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DATA SHEET ME Lab 3

Experiment Title: MINI ICE PLANT

Objectives:

a. To suitable ratio of salt and water for brine solution.


b. To calculate the Coefficient of Performance for the mini-ice plant

SECONDARY REFRIGERANTS – BRINES

Brine is a solution formed by dissolving a soluble substance in water. Water is used as the secondary refrigerant for
temperature applications above its freezing point of 0oC and for sub-zero applications, brines and glycols are employed. The
soluble substance could be salt such as sodium chloride or calcium chloride or a glycol. On mixing a soluble substance in water,
its freezing point is lowered, or in other words, the solution so formed has a lower freezing point than water.

Following are the important factors to be considered when selecting the brine:

 Freezing point. The brine should have a concentration for which the freezing point has necessarily be lowered by 5 to
8oC than the brine temperature to be maintained for the application.
 Safety. The brine should be non-inflammable and non-toxic.
 Suitability. It should be compatible with the materials used in the equipment.
 pH value. It should ideally should be neutral to minimize corrosion.

Sodium chloride (common salt) is preferred for most applications, because of its lower freezing point. Ideal pH values for
sodium chloride brine is 7.5 to 8.5. Standard steel pipes shell be used for brine piping – copper pipes cannot be used. The
recommended inhibitor concentration is:

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DATA SHEET ME Lab 3

ICE MAKING CALCULATION

When working with ice-making systems, three types of calculations are common:

1. Capacity
Ice -making capacity is usually equal to about 50 to 70% of the refrigeration capacity as expressed in tons of
refrigeration per day. Of necessity, however, such operating conditions as initial temperature of the water
supply, room temperature, and effectiveness of insulation will influence this ratio. If heat-leakage losses are
known, the ice making capacity can be closely estimated.

The total amount of sensible and latent heat to be removed in a cooling product is given by:

Cooling load without freezing:

𝑪𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑳𝒐𝒂𝒅 = 𝑸𝑨 = 𝒎̇ 𝑪𝒑 ∆𝑻

Cooling load with freezing:

𝑪𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑳𝒐𝒂𝒅 = 𝑸𝑨 = 𝒎̇ [𝑪𝟏 (𝒕𝟏 − 𝒕𝒇 ) + 𝑳 + 𝑪𝟐 (𝒕𝒇 − 𝒕𝟐 )]

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DATA SHEET ME Lab 3

Where: m = mass of the product to be frozen per unit time


C1 = specific heat above freezing
C2 = specific heat below freezing
L = latent heat of fusion
t1 = initial temperature
tf = freezing temperature
t2 = final temperature

For water: C1 = 4.187 kJ/kg-K


C2 = 2.09 kJ/kg-K
L = 335 kJ/kg
Tf = 0oC

2. Heat Loss at Condenser


The simplest air-cooled condenser consist of a plain tube containing the refrigerant, placed in still air
and relying on natural air circulation. The flow of air over the condenser surface will be by force
convection, i.e. fans.

The amount of heat removed from the product can be calculated:

𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝑹𝒆𝒎𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒅 = 𝑸𝑹 = 𝒎̇ 𝑪𝒑 ∆𝑻

Where: m = 𝜌𝑉̇ = 𝜌𝐴𝑣


Area must be calculated according to the instrument manufacturer’s
instructions or by multiplying the length of the coil by the width.

Cp = specific heat of air constant

∆𝑇 = dry bulb temperature air rise through the condenser

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DATA SHEET ME Lab 3

3. Freezing Time
Freezing time is dependent upon the brine temperature the extent of brine and water agitation.
Water in the ice can placed in the brine, cools rapidly upto about 3o to 4oC (47oF to 39oF). Thereafter,
it takes more time to touch 0oC (32oF). The rate of freezing decreases substantially, as the thickness
of ice formation progressively increases. This is because, ice offers thermal resistance for the heat
flow from water to the brine; the resistance increasing as the thickness of ice increases.

The following empirical formula has been used to determine the freezing:

𝑨𝒂𝟐
𝑭𝒓𝒆𝒆𝒛𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 (𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔) =
𝟑𝟐 − 𝑻

Where: a = ice thickness (short side of can) in inches

T = temperature of brine in oF

A = constant (usually taken as 7)

4. Coefficient of Performance (COP)


Coefficient of Performance or COP is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in the refrigerator to the
work done on the refrigerant. Since the heat extracted in the refrigerator is the refrigerating effect,
COP can be written as:
𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑘𝑊 𝑄𝐴
𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟, 𝑘𝑊 𝑊𝐶

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

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TEST PROCEDURES:

1. Check the machine if it is in proper position where its level is horizontal and well ventilated at normal
conditions.
2. Prepare brine solution and fill the brine tank.
3. Place the ice cans on the grill and fill it with potable water.
4. Take initial temperature readings for both the brine solution and water inside the ice can.
5. Start the agitator motor switch and start the condenser motor switch. Allow 3 to 8 minutes, before switching
ON the compressor motor.
6. Record necessary data every 10 minute time interval until the temperature of the water reach 0oC. Fill up the
data sheet and calculate necessary values.
7. Observe the formation of ice at 0oC until the temperature reaches -5oC.
8. After formation of ice, remove the ice blocks from the can by pouring tap water from outside can. Do not
hammer the container.
9. After the experiment, drain the tank completely. Rinse thoroughly with clean, potable quality water and then
allow it to dry. Never allow the brine water to remain in the tank.

DESIGN EXPERIMENT DATA SHEET:


Guide Questions:

1. Specify the exact mixture of brine your group formulate for the experiment.
2. Illustrate the ice making capacity of the machine by plotting the temperature of the ice and temperature of
the brine versus time.
3. Calculate the overall coefficient of performance.

References

[01] Basic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 4th Edition By N. Ananthanarayanan © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education
(India) Private Limited.

[02] Fine Tuning Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems by Billy C. Langley © 2002 by The Fairmont Press.

[03] Audel Refrigeration Home & Commercial All New 5th Edition by Rex Miller & Mark Richard Miller © 2004 by
Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.

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Experiment Title: ICE MAKING CALCULATION

I: Brine Solution

Volume of water: ____________ L

Amount of Salt: ____________ grams

pH value: __________________

Specific Gravity: ___________

II. Ice Making Capacity

Temp of Temp of 100


Time (mins) Ice (oC) Brine (oC)
105
5
110
10
115
15
120 (2 hrs)
20
25 Temp of Temp of
30 Time (mins) Ice Brine
35 125
40 130
45 135
50 140
55 145
60 (1 hr) 150
65 155
70 160
75 165
80 170
85 175
90 180 (3 hrs)
95

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Total Cooling Load: QA = _______________ kW

Computation:

III. Graph of Ice Temperature vs. Time

Temp above freezing

Time
Temp below freezing

IV. Heat Loss at Condenser

Area of condenser, A = ___________ m2 Density of air, ______________ kg/m3

Velocity of air (in), v = _____________ m/s Velocity of air (out), v = ______________ m/s

Temperature of air (in), T1 = ___________ deg C Temperature of air (out), T2 = ___________ deg C Heat

Loss: QR = ___________________ kW

V: Coefficient of Performance

VI: Freezing Time:

Weight of Ice: ____________________ kg Time of Freezing: _____________ hrs

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