electro-pneumatic circuit:
4.8.1 Turn the magnet of hall effect sensor to deactivate the switch MS-6.
4.8.2 Press push button S2 and observe the piston movements.
4.8.3 Pressing push button S2, turn the magnet of hall effect sensor to
activate the switch MS-6. Observe the pistons movements.
4.8.4 Compare the working cycle already located, with the cycle
obtained by activating the system.
4.9 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply and
close the valves in the air supply and there is no
pressure in the pipes before disconnecting
components.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The magnetic field is affected by:
All the tested materials.
Nonmetals only.
Metal materials only.
Iron-based materials only.
2. A hall effect sensor can be used as:
An activating relay.
A common limit switch.
A reed switch.
... It has no practical use.

## 3. Hall effect sensor operation is based upon:

Changes in the light beam.
Changes in the volume.
Changes in the magnetic flux.
Mechanical contact.
N -2400 2-1

## LESSON No. 2: THE OPTICAL SENSOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the properties of an optical sensor.
 Incorporate an optical sensor into an electro-pneumatic control
circuit.
 Build a control circuit that uses an optical sensor according to
the given diagrams.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relay, (two change-over contacts) RL1 and RL2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Optical switch (optical sensor) OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Indicator lamp I1 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
1 Set of various metal and nonmetal bodies
1 Caliper
N -2400 2-2

DISCUSSION
1. THE OPTICAL SENSOR
Optical sensors that are used in the widest range of applications in automatic
systems are called photo-electric systems. These systems are used to count
items on a conveyor belt.
A simple optical sensor has three parts :
* Light source (LED, lamp, sunbeam etc.)
* Light sensor (photoresistor, photodiode and phototransistor)
* Amplifier
There are two types of optical sensors:
1. The object moves between the light source and the light sensor: When the light source
sends a light beam to the photo-transistor, the sensor is activated. A body placed
between the light source and the photo-transistor deaktivates the sensor (figure 2.1a.).
In this case, the type of object material does not matter.

Figure 2.1a
2. The object moves in front of the the light source and the light sensor: The light source
sends a light beam to the object and the beam will reflect from the object to the light
source activating it (figure 2.1b.). In this case, the object needs a reflecting surface to
operate the sensor.

Figure 2.1b
N -2400 2-3

## The control circuit operates as follows:

Line 1 -Pressing push button S2 energizes relay RL1 through the closed contact of limit
switch MS-5.
Line 2 -Contact R1 closes and performs "self-holding" through the NC contact
of RL2.
Line 3 -The 3/2-way valve coil is activated through R1. The piston moves to A+.
Line 4 -The extended piston rod activates the optical sensor (OPT), which
energizes relay RL2.
Contact R2 in line 2 opens and cuts off the self-holding of RL1 and the 3/2-way
valve coil. The piston moves to A-.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

## 1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electrical circuit that
should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation.

Figure 2.2

## 2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 2

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
diagram that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the
simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation.
N -2400 2-4

Figure 2.3
3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting
components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2
bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel
is in the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system to activate indicator lamp I1, as shown in figure 2.2.
4.3 Position different objects close to the optical sensor and measure
the distance at which the sensor is activated. Enter your results in
the table.
Note: Please measure the activating distance between the sensor
and the object surface with caliper.

## Material Alum Iron Plastic Wood Finger

Activating
Distance (mm)
4.4 Review the electro-pneumatic control circuit in figures 2.3 and 2.4,
and try to discover the operating principle and the sequence of operation.
N -2400 2-5

4.5 Build the control circuit shown in figures 2.3 and 2.4.
Note:Before building the control circuit, identify all the contacts
in the circuit.
4.6 Activate the circuit by depressing push button S2
momentarily.
Observe the piston movement.
4.7 Activate the circuit by depressing push button S2
continuously.
Observe the piston movement.
4.8 Compare the sequence of operation found previously with the results.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The optical sensor is affected by:
Changes in the magnetic flux.
Interrupting the light beam.
Changes in the distance between the light source and the
sensor.
Changes in the temperature.

2. What is the minimal amount of force that will still trigger an optical sensor?
At least 5 grams.
The minimal force is 1 grams.
The sensor is not triggered by force.
A light touch.
3. In practice, the optical sensor is used to identify:
Approaching metal bodies only.
Approaching iron bodies only.
All kinds of bodies.
Changes in the light beam.
N -2400 3-1

## LESSON No. 3: THE CAPACITIVE SENSOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the properties of a capacitive sensor.
 Use a capacitive sensor in a control circuit.
 Build a control circuit that uses a capacitive sensor according to the diagrams.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double-acting cylinder, magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
3 Relays, (two change-over contacts) RL1, RL2 and RL3 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor (CAP) MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Indicator lamp I1 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 3-2

1 Set of various metal and nonmetal bodies
1 Caliper
DISCUSSION
1. THE CAPACITIVE SENSOR
A capacitive sensor can detect the presence of both metals and nonmetals, including
liquids.The detecting range of these sensors is generally less than those of inductive
sensors.
A capacitive sensor activating a NO contact is shown in figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1
A control circuit for activating an indicator lamp is illustrated in figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2
A control circuit that uses a capacitive sensor is given in figures 3.3 and 3.4.
In order to preserve the useful life of the sensors, each one operates a separate relay,
whose contacts are connected to the control circuit. The optical sensor will activate
relay RL1. The capacitive sensor will activate relay RL3. The reed switch will activate
relay RL2.
N -2400 3-3

Figure 3.4
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electrical circuit that
should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation.
Figure 3.2
N -2400 3-4

## 2. SIMULATION PROCEDURE – CIRCUIT 2

The simulation screen displays a simu lation of the electrical
circuit that should be built on the operation panel. Activating
the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation.

Figure 3.4
3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting
components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2
bars.

4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel
is in the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system to activate indicator lamp I1, as shown in figure 3.2.
N -2400 3-5

4.2.1 Place your finger close to the capacitive sensor MS-4 and note the
distance (in mm) at which your finger activates the sensor.
4.2.2 Repeat this several times and note any changes in distance.
Repeat item 4.2.1 with different bodies and enter your results in the table.
Material Alum Iron Copper Plastic Wood Finger
Activating
Distance (mm)
4.3 Build and activate the control circuit shown in figures 3.3 and 3.4.
Note:Exercise extreme caution when connecting the appropriate
NO, NC, contacts etc.
4.4 Operate the electro-pneumatic circuit:
4.4.1 Press push button S2 momentarily and observe the piston movements.
4.4.2 Press push button S2 continuously and observe the piston movements.
4.5 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply, close the valves in the
air supply and there is no pressure in the pipes before disconnecting
components.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The capacitive sensor detects:
Metal only.
Nonmetals only.
All kinds of materials.
Only current conductors.
2. Relay RL5:
Activates the drilling machine.
Serves as a memory unit.
Activates the clamps.
Activates the indicator lamp.
3. The operating sequence of the circuit is:
B+ A+ A- B-
B- A- A+ B+
A+ B+ A- B-
B- A+ B+ B-
N -2400 4-1

## LESSON No. 4: THE INDUCTIVE SENSOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the properties of an inductive sensor.
 Connect an inductive sensor to a control circuit.
 Build a control circuit that uses an inductive sensor, according
to the given diagrams.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
2 Double-acting cylinder CY2 and CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV4 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change-over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-1 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN-EB 261 panel)
1 Indicator lamp I1 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 4-2

1 Set of various metal and nonmetal bodies
1 Caliper
DISCUSSION
1. THE INDUCTIVE SENSOR
An inductive sensor is a sensor that detects metal at close range (eve n
insulated metals). The sensor consist of two basic components: a detection
coil and support circuitry. When a metal body enters the sensing field, it
causes a loss of power in the oscillator circuit, which causes a voltage drop.
An inductive sensor activating a NO contact is shown in figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1
An indicator lamp activating system is shown in figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2
An electro-pneumatic control circuit is illustrated in figures 4.3 and 4.4. An
example of its application is a drill and turntable. The tool (piston CY2) B+
B- turns the table through 900 and the drill (piston CY3) perform the
drilling process.
In order to preserve the useful life of the special sensors, each sensor
activates a separate relay, whose contacts are connected to the control
circuit.
N -2400 4-3

Figure 4.4
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electrical diagram for the
circuit that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation,
will demonstrate the circuit operation.

Figure 4.2
N -2400 4-4

## 2. SIMULATION PROCEDURE – CIRCUIT 2

The simulation scr een displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.

Figure 4.4
3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting
components.
3.3 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3
bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in
the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system to activate indicator lamp I1, as shown in figure 4.2.
N -2400 4-5

4.3 Place your finger close to the inductive sensor MS-2 and note the distance
(in mm) at which the body activates the sensor.
4.4 Repeat this several times and note if the distance changes.
4.5 Repeat step 4.3 with different bodies and enter your results in the table :
Note: Please measure the activating distance between the sensor and the object surface
with caliper.
Insert "0" when sensor is not activated.
Material Alum. Iron Copper Plastic Wood Finger
Activating
distance mm
4.6 Build and activate the electro-pneumatic control circuit shown in
figures 4.3 and 4.4.
Remark:Exercise extreme caution when connecting the appropriate
contacts, NO, NC, etc.
4.7 Operate the control circuit:
4.7.1 Press push button S2 momentarily and observe the piston movements.
4.7.2 Press push button S2 continuously and observe the piston movements.
4.8 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switch off the power supply, close the valves in the air
supply and there are no pressure in the pipes before disconnecting
components.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The inductive sensor is affected by:
All kinds of bodies.
Wooden or ceramic bodies only.
Metallic bodies only.
Iron only.
2. Metallic bodies approaching an inductive sensor cause:
Changes in the sensing ability.
Changes in the magnetic field.
Changes in the sensor voltage.
The sensor to cease functioning.
N -2400 5-1

## LESSON No. 5: THE PICK BORING SYSTEM

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the prin ciple and operation of a pick boring system.
 Build a ladder diagram according to a given control circuit.
 Build the control circuit for a pick boring system.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
2 Double -acting cylinder CY2 and CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 4/2-way, solenoid, spring valve SV2 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
2 Flow controls with check valves F1 and F2 (PN-2110 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays,(two change-over contacts)RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL8 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-1 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 On-delay timer T1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Off-delay timer T2 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 5-2

DISCUSSION
A pick boring system is shown in figure 5.1. Its operational cycle is C+ B+
B- C-. During boring B+, piston B performs a pick action, enabling deep
penetration.
The penetration is achieved as follows:
Timer T1 (make delay), is set for a delay of 1 time unit.
Timer T2 (break delay), is set for a delay of 3 time units.

## Piston B advances over 3 seconds, retreats over 1 second, advances over 3

seconds and so on to the completion of boring.
The control circuit is shown in figure 5.2.

Figure 5.2
N -2400 5-3

EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.

Figure 5.2

2. SAFETY RULES
2.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the
air supply
are closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before
connecting
components.
2.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3
bars.
3. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
3.1 Panel preset:
3.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test,
connect the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the work-
station to the panels.
N -2400 5-4

3.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in
the "off" position.
3.2 Build the electro-pneumatic system according to figures 5.1 and 5.2.
3.3 Operate the control circuit:
3.3.1 Adjust the flow control valves so that piston B can move slowly in
both directions.
3.3.2 Adjust the "make delay" timer T1 for a delay of about 1 second.
3.3.3 Adjust the "break delay" timer T2 for a delay of about 3 seconds.
3.3.4 Press push button S2 to activate the circuit and observe its working seq.
3.3.5 Repeat step 3.3.4 using different adjusted delays.
3.4 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switch off the power supply, close the valves in the air supply and
there is no pressure in the pipes before disconnecting components.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Building the circuit with F1 reversed will cause:
No change at all.
Unadjustable piston B movement to B-.
Piston B to lock at B-.
2. Upon reaching C+, piston C activates:
Reed switch MS-3.
Capacitive sensor MS-4.
Limit switch MS-1.
Inductive sensor MS-2.
3. The role of F2 in the circuit is to:
Serve as a reserve for F1.
N -2400 6-1

## LESSON No. 6: CONTROL CIRCUIT USING TWO SPRING-RETURN,

SOLENOID VALVES
LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the construction and operation of an air blasting system
for removing chips during drilling.
 Design a control circuit with spring-return, solenoid valves.
 Build a ladder diagram for the designed control circuit.
 Build the designed control circuit.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder, magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 4/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV2 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4(PN-2310)
1 Relay, (two change-over contacts) RL6 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Optical sensor MS-6 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 6-2

DISCUSSION
A drill and clamping vice system have the following operational cycle:
B+ A+ A- B-.
B is the clamping piston - cylinder CY2. A is the advancing piston for the boring unit,
cylinder CY1.
Cylinder B is activated by the 4/2-way ,solenoid-spring return valve SV2.
Cylinder A is activated by the 3/2-way, solenoid-spring return valve SV1.
As boring commences, a self -holding relay is activated. This relay will activate an
electrical motor located in the boring unit which is activated by cylinder A.
After completing the boring, the self-holding relay cuts out together with the
electrical motor.
As soon as boring starts, the 3/2-way valve is activated.
As boring is completed, the valve is deactivated. This valve is used to operate an air
nozzle for removing chips from the boring area.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Establish the operating sequence.
1.2 Design the control circuit according to the following:
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder A will be the 3/2-way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV1.
1.2.2 The activating valve of cylinder B will be the 4/2 -way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV2.
1.2.3 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the electro-
pneumatic circuit that should be built on the operation panel.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit
operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 6-3

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting
components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3
bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect
the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel
is in the "off" position.
4.2 Design and draw the electro-pneumatic circuit.
4.3 Design and draw a ladder diagram using the cascade method for a
single automatic cycle.
4.4 Build and operate the control circuit.
4.5 Compare the designed and implemented working sequence.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Exchanging the optical sensor with an inductive sensor will cause:
No change in the operation.
Reverse operation.
The pistons to operate in opposite directions.
Piston A only to function.
2. Piston B does not have a limit switch as piston A has MS-5. Why?
No need in this kind of circuit.
The inductive sensor serves both tasks.
The reed switch acts as a limit switch.
The optical sensor enables A-.
N -2400 7-1

## LESSON No. 7: THE LOGIC CIRCUIT

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain a logic circuit consisting of three cylinders, its design
and operation.
 Design a logic circuit according to a given diagram.
 Build a ladder diagram for the designed control circuit.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV4 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
2 Push buttons S2 and S3 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change-over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
N -2400 7-2

## 2 Limit switch MS-1 and MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)

1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Switch S4 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
DISCUSSION
The assembling equipment requires the following operating
cycle:
A+ B+ C+ B- A- C-.
The electro-pneumatic control circuit is described in figure 7.1.
The control circuit is not computer-operated, therefore the control circuit is designed
with a minimum of relays.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE- CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic
circuit that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the
simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation.
2. SAFETY RULES
2.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply
are closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before
connecting
components.
N -2400 7-3

## 2.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3

bars.
3. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
3.1 Design the control circuit using a time/motion diagram while
using a minimum of relays.
3.2 It is advisable to dedicate one relay to each of the sensors MS-2,
MS-4, MS-3 and OPT making a total of 4 relays.
3.3 The control circuit will be activated by one of two push buttons,
S1 or S2, which will activate relay RL5 for self-holding. The
relay will permit the activation of the full cycle by momentarily
depressing one of the push buttons.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Movement toward B+ is enabled by:
Piston A approaching the optical sensor.
Activation of limit switch MS-1.
Activation of inductive sensor.
Activation of the capacitive sensor.
2. Interchanging the sensors theoreticaly will cause:
Reverse operation of the system.
Piston B to operate contrary to pistons A and C.
No change in operation.
Piston A to remain stationary.
3. If piston C were made of glass, it would cause:
Deactivation of the capacitive sensor MS-4.
Deactivation of the capacitive sensor MS-4 and the reed switch MS-3.
Deactivation of MS-2 and B- movement.
No C- movement.
4. The optical sensor activates:
B- in valve SV3.
C- in valve SV4.
C+ in valve SV4.
B+ in valve SV3.
N -2400 8-1

## LESSON No. 8: THE ELECTRIC CASCADE CIRCUIT

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the principle of an electric cascade circuit and operating
sequence.
 Design a simple electric cascade circuit.
 Design a ladder diagram for the designed circuit according to
the system requirements.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV4 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relays, (four change -over contacts) RL8 and RL9 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
N -2400 8-2

## 1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)

1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
2 Limit switch MS-1 and MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)

DISCUSSION
A system performing two drilling operations is shown in figure 8.1. Piston A
secures the product in place. Piston C performs the main drilling operation.
In practice, cylinder C would be a drilling unit comprising: cylinder, motor,
valves and hydraulic speed control unit. Piston B performs the secondary
drilling operation. Both holes intersect.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Establish the operating sequence.
1.2 Design the control circuit according to the electric cascade method.
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder A will be the 3/2-way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV1. The valve removes the boring tool automaticaly
from the product should there be a power cutoff.
N -2400 8-3

1.2.2 The activating valve of cylinder B will be the 5/2 -way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV3.
1.2.3 The activating valve of cylinder C will be the 5/2-way, double solenoid
valve SV4.
1.3.1 Plan the control circuit using a time/motion diagram while using a minimum
of relays.
1.3.2 It is advisable to dedicate one relay to each of the sensors.
1.3.3 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2, which will activate
relay RL5 for self-holding.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the electro-
pneumatic circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and the
ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3 bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect
the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in
the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system and activate by pressing push button S2.
4.3 Compare the designed and realized electro-pneumatic circuit.
N -2400 8-4

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The operating sequence of the designed circuit is:
A+ B+ C+ A- B- C-.
A+ C+ C- B+ B- A-.
A+ C+ B+ B- C- A-.
A+ B+ B- C+ C- A-.
2. If the cycle were changed from "A+ C+ C- B+ B- A-" to "A+ B+ B- A- C+ C-":
Cylinder C will "push" the raw material instead of boring
it.
Drill C will operate before drill B.
Both drills will operate simultaneously.
No change will occur.

C+ in valve SV4.
A- in valve SV3.
B+ in valve SV2.
A+ in valve SV3.
N -2400 9-1

## LESSON No. 9: SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS FOR AN ASSEMBLY

APPLICATION
LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Set up an efficient and short operating sequence in an assembly application.
 Design an electro-pneumatic control circuit according to the
operating sequence.
 Build a ladder diagram for the control circuit.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 4/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV2 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change-over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL8 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
N -2400 9-2

## 1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)

1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
2 Limit switch MS-1 and MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
DISCUSSION
A system for assembling a drilled cylindrical body with a pin
inside it, is shown in figure 9.1.
Piston C secures the basic item. Piston B initiates the drilled
cylindrical body. Piston A initiates the pin.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Establish the operating sequence.
1.2 Design the control circuit according to the electric cascade method.
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder A will be the 3/2-way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV1.
1.2.2 The activating valve of cylinder B will be the 4/2-way, spring-return,
solenoid valve SV2.
1.2.3 The activating valve of cylinder C will be the 5/2 -way, double solenoid
valve SV3.
N -2400 9-3

## 1.3 Design the ladder diagram.

1.3.1 Plan the control circuit using a time/motion diagram while using a
minimum of relays.
1.3.2 It is advisable to dedicate one relay to each of the sensors.
1.3.3 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2, which will
activate relay RL5 for self-holding.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the electro-
pneumatic circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and the
ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.

4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect
the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in
the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system and activate by pressing push button S2.
4.3 Compare the designed and realized electro-pneumatic circuit.
N -2400 9-4

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The designed cycle sequence is:
C+ B+ A+ (B- and A-) C-.
A+ B+ C+ (B- and C- and A-).
A+ B+ C+ A- (B-and C-).
A+ B+ C+ B- (C- and A-).
2. Is a logic AND gate needed to assure that B and A return simultaneously ?
Yes, the AND gate is needed.
No, it is not needed.
It depends on the direction of movement.
It is recommended only in the case of A.
N -2400 10-1

## LESSON No. 10: THE SIMPLE SPLIT-CONTROL CIRCUIT

(CIRCUIT SIMULATION ONLY)
LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Set up a operating sequence in a split circuit.
 Design a simple split-control circuit according to the system shown
in figure 10.1.
 Design a ladder diagram for operate the designed control circuit.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylind er with spring return CY1
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3
1 4/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV2
1 Set of pneumatic accessories
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Push button S2
5 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3, RL4 and RL6
4 Relays, (four change -over contacts) RL5, RL7, RL8 and RL9
1 Inductive sensor MS-2
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4
1 Optical sensor OPT
1 Reed switch MS-3
N -2400 10-2

## 2 Limit switch MS-1 and MS-5

1 Set of patch cords
DISCUSSION
A turntable system with two tools - drilling and tapping, is shown in figure
10.1.
The indexing table has 4 positions. Activating piston (B) B- B+, rotates the
table through 90 degrees before making it secure.
Drilling unit C includes a pneumatic cylinder C for advancing the motor, a
hydraulic speed control unit, a limit valve and drill socket.
Tapping unit A includes a pneumatic cylinder for advancing the motor, a
hydraulic speed control, a limit valve and tapping head.

## The system operates as follows:

Step 1. The product is secured at point "a".
Step 2. The table rotates when B- B+ is performed.
Step 3. Drilling is performed at point "b" by activating C+ C-. Tapping is
performed simultaneously at point "c" by activating A+ A-.
Step 4. Subsequently, the product is removed at point "d".
N -2400 10-3

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Establish the operating sequence.
1.2 Cylinders C and A work in parallel and independently of each other.
1.3 Design the control circuit using the cascade method, for the following
conditions :
1.3.1 At the end of the boring operation at position "b" and the tapping
operation at position "c", a signal given by the operator (or robotic
system) rotates the table one step by initiating B- B+.
1.3.2 The operator of the machine (or the robotic system) loads or unloads
the finished product and loads the new product.
1.3.3 Automatic operation is possible.
1.3.4 The activating valve of cylinder A will be the 3/2-way, solenoid,
spring return valve SV1.
1.3.5 The activating valve of cylinder C will be the 4/2-way, solenoid,
spring return valve SV2.
1.3.6 The activating valve of cylinder B will be the 5/2-way, double
solenoid valve SV3.
1.4.1 It is advisable to dedicate one relay to each of the sensors.
1.4.2 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2, which will
activate relay RL5 for self -holding.
1.5 Activate the simulation of the designed circuit. If there are any
malfunctions, troubleshoot and correct the control circuit.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen can simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation
and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 10-4

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The benefit of a rotating table on an assembly line is that:
It's compact and space saving.
It allows the processing cylinders to be moved.
It reduces the number of cylinders used.
... There's no benefit at all.

## 2. Can a triple -split circuit be designed?

No. a double-split circuit, is the maximum.
Yes, it is possible.
Only when all the sensors are optical.
Only by using double pilot valves.
N -2400 11-1

## LESSON No. 11: THE BASIC COUNTING CIRCUIT

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the basic counting system.
 Design a basic counting system according to the system in figure 11.1
 Build a ladder diagram for the designed counting circuit.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2 and RL3 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relays, (four change-over contacts) RL8 and RL9 (PN-2410 panel)
2 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL6 and RL7 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 11-2

DISCUSSION
A system for removing two products is shown in figure 11.1a. Depressing push button
S2 momentarily activates piston B twice and performs the cycle B+ B- B+ B-.
Generally, this system is a part of a more complex control system.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Design the cycle B+ B- B+ B- according to the electrical cascade
method.
1.1.1 The activating valve of cylinder CY2 will be the 5/2-way, double
solenoid valve SV3.
1.2.1 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2.

## 2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE

The simulation screen is suit able to create a simulation of the electro-
pneumatic circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and
the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 11-3

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.

4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect
the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in
the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system and activate by pressing push button S2.
4.3 Compare the designed and realized electro-pneumatic circuit.
N -2400 11-4

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The designed circuit operation is:
A+ A- B+ B-.
B+ B- A- A+.
B+ B- B+ B-.
B- B+ B- B+.

## 2. The capacitive sensor activates:

B- in valve SV3.
B+ in valve SV3.
Reed switch MS-3.
Nothing!

## 3. Does position B+ activates relays?

Yes.
No, not at all.
Yes, only delay relays.
Yes, only if we use another type of cylinder.
N -2400 12-1

## LESSON No. 12: THE SHORTENED CASCADE METHOD

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the shortened cascade method.
 Design a simple counting system (A+ A- A+ A-) according to the shortened cascade
method.
 Build a ladder diagram for the designed system.
 Build the counting system on the pneumatic workstation.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1 and RL2 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relays, (four change -over contacts) RL8 and RL9 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 12-2

DISCUSSION
An electro-pneumatical control circuit for removing two products is illustrated
in figures 12.1 and 12.2.

Figure 12.2

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation.
N -2400 12-3

2. SAFETY RULES
2.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply
are closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before
connecting
components.
2.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2
bars.

3. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
3.1 Panel preset:
3.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel
components are to be connected. At the start of each test,
connect the (+) and (-) from the power supply of the work-
station to the panels.
3.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is
in the "off" position.
3.2 Study the control circuit in figures 12.1 and 12.2 and verify the
operation sequence.
3.3 Build the control circuit according to the designed ladder diagram.
3.4 Activate the control circuit and compare the operating sequence
to step 3.2.
3.5 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switch off the power supply, close the valves in
the air supply and there is no pressure in the pipes before
disconnecting components.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How will the use of a double-acting cylinder instead of the single-acting
cylinder affect the control circuit?
The optical sensor must be replaced by an inductive
sensor.
The system will function in reverse.
The system will not operate.
The activation valve must be replaced.
N -2400 12-4

## 2. Which sensor or switch activates A-?

The optical sensor.
The reed switch.
The limit switch.
Valve SV1.

3. Will the replacement of SV1 with a double pilot valve change the
circuit design?
No, it won't change it.
Yes, it must be redesigned.
Yes, a sensor must be changed.
Yes, there'll be no need for the relays.

## 4. Limit switch MS-5 activates:

The optical sensor.
The A- in the SV1 valve.
The A+ in the SV1 valve.
... Deactivates the A+ position.
N -2400 13-1

## LESSON No. 13: THE BASIC COUNTING CIRCUIT BY THE ELECTRICAL

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Design a basic counting circuit based on the electrical cascade method.
 Design a ladder diagram for the designed system in accordance with the
given description.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1
1 Set of pneumatic accessories
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Push button S2
7 Relays, (four change-over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3, RL4, RL5,
RL6 and RL7
1 Optical sensor OPT
1 Limit switch MS-5
1 Set of patch cords

DISCUSSION
A system for removing products is shown in figure 13.1.
The operating cycle should be: A+ A-, A+ A-, A+ A-.
N -2400 13-2

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 The operating sequence is: A+ A- A+ A- A+ A-.
1.2 Design an electro-pneumatic control circuit using the electrical cascade
method.
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder CY1 will be 3/2-way, solenoid, spring
return valve SV1.
1.3.1 The control circuit will be activated by push button S2.

## 2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE

The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the electro-
pneumatic circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and
the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 13-3

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Single activation of S2 will initiate:
Three cycles of A+ A-.
One cycle of A+ A-.
Three cycles with a delay.
A+ only.

## 2. Is it possible to add a delay after performing A+ a second time?

Yes, it's possible.
No, only after the first time.
No, only after the third time.
No, it's not at all possible.
N -2400 14-1

## LESSON No. 14: A SIMPLE COUNTING CONTROL CIRCUIT WITH TWO

CYLINDERS
LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the operation of a simple counting control circuit, activating two
cylinders.
 Design the control circuit according to the diagram in figure 14.1.
 Build a ladder diagram for the designed control circuit (see in figure 14.2).
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV4 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-1 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 14-2

DISCUSSION
A drill with a sliding table is shown in figure 14.1.
Piston B moves the table.
Piston C performs the drilling process.
The system enables a product to be processed once at point "a" and once at
point "b", at which time the product at point "a" is replaced by a new product.

## The operation sequence is as follows:

*The operator secures the item manually.
*When piston B is activated, the table slides to point "b".
*Piston C is activated automatically to perform the drilling action.
*With the drilling at point "b", the operator replaces the product
at point "a".
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.
N -2400 14-3

Figure 14.3

2. SAFETY RULES
2.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply
are closed and there is no pressure in the pipe, before
connecting
components.
2.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3
bars.

3. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
3.1 Panel preset:
3.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
3.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is
in the "off" position.
3.2 Study the electro-pneumatic circuit in figures 14.2 and 14.3 and define
the operation sequence.
N -2400 14-4

Figure 14.3
3.3 Build the electro-pneumatic control circuit and operate it by pressing
push button S2.
3.4 Compare the realized and the estabilished operational sequence.
3.5 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switch off the power supply, close the
valves in the air supply and there is no pressure in the
pipes before disconnecting components.
N -2400 14-5

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Activating S2 will cause:
Movement of table B+.
Movement of the drill piston C-.
Movement of the table and the drill through B+ C+ C- B- C+ C- cycle.
Automatic operation through B+ C+ B- C- B+ B- cycle.

## 2. Interchanging the sensors will cause:

Operation of B+ C+ C- cycle only.
The system not to function.
No change at all.
Automatic and continuous operation.

## 3. Replacing coil C- in SV3 with a return spring and cancelling row 8 in

The system to remain at rest.
Piston C to operate in reverse.
No change at all.
The table not to move B-.
N -2400 15-1

## LESSON No. 15: DESIGN A COUNTING CIRCUIT USING THE CASCADE

METHOD
LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Design a counting circuit using the electrical cascade method.
 Design ladder diagram to fulfil the requirements.
 Build the control circuit according to the designed diagrams.
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Single-acting cylinder with spring return CY1 (PN-2330 panel)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 3/2-way, solenoid, spring return valve SV1 (PN-2320 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Switch S4 (PN-2310 panel)
4 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 (PN-2310)
2 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL6 and RL7 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Relay, (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Optical sensor OPT (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-5 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 15-2

DISCUSSION
A drill and sliding table system are given with the operating
cycle:
C+ A+ A- C- A+ A-.
Cylinder C moves the table.
Cylinder A processes the item.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 The operating sequence is: C+ A+ A- C- A+ A-.
1.2 Design the control circuit according to the cascade method:
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder CY1 (A) will be the 3/2-way,
spring-return, solenoid valve SV1.
1.2.2 The activating valve of cylinder CY3 (C) will be the 5/2-way,
double solenoid valve SV3.
1.3 Design the ladder diagram. The circuit will be activated by switching S4 on.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the electro-pneumatic
circuit.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and the
ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipes, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 3 bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
N -2400 15-3

4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in the
"off" position.
4.2 Build the system and activate by switching S4 on.
4.3 Compare the working sequence of the designed and implemented circuit.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Can you exchange cylinders C and A without affecting system efficiency?
Yes, without any problem.
No, because the size of two cylinders are different.
Yes, but not recommended.
N -2400 16-1

## LESSON No. 16: THE ELECTRONIC COUNTER AND IT’S OPERATION

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain how a counter works.
 Use a counter in a control circuit.
 Design and build a ladder diagram for the described system (see Description).
EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Switch S4 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-1 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Relay (two change-over contacts) RL2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Electronic up-counter with preset CNT (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
DISCUSSION
1. THE COUNTER
The counter is defined as a mechanical or electrical signal counting system.
The number of events to be counted can be predefined and it is also
possible to specify what should occur at the end of the count. Any counter
may be reset to zero at the end of counting.
N -2400 16 -2

## There are two ways of resetting to zero:

1) By using an external reset signal.
2) Automatic reset.
With automatic reset, it is usually the last count that resets the counter.
An electrical counter is shown in figure. 16.1. To operate the counter, the
number to be counted must be preset. This is done by two PRESET
thumbwheel switches.
The preset number is visible on the thumbwheel switches and the counted
number will be displayed on the DISPLAY.

Figure 16.1
Counting can be effected in three ways using the three-way (MANUAL,
INTERNAL, EXTERNAL) switch:
 Manual counting by generating counting signals with the"MANUAL" push button.
(The three-way switch should be in the MANUAL position).
 Automatic counting by counting signals from the "INTERNAL" clock circuit. (The
three -way switch should be in the INTERNAL position).
 Automatic counting by inserting signals from the control circuit into the
"EXTERNAL CLOCK IN" input. (The three- way switch should be in the
EXTERNAL position).
N -2400 16-3

## If the number of pulse signals counted is equal to the preset number

displayed on the DISPLAY, switch CNT will be activated.
To repeat counting, reset the counter to zero. This can be done in two ways:
 Manual, internal zeroing by pressing the "RESET" push button.
 External zeroing by inputting a signal from the control circuit to the "EXT. RESET
IN" socket.
Operation of a counting system using a counter:
 The automatic system shown in figure 16.2 cuts items to a given length. Measurement
of the item length is made by a counting disc, rotated by the conveyor roller.
 By means of a sensor the counter measures the number of turns of the disc including
fractions of each turn. When the required length has been obtained, piston C (cutting
unit) is activated to cut the product.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE – CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electrical circuit that
should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation.
N -2400 16 -4

Figure 16.3
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 2
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.

Figure 16.5

3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipes, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.
4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
N -2400 16-5

4.1.2 Ensure that the "faults insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel is in the
"off" position.
2 To familiarize yourself with the counter, build the control circuit shown in
figure 16.3.
4.3 Operate the circuit:
4.3.1 Set the preset thumbwheel switch to number 21.
4.3.2 Press the manual push button 21 times.
4.3.3 Observe indicator lamp l1.
4.3.4 After the lamp lights up, press push button reset and observe lamp l1.
4.4 Disconnect the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply before
disconnecting
components.
4.5 Carefully study the electro-pneumatic circuit provided in figures
16.4 and 16.5.
4.6 Build the electro-pneumatic circuit provided in figures 16.4 and 16.5.
4.7 Operate the control circuit:
4.7.1 Set the counter to 10.
4.7.2 Activate the control circuit by switching S4 on.
4.7.3 Press manual push button (Z) 10 times and observe what happens.
N -2400 16-6

.4 Change the preset number, operate the system and observe what happens.
4.8 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply, close the valves in
the air supply and there is no pressure in the pipes before
disconnecting components.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Will high speed counting cause changes in the circuit design?
Yes it will.
No, there's no need.
No, only while counting in reverse.
No, since a counter already exists.

## 2. The counter is reset manually by:

Pressing the reset push button.
Applying a signal to the display.
Turning the counting disc backwards.
Applying a signal into the manual input.

## 3. Automatic counting is enabled by:

Applying a signal into the input manual.
Pressing the reset push button.
Applying signals into the "EXT.CLK. IN" pulse input.
Shifting the selector to manual.
N -2400 17-1

## LESSON No. 17: CONTROL CIRCUIT WITH COUNTER

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain how to use en electronic counter.
 Design a control circuit using a counter in it.
 Design and build a ladder diagram for the described system (see Description).

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Double -acting cylinder CY3 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valv e SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Inductive sensor MS-2 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Limit switch MS-1 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Relay (two change-over contacts) RL2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Relay (four change-over contacts) RL5 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Electronic up-counter with preset CNT (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)

DISCUSSION
A system is illustrated to check the reliability of the joints of a chair.
The chair must be inclined n times with weight W on it.
N -2400 17-2

You have to design and build the control system where the operation cycle
C+ C- is performed n times. The "n" is the preset number for the counter.

Figure 17.1

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. DESIGNING PROCEDURE
1.1 Establish the operating sequence.
1.2 Design the control circuit according to the following:
1.2.1 The activating valve of cylinder C will be the 5/2-way, double solenoid
valve SV3.
1.2.2 Activate the control circuit by using push button S2.
2. SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE
The simulation screen is suitable to create a simulation of the
electro-pneumatic circuit that should be built on the operation
panel.
Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation and
the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
3. SAFETY RULES
3.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipes, before connecting components.
3.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.
N -2400 17-3

4. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
4.1 Panel preset:
4.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
4.1.2 Ensure that the "fault insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel are
in the "off" position.
4.2 Build the system and activate by pressing push button S2.
4.3 Compare the designed and realized electro-pneumatic circuit.
N -2400 18-1

## LESSON No. 18: THE STEPPER MOTOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the basic operating principles of the stepper motor.
 To activate the stepper motor by using the built-in counter.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Electronic up-counter with preset CNT (PN-2410 panel)
1 Stepper motor (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
DISCUSSION
1. THE STEPPER MOTOR
In many real-life applications is very important to have a device
which can transform the clock pulse for turning movement.
The stepper motor turns a constant angle of rotation for each
clock pulse. The direction of turning can be easily changed.

Figure 18.1
N -2400 18-2

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
The stepper motor has there different operating modes as follows:
1.1 Manual mode:
1.1.1 Connect the PN-2410 panel 24V inputs to the power supply of the workstation.
1.1.2 Set stepper motor switch (15) on.
1.1.3 Choose the direction of the rotation to clockwise (connect rotation input (14)
to power supply output -.)
1.1.4 Set the selector switch (11) to manual position. In this position the motor will
be activated by the manual push button (10).
1.1.5 Press the preset thumbwheel button (9) to estabilish the number of pulses
which the counter will supply to the stepper motor.
1.1.6 Perform reset by pressing reset push button (8) momentarily or sending a +
signal to "ext. reset in" input (13).
1.1.7 Perform preset by pressing on the preset push button and then press reset to
get experience using the stepper motor in the manual mode.
1.2 Internal mode:
1.2.1 Connect the PN-2410 panel 24V inputs to the power supply of the workstation.
1.2.2 Set stepper motor switch (15) on.
1.2.3 Choose the direction of the rotation to clockwise (connect rotation input (14)
to the negative power supply output (-).)
1.2.4 Set the selector switch (11) to internal position. In this position, the motor
will be activated by the internal signal generator.
1.2.5 Press the preset thumbwheel button (9) to estabilish the number of pulses
that the counter will supply to the stepper motor. Observe the stepper motor
and how it turns "step by step". Set 96 on the preset thumbwheel button (9)
and observe how many degrees will the motor turn.
N -2400 18-3

1.2.6 Perform reset by pressing reset push button (8) momentarily or sending a +
signal to the "ext. reset in" input (13).
1.2.7 Perform preset, signals by internal and reset to get experience using the
stepper motor in the internal mode.
1.3 External mode:
1.3.1 Connect the PN-2410 panel 24V inputs to the power supply of the
workstation.
1.3.2 Set stepper motor switch (15) on.
1.3.3 Choose the direction of the rotation to clockwise (connect rotation
input (14) to the negative power supply output (-).
1.3.4 Set the selector switch (11) to external position. In this position, the
motor will be activated by the external signal.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How can you operate the stepper motor manually?
Set the selector switch to manual position.
Press the manual push button.
Press reset push button to make zero.

2. How can you change the rotation direction of the stepper motor?
Connect a + signal to the "direction of the rotation" input.
Connect a - signal to the "direction of the rotation" input.
There is no way to change the direction.
Switch on the stepper motor switch.
N -2400 19-1

## LESSON No. 19: CONTROL CIRCUIT WITH STEPPER MOTOR

LAB OBJECTIVES
This exercise will enable you to:
 Explain the operation of a control circuit combined with a stepper motor.
 Use the stepper motor in a control circuit.
 Build the control circuit according to the given diagrams.

EQUIPMENT
1. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS
1 Pneumatic workstation (PN-2001)
1 Double -acting cylinder - magnetic CY2 (PN-2330 panel)
1 5/2-way, double solenoid valve SV3 (PN-2320 panel)
1 Set of pneumatic accessories (PN-2160)
2. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
1 Universal PLC I/O operation panel (PN-2601 Mk-II)
1 Push button S2 (PN-2310 panel)
2 Relays, (two change -over contacts) RL1 and RL2 (PN-2310 panel)
1 Capacitive sensor MS-4 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 Reed switch MS-3 (PN EB-261 panel)
1 On-delay timer T1 (PN-2410 panel)
1 Stepper motor (PN-2410 panel)
1 Electronic up-counter with preset (PN-2410 panel)
1 Set of patch cords (DL-30)
N -2400 19-2

DISCUSSION
A system is comprising a turntable (stepper motor) and a processing system
(double-acting cylinder).
With the turntable at a given angle, the item can be moved from one work-
station to another.
The required cycle is: M+ B+ B-.
M+:represents a turn of the motor at a given angle.
B+: represents the advance of the working unit. The processing tool enters
the item.
B-: the processing tool leaves the item.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. SIMULATION PROCEDURE – CIRCUIT 1
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit
that should be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will
demonstrate the circuit operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit
provided.

Figure 19.2
N -2400 19-3

2. SAFETY RULES
2.1 Make sure the power supply is off, the valves in the air supply are
closed and there is no pressure in the pipes, before connecting components.
2.2 Adjust the pressure regulator on the master board to 2 bars.
3. EXERCISE PROCEDURE
3.1 Panel preset:
3.1.1 Each panel has a (+) and (-) supply line to which the panel components
are to be connected. At the start of each test, connect the (+) and (-)
from the power supply of the workstation to the panels.
3.1.2 Ensure that the "fault insertion" switches on the PN-2320 panel are in the
"off" position.
.2 Study the electro-pneumatic control system shown in figures 19.1 & 19.2.

Figure 19.2
N -2400 19-4

## 3.3 Build the system shown in figures 19.1 and 19.2.

3.4 Operate the control circuit:
3.4.1 Set the clockwise rotation and switch the stepper motor on.
3.4.2 Set selector switch to internal position and preset M=30.
3.4.3 Set the on-delay timer T1 in middle position.
3.4.4 Press push button S2 and observe what happens.
3.4.5 Repeat steps 3.4.2, 3.4.3 and 3.4.4 changing the preset number and delay.
3.5 Disassemble the circuit:
Make sure you switched off the power supply and close the valves
in the air supply, there is no pressure in the pipes before
disconnecting components.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the function of on-delay timer T1?
To delay the operation of cylinder.
To delay the backward movement of the cylinder.
To replace RL3 relay.
It has no any function.

## 2. What will happen if you change the NC contact of timer to a NO contact?

To delay the cylinder cycle .
To delay the backward movement of the cylinder.
The system will not operate at all.
There is no change in operation.
N -2400 20-1

## LESSON No. 20: SOLUTIONS

This lesson contains the electro-pneumatic control circuits which had to be designed by the
student while performing the following courseware lessons:

Lesson No. 6
Lesson No. 8
Lesson No. 9
Lesson No. 10
Lesson No. 11
Lesson No. 13
Lesson No. 15
Lesson No. 17
SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 6
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should be
built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation
and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should be
built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation
and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 20-2

Figure 6.2

## SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 8

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should
be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit
operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 20-3

Figure 8.2

## SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 9

N -2400 20-4
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should
be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit
operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

Figure 9.2
SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 10

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should
be built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit
operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.
N -2400 20-5

Figure 10.2
SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 11
The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should be
built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation
and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

Figure 11.1
N -2400 20-6

## SCREEN SIMULATION PROCEDURE - CIRCUIT 13

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should be
built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit operation
and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

Figure 13.2
N -2400 20-7

## SCREEN SIMULATION PROC EDURE - CIRCUIT 15

The simulation screen displays a simulation of the electro-pneumatic circuit that should be
built on the operation panel. Activating the simulation, will demonstrate the circuit
operation and the ladder diagram for the circuit provided.

Figure 15.2
N -2400 20-8

Figure 17.2