Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

Forensic Science International: Genetics 4 (2010) 271–272

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Forensic Science International: Genetics


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fsig

Letter to the Editor

Admixture estimates and statistical parameters of forensic Tables S1 and S2. In both samples, genotype distribution was in
importance based on PowerPlex1 16 system in Mexican- agreement with Hardy–Weinberg expectations for the majority of
Mestizos from the States of Guanajuato (Center) and Veracruz STRs, excepting D3S1358 and D13S317 (Guanajuato), and TH01
(East) (Veracruz). In both populations, the genetic system had a
combined power of discrimination (PD) and power of exclusion
(PE) > 0.999999. Pairwise comparisons displayed a significant
Dear Editor, global differentiation between these populations (p = 0.0000). In
We determined the allele frequencies for 15 STR loci included order to establish the origin of this difference, admixture
in PowerPlex1 16 System PCR amplification kit (TPOX, D3S1358, proportions were estimated in these population samples. For
FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, TH01, vWA, D13S317, consistent comparison, only data of the 13 CODIS-STRs analyzed
D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, Penta D, and Penta E) in 534 in the ancestral and Mestizo populations were used for this
unrelated Mexican individuals, including 334 and 200 indivi- purpose. The percentage of Amerindian, European, and African
duals from the states of Guanajuato (Center), and Veracruz ancestries were estimated in 70.9%, 24.5% and 4.6% for Guana-
(East), respectively. Sampled individuals were self-denominated juato, and 81.7%, 14.1%, and 4.2% for Veracruz, respectively. The
Mestizos because anyone belonged to some specific Mexican majority of individuals from Veracruz (East) had longer Amer-
ethnic group. Mexican-Mestizos are the result of admixture, indian ancestry respect to Guanajuato (Center), which presented a
principally between Native Americans and Spaniards, during higher number of individuals with European membership
and after the Conquest of the New World; using Spanish (Fig. S1). In both populations, a scarce number of individuals
language as a selection criterion, they constitute ca 93% of the had considerable African ancestry. Results demonstrate that
present-day Mexican population [1]. DNA was extracted from differences in ancestral proportions (admixture components)
dried blood spotted on FTA paper or buccal swabs by Chelex1 support the observed differentiation between these populations,
100. Amplifications were carried out in 8 mL volume containing in agreement with a recent report with CODIS-STRs in 10 Mexican
1–2 ng of DNA template, following the manufacturer’s recom- Mestizo populations [1]. This result emphasizes the importance of
mendations. Amplified products were analyzed by capillary employ local STR databases in forensic casework for DNA profile
electrophoresis using the ABI PrismTM 310 Genetic Analyzer interpretation throughout this country. Supplementary data
(Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Results were analyzed associated with this article can be found in the online version,
using the Genescan 3.1 and Genotyper software’s. Genotypes including Tables S1 and S2, Fig. S1, and Appendix S1 (genotype
were designed by comparison with allelic ladders provided with dataset).
the kit. Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic
importance were computed with the software PowerStats [2].
Hardy–Weinberg expectations (HWE) for each and combined Appendix A. Supplementary data
loci were calculated by exact tests, and pairwise comparisons
(FST p-values) were performed with the software Arlequin 3.0 Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in
[3]. Bonferroni correction, according to the loci number, was the online version, at doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.09.001.
implemented to evaluate p-values of HWE test (p < 0.0033). In
order to characterize the ancestral genetic pool within Mexican- References
Mestizos (admixture proportions), we implemented a super-
vised clustering method with the program STRUCTURE driving [1] R. Rubi-Castellanos, G. Martı́nez-Cortés, J.F. Muñoz-Valle, A. González-Martı́n, R.M.
Cerda-Flores, M. Anaya-Palafox, H. Rangel-Villalobos, Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican
these populations to fit into one cluster [4]. We utilized a Demography Approximates the Present-day Ancestry of Mestizos throughout the
10,000-iteration burn-in period followed by 10,000 iterations; Territory of México, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 135 (4) (2009) 448–461.
with the 25 replicates obtained, we used the Cluster matching [2] A. Tereba, Tools for analysis of population statistics, in: Profiles in DNA, Promega
Corp., 2001.
and permutation program (CLUMPP) to identify the best
[3] L. Excoffier, G. Laval, S. Schneider, Arlequin ver 3.0: an integrated software package
correspondence among runs [5]. For this purpose, CODIS-STR for population genetics data analysis, Evol. Bioinform. Online 1 (2005) 47–50.
population data from 114 Andalusians (Sothern Spain) [6], 130 [4] D. Falush, M. Stephens, J.K. Pritchard, Inference of population structure using
multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies, Genetics
Fangs (Guinea Ecuatorial) [7], and 161 Purépechas (Western
164 (2003) 1567–1587.
Mexico) [1] were employed to represent the African, European, [5] M. Jakobsson, N.A. Rosenberg, CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation
and Amerindian ancestral components, respectively. program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of popula-
The allele distribution and statistical parameters of forensic tion structure, Bioinformatics 23 (14) (2007) 1801–1806.
[6] C. Coudray, R. Calderón, E. Guitard, B. Ambrosio, A. González-Martı́n, J.M. Dugou-
importance based on PowerPlex1 16 STR system from the two jon, Allele frequencies of 15 tetrameric short tandem repeats (STRs) in Andalusians
Mexican-Mestizo populations are summarized in supplementary from Huelva (Spain), Forensic Sci. Int. 168 (2–3) (2007) e21–e24.

1872-4973/$ – see front matter ß 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.09.001
272 Letter to the Editor / Forensic Science International: Genetics 4 (2010) 271–272

[7] P. Calzada, I. Suárez, S. Garcı́a, C. Barrot, C. Sánchez, M. Ortega, J. Mas, E. Huguet, J. c


Laboratorio de Genética Forense, Dirección de
Corbella, M. Gené, The Fang population of Equatorial Guinea characterized by 15
STR-PCR polymorphisms, Int. J. Legal Med. 119 (2) (2005) 107–110. Servicios Periciales de la Procuradurı´a General de Justicia del
Estado de Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
d
H. Rangel-Villalobosa,1,* Instituto de Enfermedades Reumáticas y del
R. Rubi-Castellanosa,1 Sistema Músculo-Esquelético, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de
M.E. Morales-Vallejob la Salud (CUCS-UdeG), Universidad de Guadalajara,
V. Molina-Araujob Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
R.A. Licea-Cadenac
S. Rizzo-Juárezc *Corresponding author at: Instituto de Investigación en
F.E. Muñiz-Lozanoc Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega,
I. Nuño-Aranaa Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCI-UdeG),
J.F. Muñoz-Valled Av. Universidad # 1115, Col Paso Blanco,
a
Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, CP, 47810 Ocotlán, Jal., Mexico.
Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Tel.: +52 392 92 500 26x8363;
Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG), fax: +52 392 92 57112
Ocotlán, Jalisco, Mexico E-mail address: hrangel@cuci.udg.mx
b
Laboratorio de Genética Forense, (H. Rangel-Villalobos)
1
Dirección de Servicios Periciales de la These authors contributed equally to this work.
Procuradurı´a General de Justicia del Estado de
Guanajuato, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico 3 March 2009