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PN 2500 COURSE

PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC
CONTROLLER

DEGEM® SYSTEMS
Copyright © 1989 by I.T.E. Innovative Technologies in Education. All
rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any
form without prior written permission from I.T.E. This publication is based
on the exclusive methodology of Degem Systems Ltd.

In the interest of product improvement, circuits, components or values of


components may be changed at any time without prior notification.

First edition printing: 1991


Second edition printing: 2003

Cat. No. 9021397051


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction To The Exercises i


Exercise 1- Series Connections 1-1
Exercise 2 – Series-Parallel Connections 2-1
Exercise 3 – Series-Parallel Circuit 3-1
Exercise 4 – Use of the Internal Coil 4-1
Exercise 5 – Self-Hold with “Break” Priority 5-1
Exercise 6 – Use of Relay Memory 6-1
Exercise 7 – Sequence A+ B+ A- B- 7-1
Exercise 8 – “On Delay” Timer 8-1
Exercise 9 – “Off Delay” Timer 9-1
Exercise 10 – Control Circuit Using Timers 10-1
Exercise 11 – Basic Counting (A+A-) x 5 11-1
Exercise 12 – A+ B+ C+ B- A- C- 12-1
Exercise 13 – B- B+ A+ A- C+ C- 13-1
Exercise 14 – Paper-Roll Cutting Machine 14-1
Exercise 15 –Operating a Manipulator 15-1
Exercise 16– Concrete-Block Machine 16-1
Exercise 17– Bottle -Closing Machine 17-1
Exercise 18 – Packing Paint Cans in Cardboard Cartons 18-1
Exercise 19 – Safe Operation – “2-Hands-On” Operation 19-1
Exercise 20 – Complex Circuit 20-1
PN-2500 i

INTRODUCTION TO THE EXERCISES

The exercises set out in the following pages should be solved by using
LADDER DIAGRAM language.
PLC's (Programmable Logic Controller) currently in use have contact and relay
functions which replace the hardwired logic with programmable logic.
Today, most PLC's serve more complex functions than contacts alone, and usually
include timers, counters, etc.
The exercises in this course do not cover applications that require elements
that are more complex than the above functions.
The relay logic for the PLC is based on the three basic logic functions - AND, OR,
NOT - explained in the theory section of this book.
The Ladder Diagram uses contacts and coils (at least in the ON/OFF control), so
that ON/OFF circuits based on relays and contacts are easy to make. Thus, the
transition from a conventional electrical control drawing to a ladder diagram is
almost 1:1.
PN-2500 ii

LADDER DIAGRAM
The structure of the diagram is that of a ladder, consisting of two vertical lines
connected by a sequence of horizontal contacts and coils. One vertical line represents
the Hot Line, the other the “0”, common or earth.
The flow of current in the horizontal "rungs" is from left to right depending on the
state of the contacts (open or closed - conducting or not conducting current). The
output coils depend on the passage of this current through the contacts.
In order to express the logic of the exercises by means of the ladder diagram, the
various symbols and connections need to be explained:

Symbol Explanation
Normally Open Contact- represents all components
serving as an input to the control logic followed by
reference number, as explained in the Theory Section.
If the status of the N.O. Contact is logic “1”, the contact
will conduct current; if the status is in logic position “0”,
the current will not pass through the contact. To obtain “1”
the contact must be activated.
Normally Closed Contact- represents all components
serving as an input to control logic followed by reference
number.
If the status of the N.C. Contact is logic position “0”, the
contact will remain closed, that is, current will pass through
the contact. When the status changes to position “1”, the
contact opens and current will not pass through. The
contact must be de-activated to hold it in logic position “0”
to allow current to pass through it.
Output coil - activated by input logic conditions. The
output could represent an external output device connected
to a controller or an internal logic output of the controller.
Current form the left vertical line of the ladder travelling
along a rung via the various contacts energizes the output
coil at the right end of the rung.
This is a diagram of a function box used for timers/counters,
which is actuated when the input is switched on.

Not all PLC’s have a Reset line.


PN-2500 iii

PRE: is the data field in which the Preset value is stored.


C: is the data field in which the Accumulated Value is stored.
The Output will be activated (go to ON)when the Preset Value is equal to the
Current Value.
The box requires a reference number.

Figure 01: Logic Diagram


To implement the exercises set out in this book, we will use X1….X8 inputs
and Y9 ….Y16.
The connections of the components to the I/O Unit are as follows:

Figure 02: Componens Connections to the I/O Unit


Note: The internal logic of the controller will determine the conditions
(logic connections) between the various inputs and outputs.
PN-2500 1-1

EXERCISE No. 1: SERIES CONNECTIONS


1. OBJECTIVES
 Activating output coil L1( solenoid ) by INPUT – S2 push button
 Activating L1 by two push buttons, S2 and S3, connected in series.
 Activating L1 as above with switch S4 in series.

2. I/O ALLOCATION

Component Name TI - DEGEM IZUMI


Solenoid L1 Y9 Q0
P.B.1 S2 X1 I0
P.B.2 S3 X2 I1
Switch S4 X3 I2

3. CONNECTING COMPONENTS TO THE I/O PANEL


Note: Components can be connected in stages, but preferably, all
components involved in each part should be connected at the beginning.

Figure 1.1
PN-2500 1-2

4. PROCEDURE
4.1 PLC Programming
Before you start you should see a screen similar to the picture below.

To insert a normally open contact press on the symbol -| |- and then press in
the screen on the place you want to insert the contact (should be where the
gray box is) you will get a dialog box like the picture below.
PN-2500 1-3

At the allocation number field write I0. At the Tag Name Comment field
write X1 press "OK". You should see this screen.

Follow the same routine for inserting the out coil by using the -0-| symbol
but write Q0 at the allocation number field and write Y9 in the Tag Name
Comment field. Press "Enter". You should see the following screen.

4.2 On-Screen Simulation


To start the on-screen simulation, you should go to the menu, click
with the mouse on the menu item "Online" and then click on monitor.
When a component is painted in red it is tells you that the component (in
this case X1) is “conducting current”. As a result of the current passing
through X1, the output coil (representing the solenoid connection L1)
“lights up ”.

- Activate circuit “A” by first pressing S2 and then release it.


- Pressing S2 will shift the core of the
solenoid. Releasing S2 will return the
core of the solenoid to its intial
position.
4.3 Addition of push button X2 in series to X1 – AND Circuit.
PN-2500 1-4

Insert another contact to the above circuit using the mouse and the method
described before. At the allocation number field, write I2 and write X2 at the
Tag Name Comment field. Press "Enter". You should see this screen.

4.4 Circuit Check


4.4.1 Go back to "Online->Monitor" as before. the core
can be activated by pressing both push buttons, S2
and S3, at the same time. Make sure that Y9
“lights up”

5. QUESTIONS
5.1 If X2 is changed to a N/C contact, what happens to the circuit?
5.2 Give a practical example of where to use a series actuation.
5.3 Build a Truth Table for Network “C”.
PN-2500 2-1

EXERCISE No. 2: SERIES-PARALLEL CONNECTIONS


1. OBJECTIVES
 To actuate output coil L1 from two parallel locations.
 To actuate output coil L1 under parallel and series conditions jointly.
2. I/O ALLOCATION

Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI


Solenoid L1 Y9 Q0
P.B.1 S2 X1 I0
P.B.2 S3 X2 I1
Switch S4 X3 I2

3. CONNECTIONS OF THE COMPONENTS TO I/O


PANEL
Note: Components can be connected in stages, but preferably, all
components involved in each part should be connected at the beginning.

Figure 2.1
PN-2500 2-2

4. PROCEDURE
4.1 PLC Programming
OR Circuit

4.2 On-Screen Simulation:

Figure 2.2

From the main display screen change to “Online->Monitor”. The core


can be activated by pressing either one of the push buttons S2, S3

4.3 AND/OR Network


Addition of PB (X3) in series to parallel circuit S2/S3 – X1/X2.
PN-2500 2-3

4.4 Circuit Check


As above, with one difference. To activate L1, the serial component X3
must be in the “ Closed” position (conducting current), then either X1 or
X2, if activated, will activate L1.
5. Questions
5.1 Prepare a Truth Table for Circuit 2.
5.2 What happens if X3 is exchanged for an N/C push button?
5.3 Give a practical example of each of the two circuits.
PN-2500 3-1

EXERCISE No. 3: SERIES PARALLEL CIRCUIT


1. OBJECTIVE
Practising series parallel circuits.

2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Solenoid A+ Y9 Q0
Solenoid A- Y10 Q1
P.B.1 S2 X1 I0
P.B.2 S3 X2 I1
Switch S4 X3 I2
Limit Switch S5 X4 I3

3. CONNECTIONS OF THE COMPONENTS TO I/O PANEL

Figure 3.1
4. PLC Programming

Figure 3.1
PN-2500 3-3

5. RUNNING THE CIRCUIT


After returning to the display screen menu, change to the “Online->Monitor”
First activate the series circuit by pressing X3 and X1 simutaneously.
Also check the parallel circuit by pressing either X4 or X2.

6. QUESTIONS

6.1 What happens if Y9 is activated and you try to activate Y10 at the same
time.
6.2 How can activation of A+ and A- be prevented by simple commands in
the PLC?
6.3 What happens to SV3 if X2 is an N/C contact?
PN-2500 4-1

EXERCISE No. 4: USE OF THE INTERNAL COIL


1. OBJECTIVE
To get to know the use of the PLC’s internal logic coil (Marked as M
in WindLDR 2-3). C1
replaces the relay used previously.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Relay RL1 C1 M0
LED I1 Y9 Q0
Emergency Stop S1 X1 I0
Push button S2 X2 I1

3. COMPONENTS CONNECTIONS TO I/O PANEL

Figure 4.1
4. PLC PROGRAMMING

Figure 4.2
PN-2500 4-2

5. OPERATING THE CIRCUIT:


To operate the circuit, change to “Online->Monitor” mode, To activate C1,
the logic coil and Y9 which is parallel to it, X2 must be activated. X2 will
conduct the current (“rectangle”) and will activate output coil C1 and Y9. C1
at the input, in series with X1, will be activated and serve as the logical self-
hold to outputs.
To stop operation of output, X2 must be deactivated and X1 activated (N/C
not conducting).
Pressing on X2 “lights up” C1 and Y9 together.
In the next scan (very rapid) C1 in series to X1 “is latched” and self-holds the
output coils.
To deactivate, press push button X1.
6. QUESTIONS
6.1 If X2 is N/C, how will the circuit function?
6.2 How would you arrange the circuit as a commonly used
START/STOP circuit in control systems.
6.3 Can the contact of coil C1 which is in series with X1 be
replaced by another component of the circuit without
changing the functioning of the circuit? Explain why.
PN-2500 5-1

EXERCISE No. 5: SELF –HOLD WITH “BREAK” PRIORITY


1. OBJECTIVE
Use of START/STOP circuit and use of self-hold.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Relay RL1 C1 M0
LED I1 Y9 Q0
Emergency Stop S1 X1 I0
Push button S2 X2 I1

3. COMPONENTS CONNECTIONS TO THE I/O PANEL


PN-2500 5-2

4. PLC Programming

Figure 5.3

5. OPERATING THE CIRCUIT


Explain operation of the circuit.

6. QUESTIONS
6.1 Would you recommend using a circuit of this kind in many
cases? Give your reasons.

6.2 Give practical examples of cases where you think this type
of circuit could be used.

6.3 Change S1 for a push button with N/C contacts. Does


anything change in the ladder diagram? Draw the diagram.
PN-2500 6-1

EXERCISE No. 6: USE OF RELAY MEMORY


1. OBJECTIVE
Familiarization with the use of a logic relay in the memory and learning how
to build a program with this kind of internal relay.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Relay 1 RL1 C1 M0
Relay 2 RL2 C2 M1
P.B. S2 X1 I0
Switch S4 X2 I1
Reed Sw. MS3 X3 I2
Limit Sw. MS4 X4 I3
SV2 Valve SV2 Y9 Q0
Led I1 Y10 Q1

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS TO PANEL

Figure 6.1
PN-2500 6-2

4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC

Figure 6.2

PN-2500 6-3

5. OPERATING THE CIRCUIT


After changing to the “Online->Monitor” mode, actuation of X1 or X2
will immediately activate C1 and Y10 connected as parallel outputs.
C1 is the logic relay in the memory which will serve as self-hold for the
LED.
Operation of C1 causes Y9 to de-activate (C1 is connected by N/C), that is,
return of the piston by means of the return spring.

This also opens X4 contacts which were closed because of the pressure
appled by the piston on MS4.
PN-2500 6-4

6. QUESTIONS
6.1 What happens if C1 contacts are accidentally programmed the wrong way
round - that is, changing the contact of C1 from N/O to NC N/C or visa versa?

6.2 The MS4 switch is out of order and is jammed in the pressed position.
What happens to the circuit?

6.3 Give a practical example of the circuit.


PN-2500 7-1

EXERCISE No. 7: SEQUENCE A+ B+ A- B-


1. OBJECTIVE
To get to know the two-piston circuit operation without double command.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Relay 1 RL1 C1 M0
Relay 2 RL2 C2 M1
Relay 3 RL3 C3 M2
Limit Switch 1 MS1 X1 I0
Limit Switch 2 MS2 X2 I1
Switch 4 S4 X3 I2
Limit Switch 5 MS5 X4 I3
Limit Switch 6 MS6 X5 I4
3/2-Spring SV1 Y9 M0
5/2 Solenoid SV3 } Y10 M1
Y11 M2

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS TO I/O PANEL

Figure 7.1
PN-2500 7-2

1. Connect components to their appropriate addresses.

Figure 7.2

Sequence of activation: A+ B+ A- B-
The Pneumatic Control Circuit

Figure 7.3
.

2. Draw the ladder diagram.


PN-2500 7-3

4. OPERATING THE CIRCUIT


Explain the operation of the circuit.

5. QUESTIONS
5.1 How is the operation of a lift affected if we reverse the order of MS5 and
MS6 in the program?

5.2 If MS1 remains depressed all the time, what will the circuit
cycle be?
PN-2500 8-1

EXERCISE No. 8: “ON DELAY” TIMER


1. OBJECTIVE
 Getting to know and using the “On Delay” circuit.
 Familiarization with the Timer command.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Timer T1 TRS-1 T0
LED1 I1 Y9 Q0
LED2 I2 Y10 Q
Switch S4 X1 I0
Timer Coil T1’ C1

IMPORTANT!
1. Because the TI-DEGEM timer does not have its own contacts, an
internal logic coil C1 is needed, to serve as the timer output coil.
2. The T1 timer is accurate to 0.1 seconds.
3. The T1 timer has a Reset line which must be connected through at least
one contact. The IZUMI has only the input contact.
3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS
Connect the components to their appropriate connection points.
4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC

Figure 8.1
PN-2500 8-2

5. OPERATIONS
1. On the screen:
Return to main display screen “ Online->Monitor”. On X1 you will
see that the Timer starts counting down from 100 to 0.
As the Timer reaches 0, C1, i.e. the Timer’s output coil, lights up.
C1 activates Y9 and shuts off Y10.
To activate the circuit, S4 mus t be de-activated. The Timer begins to
count down from 100 and on reaching zero C1 lights up, de-activating
LED2 and activating LED1.

6. QUESTIONS
6.1 What happens if X1 is a push button?
6.2 Change the program of operation for a situation where X1 is a push button.
6.3 Explain the meaning of “On Delay” in the above circuit.
PN-2500 9-1

EXERCISE No. 9: “OFF DELAY” TIMER


1. OBJECTIVE
Getting to know and using the “Off Delay” circuit.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Timer T1 TRS-1 T1
LED1 I1 Y9 Q0
LED2 I2 Y10 Q1
Switch S4 X1 I0
Timer Coil T1’ C1

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS TO I/O UNIT


Connect the components to their appropriate connection points.
4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC

Draw the program in the WindLDR


5. OPERATIONS
Explain in detail the operational sequence of the program.
6. QUESTIONS
6.1 Draw the time motion diagram of Y9 and Y10, depending on X1.
6.2 Give two examples of applications of this circuit.
PN-2500 10-1

EXERCISE No. 10: CONTROL CIRCUIT USING TIMERS


1. OBJECTIVE
Planning and building a circuit with automatic timing.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Valve SV2 Y9 Q0
Limit SW1 MS1 X1 I0
Limit SW2 MS2 X2 I1
Toggle Switch S2 X3 I2
Relay RL1 C1 M0
Timer 1 T1 TRS1 T0
Timer 2 T2 TRS2 T1

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS TO I/O UNIT


Connect the components to their appropriate connection points.
4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC
LADDER DIAGRAM

Figure 10.1
PN-2500 10-2

5. EXPLANATION OF THE CIRCUIT


Try to give a detailed explanation of the circuit. Deal with each network
separately and the function of the components. Run the network and write
down the results. Give your conclusions.

6. QUESTIONS
6.1 Change the spring return SV2 Valve for an electrically operated valve by
adding CY1-Y10. What has to be added or modified in the circuit to
obtain the same results?
6.2 Give an example of an application in which the circuit can be incorporated.

6.3 Draw a time motion diagram of the circuit, involving all its components.
PN-2500 11-1

EXERCISE No. 11: BASIC COUNTING (A+ A-) x 5


1. OBJECTIVE
Use of counters and their incorporation in the serial pneumatic cycle.

Figure 11.1
2. I/O ALLOCATION

Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI


5/2 Valve A+ Y9 Q0
5/2 Valve A- Y10 Q1
Limit Sensor 1 MS3 X2 I1
Limit Sensor 2 MS4 X3 I2
PB S1 X1 I0
Counter CTR1 C0
Counter Coil C10

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS
Connect all components to the appropriate I/O Unit.
PN-2500 11-2

4. PLC PROGRAMMING

Draw the circuit in WindLDR Program.

Figure 11.2
5. OPERATIONS
Note: The value of the counter increases whenever a Y9 contact changes
position from open to closed, provided that C10 is conducting current.
After the fifth time, count = 5 activates that C10 output, resetting contact
C10 which is connected to the counter’s reset.
1. Now explain the whole operation of the circuit.

2. Put the circuit into operation and write down the results of the trial.

3. Try to draw the time motion diagram of each component.


6. QUESTIONS
1. What happens if circuit A is placed after circuit B?

2. What must be done to stop the program after five


A+ A- cycles.

3. Give an example of application of a program of


this type.
PN-2500 12-1

EXERCISE No. 12: A+ B+ C+ B- A- C-


1. OBJECTIVES
1. Building a 3-piston cascade circuit.

2. Building a circuit without dual control.


2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
3/2 Valve SV1 A+ Y9 Q0
5/2 Valve SV2 B+ Y10 Q1
5/2 Valve SV2 B- Y11 Q2
5/2 Valve SV3 C+ Y12 Q3
5/2 Valve SV3 C- Y13 Q4
Push Button 1 S1 X1 I0
Push Button 2 S2 X2 I1
Limit Sensor 1 MS1- c 0 X7 I6
Limit Sensor 2 MS2-c1 X8 I7
Limit Sensor 3 MS3-b0 X5 I4
Limit Sensor 4 MS4-b1 X6 I5
Limit Sensor 5 MS5-a0 X3 I2
Limit Sensor 6 MS6-a1 X4 I3
Logical Coil RL1 C1 M0

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS

Figure 12.1
PN-2500 12-2

4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC

Figure 12.2

1. Note the internal logical coil in the first circuit in which


we used C1. The reason is that X1 and X2 are
momentarily push buttons.

5. OPERATIONS
Explain how the program operates.

6. QUESTIONS

1. Give the time motion diagram.


2. What change has to be made in the program if one wishes to
change the order to A+ B+ C+ B- C- A-.
PN-2500 13-1

EXERCISE No. 13: B- B+ A+ A- C+ C-


1. OBJECTIVES
1. Building a 3-piston cascade circuit.
2. Using the cascade circuit with internal relays.
2. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
5/2 Valve 1 A+ Y9 Q0
5/2 Valve 1 A- Y10 Q1
5/2 Valve 2 B+ Y11 Q2
5/2 Valve 2 B- Y12 Q3
5/2 Valve 3 C+ Y13 Q4
5/2 Valve 3 C- Y14 Q5
M Switch 1 a0 X2 I1
M Switch 2 a1 X3 I2
Limit Sensor 3 b0 X4 I3
Limit Sensor 4 b1 X5 I4
Limit Sensor 5 c0 X6 I5
Limit Sensor 6 c1 X7 I6
Push Button S1 X1 I0
Logical Coil 1 RL1 C1 M0
Logical Coil 2 RL2 C2 M1
3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS
Connect the components to appropriate inputs and outputs.

Figure 13.1
PN-2500 13-2

4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC


1. Ladder Diagram

Figure 13.2
5. QUESTIONS
1. Draw a time motion diagram.
2. How many cycles will the given circuit perform? How can this situation
be changed?
PN-2500 14-1

EXERCISE No. 14: Paper-Roll Cutting Machine


1. OBJECTIVES
1. To draw a ladder diagram for an actual process.
2. To prepare a program for a machine that will cut 100
rolls of paper into 12-cm. Lengths.

2. THE PROCESS
1. The paper feed belt will be activated one second after the previous
roll of paper has been cut and removed.
2. The motor of the removal belt (at the outlet) will be activated.
3. A pulser that pulsates every 5th millmeter of the paper-roll’s
progress, is attached to the feed system.

4. With the paper-roll’s progress and on the count of 24 pulses, a


spring-return pneumatic cutter performs the cutting for three
seconds.
5. Operation is not resumed before the cut paper is removed.
6. This has to be done 100 times.

Figure 14.1
PN-2500 14-2

3. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
Feed Motor M1 Y9 Q0
Removal Motor M2 Y10 Q1
Pneumatic Cutter A+ Y11 Q2
End-of-process light L1 Y12 Q3
Pulser P1 X3 I2
Material Sensor S1 X4 I3
Operation Switch PB1 X1 I0
Stop Button PB2 X2 I1

Add the additional components required to perform the task: internal


logical coils, timers, counters.

4. PROGRAMMING THE PLC


Draw the ladder diagram.
PN-2500 15-1

EXERCISE No.15 : OPERATING A MANIPULATOR (B+C -B-A+B+C+TD B-A-)


1. OBJECTIVES
Familiarization with the use of a pneumatic manipulator and the sequence of
piston activation.

Figure 15.1 Time Delay (TD)- 10 seconds


2. REQUIRED ACTION
Move piston “A” to piston of cube “B”.
3. I/O ALLOCATION
Component Name TI- DEGEM IZUMI
5/2 Valve 1 A+ Y9 Q0
5/2 Valve 1 A- Y10 Q1
5/2 Valve 2 B+ Y11 Q2
5/2 Valve 2 B- Y12 Q3
5/2 Valve 3 C+ Y13 Q4
5/2 Valve 3 C- Y14 Q5
M Switch 1 a0 X2 I1
M Switch 2 a1 X3 I2
Limit Sensor 3 b0 X4 I3
Limit Sensor 4 b1 X5 I4
Limit Sensor 5 c0 X6 I5
Limit Sensor 6 c1 X7 I6
Push Button S1 X1 I0
Logical Coil 1 RL1 C1 M0
Logical Coil 2 RL2 C2 M1
PN-2500 15-2

4. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS
Connect components to appropr iate inputs and outputs.

Figure 15.2
5. TIME MOTION DIAGRAM

Figure 15.3
6. PROGRAMMING THE PLC
1. Write the ladder diagram program according to the time
motion diagram.
PN-2500 16-1

EXERCISE No.16 : CONCRETE –BLOCK MACHINE


1. OBJECTIVE
To understand and design a real application.

Figure 16.1
2. REQUIRED ACTION
1. Concrete is poured into the mold.
2. Cylinder A is retracted to below cylinder B.
3. Cylinder B compacts the concrete.
4. Cylinder A is activated.
5. Cylinder C is activated to remove the block produced.
3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS

Figure 16.2
PN-2500 16-2

4. QUESTIONS
1. What is the corresponding pneumatic sequence?

2. Prepare the appropriate ladder diagram program.

3. How many internal relays are needed for this circuit and
why?
PN-2500 17-1

EXERCISE No. 17 : BOTTLE-CLOSING MACHINE


1. OBJECTIVES
To work out a real-life problem.

2. REQUIRED ACTION
1. Activation of A+ to rotate fixture one station ahead each
move.
2. The full bottle reaches station B/C and activation of B+
pushes the cork into the bottle.
3. After closing the bottle, the C+ piston is actuated to stick
the label on the bottle.
3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS

Figure 17.2
PN-2500 17-2

Note: Limit switches are either magnetic or proximity sensors.

4. QUESTIONS
1. Draw the time motion diagram.

2. Optional: Draw the ladder diagram for the operation.


PN-2500 18-1

EXERCISE No. 18 : PACKING PAINT CANS IN CARDBOARD


CARTONS
1. OBJECTIVE
More real applications.

2. REQUIRED ACTION: [(A + A-) x 5( B + B-)] x 3


1. Every actuation of A+ inserts a can of paint in front of
piston B.
2. Five actuations of piston A completes a row of cans to be
placed in the cardboard carton.
3. Actuation of B+ places a row of cans in the carton.
4. The action repeats itself three times until the carton is
filled.
3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS

Figure 18.2
PN-2500 18-2

4. QUESTIONS
1. Draw the appropriate ladder diagram.
PN-2500 19-1

EXERCISE No. 19 : SAFE OPERATION - “2-HANDS-ON” OPERATION


1. OBJECTIVE
Introducing safety elements in the design of a pneumatic system.
Note: Hazardous operations are provided with safety measures such
as the need to use both hands to actuate the machine.
Examples: 1. Paper-cutting guilliotine.
2. Forge.
The operator must simulataneously press two buttons that are some distance
apart, in order to operate the machine. This requires the use of both hands.

Figure 19.1
2. MODE OF OPERATION
1. Simultaneous pressing of press buttons A and B enables operations.
2. The door of the forge opens.
3. The tray of parts for forging is inserted.
4. 60 second time delay.
5. The tray is removed from the forge.
6. The door of the forge closes.

3. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS
Draw the connection of components to appropriate I/O’s.
PN-2500 19-2

4. I/O ALLOCATIONS

Draw the I/O allocations table.

5. QUESTIONS
1. Write the appropriate sequence of operations.

2. Draw the appropriate ladder diagram.


PN-2500 20-1

EXERCISE No. 20 : COMPLEX CIRCUIT


1. OBJECTIVE
Understanding complex systems.
The following cycle is given :

Note: Since there are only eight inputs and eight outputs, the starting button
is not actually used, although it is included in the ladder diagram as an
internal “C” coil that can be operated through the computer keyboard:
PB1 = C15.

2. CONNECTION OF COMPONENTS

Figure 20.1

3. I/O ALLOCATION
Draw the I/O Table.
PN-2500 20-2

4. THE LADDER DIAGRAM

5. QUESTIONS
1. Can you list the start-up and shut-down conditions of relays RL1 and RL2?
2. Draw the time motion diagram.