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U2L1, Managing Organizational Units in Financial Accounting (Fl)

Particulars Items Remarks

Create company code Definition 4-alphanumeric code, name, city, country,
(copy with reference) currency (local currency), language and address
Global parameters Chart of account, Fiscal year, company code
Customizing tables
GL accounts
Account determination
Organization Units Profit center New GL splitting
Segment IFRS 8
Company Consolidation / Trading Partner
Functional Area Cost of sales accounting
Business Area Type of business: training, consulting or
software development

Controlling Area:
Assigning more than one company code to the same controlling area is only possible if all the assigned
company codes use the same operating chart of accounts and have exact the same fiscal year variant.

Controlling is a self-contained organization structure (unit of cost accounting) for cost/revenue

U2L2, Leading Ledger and Non-Leading Ledger

The leading ledger 0L is part of the standard SAP system, meaning it is delivered by SAP. In addition
to the leading ledger, you can also define other non-leading ledgers for local regulations. This
approach is known as the ledger approach in G/L accounting.

Particulars Nature Remarks

Leading ledger, 0L Standard SAP  A Client (level), can have one leading ledger
system  All company codes (within same client) assigned to
leading ledger automatically, therefore cannot be
(Group ledger) deactivated.
 Group valuation view and comes with the application
by default
 Only values from the leading ledger are posted to
Controlling (CO) in the standard system.
Non-leading ledgers Local  Parallel to the Leading ledger
regulations  Manually activated per company code
(Ledger approach  Represent local accounting principles
accounting) Local  Fiscal year variant and the second or third parallel
accounting currency of the non-leading ledgers do not have to
principle be the same as that of the leading ledger

Ledger Groups: Note the following information about Ledger Groups:

Ledger Groups Screenshot

 You can combine any number of ledgers in a
ledger group.
 When a new ledger is created. the system
automatically generates a ledger group with
the same name
 You only have to create those ledger groups in
which you want to combine several ledgers for
joint processing in a function
 You do not need to create a ledger group for all
ledgers because the system automatically
posts to all ledgers when you do not enter a
ledger group in a function.

The leading ledger reflects the accounting principles used to draw up consolidated financial
statements. It is integrated with all the subledgers and is updated in all the company codes.
The leading ledger and the non-leading ledgers are called standard ledger. A standard ledger contains
a full set of journal entries for all business transactions.

Appendix ledger, a "staple" ledgers to an underlying ledger (standard ledger="leading ledger and
the non-leading ledgers")

Particulars Nature Remarks

Standard ledger, Leading and  Leading ledger, 0L
underlying ledger for Non-leading  Non-leading ledgers (local accounting principles)
appendix ledger ledgers
Appendix ledger, a "staple"  Assigned to a standard ledger
Particulars Nature Remarks
extension ledgers to ledgers  Inherits all journal entries of the standard ledger for
Standard ledger reporting
 Postings made explicitly to an extension ledger are
visible in that extension ledger but not in the
underlying standard ledger.
 It provides different views (delta values) to another
ledger. An important use case is for management
views on top of legal data (IFRS or Locale GAAP)
 Posting to appendix ledger is Manual Posting

Extension Ledgers do not need additional configuration, but just creation of master record.

Ledger approach versus accounting approach:

Particulars Accounting approach Ledger approach

Chart of account Complex, as difference account group Simple, no change of chart of account
for GAAP
Retained earnings Each GAAP needs one different One (minimum) retained earnings for
retained earnings account ALL GAAPs
Financial Complex Standard
Relevance of Posting for local / international GAAP Posting for local / international GAAP
posting at account level at document level
Controlling entry All valuations post to controlling Only leading valuation posts to
U2L3, Outlining the Variant Principle

3-step of Variant Principles:

Variants principles Remarks

Assignment Assignment of variant to (relevant) objects:
 fiscal year,
 posting period,
 field status

U2L4, Managing Fiscal Year Variants

Fiscal year Variant:

Variants principles Type of year Remarks

Year-independent Calendar year  If each fiscal year of a fiscal year variant
Fiscal year uses the same number of periods and
Non-calendar year
the posting
 periods always start and end on the
same day of the year.
Year-dependent Fiscal Full year  The start and the end dates of the
year posting periods for FY differ from the
Shorten fiscal year
dates of other fiscal years (FY+1, etc);
(fiscal year variant has  Some fiscal years use a different
fewer posting periods than number of posting periods.
the others, it is called a
shortened fiscal year)

Question Point:

The fiscal year variant does not specify whether a posting period is open or closed. This data is
managed in another table (OB52).
The fiscal year variant (example: K4) contains the definition for the posting periods (12) and special
periods (4).
U2L5, Identifying the Basic Functionality of Currency Keys and Exchange Rate Types

Currency key and exchange rate type:

Particulars Remarks
Currency Key Example (International Currency Key): USD, EUR, SGD

A validity date can be assigned to each currency key defined in SAP S/4HANA.
Exchange rate Example: M, P, Z01
You can define different exchange rates types for different purposes. such as
valuation. conversion, translation and planning. You can then maintain the
exchange rate for a currency type and a combination of two currencies.

You can use report RFTBFFOO, which enables you to transfer external market data in file form. to
automatically update the exchange rate table by uploading an input file in Multi-Cash form.

You can also use the reports RFTBDF07 and RFTBDF14 to transfer exchange rates. These reports can
transfer the data in real-time using a data feed interface if the external data feed supports real-time
provision of exchange rates. Remote Function Call (RFC) enables a direct connection between an
external system and SAPS/ 4HANA. For more information about the file input format. data providers.
and file structures. refer to the documentation for this

Maintenance of FOREIGN Exchange Rates

In SAPS/ 4HANA you can define worklists and then maintain the exchange rates using the transaction
TCURMNT. This process offers the following advantages:

 Only the relevant exchange rates can be maintained. You can also assign authorizations for
 Only the relevant quotation can be maintained.
 The worklist is smaller and clearer.
 Parallel processing of different worklists is possible.

Quotation Local Currency Foreign currency Rate Translation

Direct Quotation EUR USD 0.8817 1 USD = 0.8817 EUR
Indirect Quotation EUR USD /1.1342 1 EUR = 1.1342 USD
Unit 2 Assessment with answer, page 67 (75)
U3L1, Maintaining General Ledger (G/L) Accounts

Chart of Account

A chart of accounts is defined with a four-character ID and has the following components

 Chart of account key

 Name of the chart of
 Maintenance language
 Length of the G/L account
 Group chart of accounts
 Block indicator

 Every company code must be assigned a chart of accounts.

 One chart of accounts to several company codes.
 The Controlling (CO) component and the Financial Accounting (Fl) component use the same chart
of accounts.
 If company codes use cross-company code controlling, then the company must use the same
chart of accounts.
G/L accounts are classified into the following G/L account types:

Types Features Remarks

Balance Account that is posted from business
Sheet transactions. The balance of a balance sheet
account is carried forward at the fiscal year-end.
Non- Income statement account that records expenses This kind of GL MUST NOT set in
operating or gains from activities that are not part of the OKB2 in Old ECC6
Expense main purpose of the company, such as gains
and revenue realized from financial investments by a
manufacturing company.
Primary Income statement account that functions as a The controlling area-specific data
Costs or cost element for primary costs or revenue. is only needed for Secondary
Revenue Primary costs reflect operating expenses such as Costs and Primary Costs or
payroll. selling expenses, or administration costs. Revenue accounts. In the
controlling area-specific data.
Secondary Income statement account that functions as a
you assign a Cost Element
Costs cost element for secondary costs. Secondary
costs result from value flows within the
organization. such as internal activity cost
This category determines which
allocations. overhead allocations. and settlement
account can be used for which
business transaction in CO.
Note: Asset and material balance sheet accounts can. optionally, be integrated in Controlling if a)
Asset accounts are defined as "reconciliation account" and b) include in the corresponding
account determination of asset accounting or materials management in customizing.
Account group and Field Status Group

Fields are grouped by SAP S/4HANA. You can set a common field status for all fields of a group.

Example Best Practices Define Screen Layout for Each

For example, to make sure The Account currency and Field status group for master data:
to manage open items for Field status group fields  display
all of your cash clearing are always the required  creation
accounts, in Customizing: entry fields. The status for  change
change the field status to these fields cannot be
open item management to changed.
a required entry for the
Cash Clearing Accounts
account group.
Reconciliation GL and Open Item Management GL

Amounts cannot be posted directly to reconciliation accounts.

Open item management is a prerequisite for checking whether a given business transaction has an
offsetting posting. Open items and cleared items can be displayed separately, so it is easy to identify
the business transactions that still need to be cleared. Use open item management for the following

 Bank clearing accounts

 Clearing accounts for a goods receipt or an invoice receipt
 Salary clearing accounts

You can activate or deactivate open item management only when the account has a zero balance.
If Open Item management has been set up per ledger. the functionality Ledger Group-Specific
Clearing (Open Item management per ledger) is available.

Balance in local currency, page 96

If the master data record has the Only Balances in Local Currency indicator selected. then the
transaction figures are managed only for amounts that have been converted into the local currency.

Select this field for clearing accounts when you want to clear accounts by assigning items with the
same local currency amount with one another, without the need for postings for exchange rate

Set the Only Balances in Local Currency indicator in the cash discount account and the GR/IR clearing
account. Avoid setting this indicator in reconciliation accounts for customers or vendors.

This indicator is usually set in balance sheet accounts that are not managed in foreign currencies or on
an open item basis.
Operating, Country and Group Chart of Account

 Cross-company code cost accounting is possible for European company codes, with same
operational chart of accounts (INT) as their operational chart of accounts.
 Cross-company code controlling is therefore also possible in North America (CAUS, operational
Chart of Account).
 A group chart of accounts (CONS) has been set up for the operating charts of accounts INT and
Collective Processing, SAP HANA

SAP S/4 HANA provides collective processing functions for the G/L account master records. You can
make changes to the master data of several G/L accounts simultaneously.

To change G/L account master data in collective processing (FS00). you can use the following options:

 Change chart of accounts data

 Change company code data
 Change account descriptions

Changes to existing G/L accounts become effective after they have been saved and can have
extensive consequences. You should therefore check your changes before saving them.
U3L2, Profit center and Segment

If you cannot derive the characteristic Segment from the master record of a profit center.

You need to look for other ways

of assigning a segment. General
Ledger Accounting with document
splitting provides the following

 Manual entry
 BAdl implementation
 Definition of substitution rules
 Assignment of standard
U3L3, Managing Customer and Vendor Accounts

SAP Business Partner (SAP-BP) is the central business partner management tool at SAP S/4HANA.
Therefore. the management of vendors and customer accounts occur using this tool.

BP Items Remarks
Business The Business partner category is the The business partner category determines
Partner term used to classify a business which fields are available for data entry.
Category partner as:
For a business partner as an organization,
you are able to enter the legal form in one of
 Person (for example. a the fields. For a person, you enter the first
private individual) name, last name, gender and so on.
 Group (for example.
community of heirs), or When a business partner is created, the
 Organization (legal entity or business partner category must be selected
part of a legal entity, such as (required entry).
a department of a company).
Assignment of the business partner category
cannot be changed once the business
partner has been created.
Business Different roles: In general. a business partner (BP) role
Partner Role corresponds to a business context in which a
 contract partner (Fl-CA), business partner can appear and provides
 Fl Vendor (Fl-AP), the application-specific data.
 Fl Customer (Fl-AR),
 Customer (SD), This business partner role allows you to
 Supplier (MM), enter the company code specific data for a
 Prospect (potential customer), or business partner.
 Business partner (general)
Business The BP Role Grouping is a customizing
Partner Role activity in which enables creation of
Grouping vendor/customer in both FI and MM/SD
modules (like XK01 and XD01)
Business Each business partner has to be You cannot change the assignment
Partner assigned to a grouping when you afterwards. You can define the groupings.
Grouping create the business partner. The their descriptions. and the associated
grouping determines the number number range in customizing.
range (external or internal).
Account group = Business Partner group: The grouping determines the
number range (external or internal). You cannot change the assignment
afterwards. You can define the groupings, their descriptions and the
associated number range in customizing.

For SAP S/4HANA. business partners are managed as vendors or customers in

Financial Accounting and as business partners in other applications.

In customizing, you assign account groups for the vendor and customer
master records to the business partner groupings to ensure that the system
updates the vendor and the customer at the same time as you process
business partners.
Vendor/Customer  Number range
Account group  One time Customer/Vendor
functions:  Field status group [SAP S/4HANA] ... Because vendor accounts and
customer accounts in S/ 4HANA will be maintained using the Business
Partner. That means, field status on the customer and vendor account
groups should be defined on the lowest priority level (field status: optional),
so that these settings have no impact on the SAP Business Partner

Business partner field status control:

The following are some of the important fields on the initial screen:

 Search terms: A search term can be used to enter an abbreviation for the customer or vendor
name. Company guidelines and practices define the format for abbreviations.
 Group: A user-defined group key can be used to collect customers or vendors who belong to the
same corporate group. The group key can be used for running reports. transaction processing. or for
matching codes.
 Clerk or accounting: The name of the accounting clerk can be saved by entering an ID in the
relevant customer or vendor master records. SAPS/ 4HANA automatically prints the name of the
clerk on the correspondence. You can also use this ID for sorting. dunning. and payment proposal
 Explanatory text: Explanatory text can be entered in every segment.
Account Groups and Number Ranges for Customer and Vendor Accounts

Create number range in Finance module, and link the customer/vendor to business partner

Steps (BP-AR) Module Remarks

Business Partner, Define Number Ranges BP BUCF
Define Groupings and Assign Number Ranges BP
Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Customers) FIAR OBD2
Create Number Ranges for Customer Accounts FIAR XDN1
Assign Number Ranges to Customer Account Groups FIAR OBAR
Master Data Synchronization > Customer/Vendor Integration > BP-FIAR
Business Partner Settings > Settings for Customer Integration >
Field Assignment for Customer Integration > Assign Keys > Define
Number Assignment for Direction BP to Customer
Steps (BP-AP) Module Remarks
Business Partner, Define Number Ranges BP BUCF
Define Groupings and Assign Number Ranges BP
Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Vendors) FIAP OBD3
Create Number Ranges for Vendor Accounts FIAP XKN1
Assign Number Ranges to Vendor Account Groups FIAP OBAS
Master Data Synchronization > Customer/Vendor Integration > BP-FIAP
Business Partner Settings > Settings for Vendor Integration > Field
Assignment for Vendor Integration > Assign Keys > Define Number
Assignment for Direction BP to Vendor

One-time customer/vendor:

For all customers or vendors with whom you rarely do business, create a special customer and a
special vendor master record. These master records contain receivables and payables for one-time
customers or vendors. Compared to other master records, a one-time account master record does not
contain any information about a specific customer or vendor because it is used for more than one
customer or vendor. Therefore, the customer or vendor specific fields are hidden in these records

Dual Control Principle, Define Sensitive Fields:

If you define a field in the customer or vendor master record as Sensitive, then SAP S/4 HANA blocks
the payments for the corresponding customer or vendor if an entry is changed. The system only
removes this block when an authorized person confirms or rejects the change.

Unit 3 Assessment with answer, page 162 (169)

U4L1, Configuring the Header and Line Items of Financial Accounting (Fl) Documents

Document Structure:

Particulars Remarks
FI document features Document number, Company code and Fiscal year
FI document control keys  Document type for the document header.
 Posting key for the line items.

The RFBELJOO report allows you to create a compact document journal. The document journal
contains a table of the most important data from the document headers and line items of the selected
documents. You can use the RFBUEBOO and RFBUEBOl reports to locate documents.

Document Type:

Document types define the following elements:

 Number range for the Document Type

 Reverse Document Type
 Account types allowed for postings
 Control data
 Required during document entry

Number Range:

 With internal number assignment, SAP S/4HANA assigns a new number to each document in the
Financial Accounting component.
 With external number assignment, the application transfers the billing document number to the
accounting document, provided that this number has not already been used.

You can use the RFBNUMOO report to find gaps in document number assignment.
Posting Key:

Posting keys define the following elements:

 Debit/credit indicator
 Account type can be posted
 Reversal of posting
 Field status group

In addition to the control functions shown in the figure.

Functions of the Posting Keys. The posting key also specifies
TWO of the following features:

 Whether the line item is connected to a payment

transaction. You will need this information to analyze
the payment history and create payment notices.
 Whether the posting is sales-relevant and the sales
figure of the account will be updated by the
transaction. For example, by the posting of a customer

The field status displayed depend on the transaction and the accounts that you are using. For
example, when you post expenses, you have to specify the cost center and tax data. In contrast. you
do not need to specify this information when you post cash. The field status controls the information
to be entered and displayed when a document is processed.

Entries in tax fields are only possible if the general ledger account is relevant for tax.

The Hide field status cannot be combined with the Required Entry field status. This combination
causes an error.

GL Field Status Groups:

The field status variant is assigned to your company code(s). You cannot make a posting until the field
status variant is complete. Typically, you assign the same field status variant to all your company
codes so that the same field status information applies across the company codes.

Particulars Remarks
Sub-ledger account  If a document is posted to a subledger account, the field status group of
the reconciliation account is used.
 You can change the field status definitions of posting keys and the field
status group to make the field status transaction-dependent (posting key)
or account-dependent (field status group).
 Since subledger accounts do not have a field status group, postings are
differentiated by means of different posting keys. For this reason, there are
Particulars Remarks
numerous posting keys for subledger accounts.
General Ledger  Postings to general ledger accounts are differentiated by means of different
account field status groups. As a result, only two posting keys, 40 and 50, are
required for general ledger account postings.
U4L2, Managing Posting Periods

Period Checks by Account Type, OB52:

Account type Remarks

+  Account type + refers to checking at document header level
 If the posting periods for different account types are all to be handled in
the same way, control by means of the + entry is sufficient
A, D, K, S  At the line item level, SAP S/4 HANA checks the account type of the
posting key to ensure that the period is open for the assigned account
 The account interval always contains general ledger accounts. By entering
specific reconciliation accounts for subledger account types. the subledger
accounts can be treated differently than accounts that have a different
reconciliation account.
 For period interval 1 you can assign a group of authorized users. This means that. for month-end
or year-end closing. for example, you can open posting periods for specific users only.
 You make the necessary authorization settings in the optional authorization object Accounting
Document: Authorizations for posting periods (F _BKPF BUP). We recommend using period interval
1 for special periods because authorizations can only be managed here.
 The user must have the authorization for the authorization object F_BKPF_BUP (accounting
document: Authorization for posting periods) with the same value in the field authorization group
as in the posting period table.

In SAP S/4 HANA. Period interval 3 is used for postings from Controlling (CO)
to Financial Accounting (Fl). If the third interval is not filled, the entries in
intervals 1 and 2 are also valid for these postings.

In SAP S/4 HANA, postings in Fl (CO-relevant) and postings in CO (Fl-

relevant) need Open periods in Fl opening or closing (0B52) and the CO Period
Lock (OKP1).
U4L3, Managing Posting Authorizations:

Posting Authorization

Tolerance group (screenshot SAP), page 208

Define the maximum tolerance for payment differences to determine the following aspects during a
transaction posting and processing clearing transactions:
 What is the maximum document amount the employee is authorized to post? (Amount per
document: a total of all the debit line items or credit line items in a document)
 What is the maximum amount the employee can enter as a line item in a customer or vendor
account? (Amount per open item)
 What is the maximum cash discount percentage the employee can grant in a line item? (Cash
discount per line item)
 What is the maximum acceptable tolerance for payment differences (over payment or under
payment) for the employee? (Revenue - over payment, expense - under payment)

Assigning Posting Authorizations, Page 208

 You can create as many tolerance groups as you need. Every user can be explicitly assigned to
a tolerance group.
 If you do not assign users to any special tolerance group. then the entries in the blank
tolerance group are valid for them.
 The blank tolerance group usually contains values that apply to most employees. For
employees, who have especially high or low limits, you need to create a special tolerance
group. You can then assign the special group to their user logon IDs.

You can use the Tree button to access and select the following templates:
 Screen variants
 Account assignment templates
 Held documents

You can enter explanatory text for each line item. This line item text can be used internally as well as
externally. To use the text for external purposes. for example, in Correspondence. Dunning notices.
and Payment Advice. enter an asterisk (*) before the text.

Unit 3 Assessment with answer, page 228 (235)

UNIT 5 Posting Control