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by Clint Randles and Mark Sullivan

How Composers
Approach Teaching
Composition
Strategies for Music Teachers

Abstract: Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music
teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop
strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection
about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal experience compos-
ing and teaching young composers, via the work of leading scholars in music education and
by using narrative excerpts and musical examples. Key strategies are identified that contribute
to the successful teaching of composition, particularly at the beginning, middle, and the end
of musical compositions. Contributing most notably to this discussion is the use of terminol-
ogy in teacher feedback.
Keywords: composing, composition, creativity, feedback, general music, research, strategies

What strategies
are most likely to
O
ver the last fifteen years, an emphasis also seems logical that the composition com-
has been placed on teaching composi- munity could learn a good deal about how to help young people
tion through the National Standards teach students to compose from music educa-
for Music Education developed in 1994 by tors, who focus their efforts on the teaching compose music?
MENC, now the National Association for and learning of music. The potential for shar- Here are some ideas.
Music Education.1 Many music educators may ing knowledge exists for both music educa-
avoid teaching in this area since they them- tion and composition.
selves have not formally studied composition. The purpose of this of article is to
A good place to learn how to teach composi- give practicing K–12 music teachers some
tion is from composers themselves. Has music resources, written by practicing composers
education as a field sought the expertise of and teachers of composition, on how to go
composers when considering the teaching about teaching students to compose. This is
of music composition? What do composers not meant to be a follow-the-recipe, paint-
have to say about teaching composition? It by-number approach. It is meant, however,

Clint Randles is an assistant professor and coordinator of music education at the Center for Music Education Research at the
Copyright © 2013 National Association
University of South Florida, Tampa. Mark Sullivan is an associate professor and chair of the composition area and director of the
for Music Education
computer music studios at Michigan State University, East Lansing. They can be contacted at randlesc@usf.edu and sullivan@ DOI: 10.1177/0027432112471398
msu.edu, respectively. http://mej.sagepub.com

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to reflect ways that composers have
helped people compose music more suc- Suggested Resources for Teaching Composition
cessfully. Our ideas here are intended to
complement the existing music educa- Belkin, Alan. A Practical Guide to Musical Composition, 2008. http://www.musique
tion literature on this topic by dealing .umontreal.ca/personnel/belkin/bk/F-1.html. Accessed December 4, 2009.
Burnard, Pamela. “The Individual and Social Worlds of Children’s Musical Creativity.” In
with a number of important questions
The Child as Musician: A Handbook of Musical Development, edited by Gary McPherson,
often omitted in other sources—ques-
353–74. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
tions central to all the techniques and Hickey, Maud. Music Outside the Lines: Ideas for Composing in K–12 Classrooms. New York:
ideas presented hereafter. Oxford University Press, 2012.
This article builds on approaches Hickey, Maud, ed. Why and How to Teach Music Composition: A New Horizon for Music
developed by leading music education Education. Reston, VA: MENC, 2003.
researchers and practitioners, as well as Hickey, Maud, and Peter R. Webster. “Creative Thinking in Music.” Music Educators Journal
by a number of practicing composers 88, no. 1 (2001): 19–21.
and composition pedagogues. Teacher- Kratus, John. “Music Education at the Tipping Point.” Music Educators Journal 94, no. 2
educator Maud Hickey’s 2003 book Why (2007): 42–48.
and How to Teach Music Composition: A Kratus, John. “Structuring the Music Curriculum for Creative Learning.” Music Educators
Journal 76, no. 9 (2009): 33–37.
New Horizon for Music Education was
Randles, Clint, and David Stringham, eds. Musicianship: Composing in Band and Orchestra.
consulted foremost, particularly chapters
Chicago: GIA, 2013.
by Betty Anne Younker and Sam Reese.2 Reese, Sam. “Responding to Student Compositions.” In Why and How to Teach Music
Additional works by Hickey and Peter Composition: A New Horizon for Music Education, edited by Maud Hickey, 211–32. Reston,
Webster, Jackie Wiggins, Rena Upitis, VA: MENC, 2003.
and John Kratus were also consulted.3 Reese, Sam. “Tools for Thinking in Sound.” Music Educators Journal 88, no. 1 (2001):
One source by Alan Belkin, a composer 42–53.
and faculty member at the University of Upitis, Rena. Can I Play You My Song? The Compositions and Invented Notations of Children.
Montreal, Canada, has been especially Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Press, 1992.
helpful.4 Even though his work was Wiggins, Jackie. Composition in the Classroom: A Tool for Teaching. Reston, VA: MENC,
meant for much more mature compos- 1990.
Wiggins, Jackie, and Peter Webster. “Fostering Revision and Extension in Student
ers, when viewed in elementary terms,
Composing.” Music Educators Journal 9, no. 3 (2005): 35–42.
Belkin’s ideas also serve to enlighten
Younker, Betty Anne. “The Nature of Feedback in a Community of Composing.” In Why and
teachers who work with K–12 students. How to Teach Music Composition: A New Horizon for Music Education, edited by Maud
Furthermore, two practical guides Hickey, 233–42. Reston VA: MENC, 2003.
to teaching composition in K–12 set-
tings have been written recently: Maud
Hickey’s Music Outside the Lines: Ideas
for Composing in K–12 Classrooms and
Musicianship: Composing in Band and
Orchestra, which the first author coed- whole.”6 Following the advice of Kratus, both teacher and student. If the act of
ited with David Stringham. (See the to make this information more acces- decision making is preempted by the sug-
“Suggested Resources for Teaching Com- sible to the practicing teacher, we have gestions, one of the most crucial aspects
position” sidebar for these and other ref- organized the information presented of composing is eliminated—namely,
erence works.) here according to helping students (1) choosing how and with what the work
In addition to recent work in com- begin, (2) continue, and (3) end a piece will begin. Therefore, helping students
position pedagogy and the sociology of music. generate ideas that will propel their work
of creativity,5 we have drawn upon per- forward is the primary goal as students
sonal experience—helping students How to Begin begin a piece of music. The teacher might
(K–12) turn musical ideas into created offer several high-quality solutions to the
musical works—to inform this article. Beginning a composition is sometimes problem of how to start. Sometimes giv-
Kratus suggests that teachers interested the most daunting act. This reality is the ing many possible initial ideas helps more
in incorporating creative activity into same for students as it is for established than any other technique, as students can
the music curriculum “(1) analyze the composers. Many students, though, do then, by engaging their imagination, add
component parts of the complex behav- not have a substantial collection of suc- to, subtract from, and work to transform
ior, (2) focus the students’ development cessful experience under their belt to bal- those ideas. Of course, there are always
on the components, and (3) enable the ance out the anxiety of coming up with gifted students in every class who can
student to work toward mastery of the original ideas. They sometimes require generate original starting material with-
components within the context of the assistance, but it is a tricky process for out any help from the teacher.

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the listener wants to hear more—the
TABLE 1 “answer.”8 This technique lends itself
well to considering each composition
Musical Elements Typically Associated with Beginning a Piece of Music as a sort of soundtrack to a movie. If
something scary happens in a movie,
Crescendi and/or significant A crescendo creates tension and energy, and it the viewers might need a resolution. Or,
expansion of register within the first implies a goal. Expansion of register opens up if nothing is happening in a movie, the
phrase new terrain. viewer may become bored and desire to
see—and hear—something exciting. For
Rising lines Rising lines are associated with increasing more information on how narrative met-
emotion or stress. aphors can provide the impetus for start-
ing a composition, see Sandra Stauffer’s
Unresolved harmony If the harmony creates expectations that are not
chapters on narrative thinking and crea-
immediately fulfilled, closure is avoided.
tive thinking in the book Musicianship:
Rhythmic variety, contrast of note The juxtaposition of dissimilar rhythmic Composing in Band and Orchestra.9 Cer-
values, or sudden contrast of elements tends to create discontinuity of tain aspects of the music play a more
motives movement. important role than others in how the
musical “question” and its “answer”
Orchestral and registral Abrupt changes in either of these dimensions evolve, guiding the development of the
discontinuities tend to suggest later resumption. composition. Some of the aspects Belkin
comments on include crescendi and/or
significant expansion of register within
the first phrase, rising lines, unresolved
harmony, rhythmic variety, and orches-
FIGURE 1 tral and registral discontinuities.10 (See
Table 1 for musical rationales and further
Musical Elements Associated with Beginning a Piece of Music explanations of these processes.)
Figure 1 shows a student melodic
idea, as well as several teacher sugges-
tions for how a student might improve
Sample Student Beginning Idea
the melodic line. To better understand
the nature of teacher feedback in this
case, consider the following narrative:
Crescendi and/or Significant Expansion of Register – Rising Lines
Student: Here’s my melody, teacher.
What do you think? (Student shows
teacher her notated melody.)
Unresolved Harmony
Teacher: I see how your ideas have pro-
gressed since the last work that you
showed me. (Slight pause.) I see that
Rhythmic Variety – Contrast of Note Values
your melody rises and falls within this
same note set. (Points to page.) Have
you thought of maybe extending the
range beyond the note range that you
used at the beginning of the line?
(Student looks at the work; she displays a
Several individuals skilled in com- about how the piece should go.7 When thoughtful countenance.)
position pedagogy have sought to give this approach is used, students gener- Student: Oh, do you mean making the
teachers ideas about how to help stu- ally respond to one idea more favorably melody extend an octave higher?
dents begin their work. Wiggins sug- than to others, thus propelling the work (Slight pause.) And maybe adding a
gests that with younger students, the forward. crescendo?
teacher improvise various accompani- Belkin suggests that another way of Teacher: Yeah. (Slight pause.) What do
ment patterns, styles, and melodies and thinking about how to begin a piece of you think?
ask students for their opinions about music is to consider that the work should Student: I like it, but it’s not exactly
which example best fits his or her idea “ask a question” metaphorically, so that what I had in mind.

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Teacher: Oh . . . well, have you thought
of maybe creating unresolved har- TABLE 2
mony at the end of the musical line?
(Teacher notates an alternative ending Suggestions for Successful Continuation
with the harmony ending on a domi-
nant chord.) Satisfactory flow Any given piece should have a narrative continuity. Each
Student: Hmmm . . . that’s interesting, segment of music should flow logically from the last.
but it not exactly what I was thinking
Renewal of interest through Contrast presents the listener with a greater emotional
of. (Slight pause.)
contrast breadth. Through difference, musical ideas are more
(Teacher gives a reassuring glance. She
clearly experienced.
starts to speak, but then stops her-
self when she hears student begin to Suspense Suspense is the tension of predictability in the unveiling
speak.) of the musical progression.
Student: I was kind of thinking that
I’d like it to be more rhythmic—like Points of reference These are points in the music that provide a marker.
this track. (Student pulls out her MP3 Points of reference can be motives or themes. Without
player, plugs it into the class sound points of reference, the listener can feel lost.
system, and plays a chart by Count Climax In terms of narrative continuity, climax is the push
Basie.) of intensity throughout the piece, brought to final
Teacher: I see. How about using this fulfillment.
rhythmic figure then? (Teacher notates
a syncopated sixteenth-note figure.)
Student: (Excited) Oh, how about this?
(Student quickly rewrites the melody
and then glances at teacher as if like idea, starting idea, and musical Belkin addresses five areas when
desiring affirmation.) proposition require some elucidation to teaching the concept of successful
Teacher: Wow! Now, look at how much become part of a creative imaginative continuation: satisfactory flow, renewal
your melody has changed. It cer- process, but can be valuable in some of interest through contrast, suspense,
tainly looks more intense. I think cases. Much of the traditional vocabu- points of reference, and climax.13 (See
that that was what you were after, lary, like exposition, theme, and melody, Table 2 for musical rationales and fur-
wasn’t it? as well as more abstract concepts, like ther explanations of the five areas.) The
(Student smiles in agreement.) musical suspense, drama, musical logic, student composer would need assistance
or musical process, can serve as valuable in learning how to maintain a narrative
Not all compositional problems are teaching tools during the initial stages progression over the course of a compo-
solved with this much positive resolu- of producing an original musical work. sition, or how to establish and maintain
tion, but this narrative example should Musical idea is a term with several defi- the coherence of one or more musical
give the reader an idea of how teacher nitions. Working out what terms mean processes. Since music happens over
feedback can direct students to solv- will help educators choose and use the time, similar to the flow of a story con-
ing their musical problems. As Reese terminology that will be most helpful for veyed in the pages of a book, narrative
explains in his chapter of Why and How students. metaphors are helpful to young compos-
to Teach Music Composition: A New Hori- ers. Stories and good compositions need
zon for Music Education, responding to Successful Continuation satisfactory flow, contrast, and suspense.
student compositions can be a difficult By understanding this, teachers can
task, but if teachers focus their efforts on Younker suggests that effective feed- develop comments that are helpful to
giving what he calls “perceptive, imagi- back—where the power of the teacher’s students as they work through the crea-
native assistance,” then the process of role in teaching composition resides— tive process.
giving teacher feedback can be fruitful focuses on “what has been done, what It is essential to work out the
for students.11 needs to be done, and what can be meanings of language of teacher feed-
A productive pedagogical approach done.”12 Therefore, a fair amount of back. Traditional terms, like development
must also come to grips with the often reflection must take place when consid- and variation, come into play, along
baffling language related to this stage ering how to best help students maintain with terms like imitation, counterpoint,
of composition, working out meaning- and improve their musical products. The and canonic procedures. Metaphorical
ful distinctions, and often working with next section addresses how to create notions, like evolution, cataclysm, and
makeshift language and terms. Terms continuity in musical compositions. climax, as well as concepts like musical

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character and gesture can be informative.
Consider the following narrative: TABLE 3
Elements That Endings of Pieces Should Take into Account
Student: I really like what I did at the
beginning of the piece. But, I can’t
think of how this next part should Harmony Harmonic progression should reach climax, an ending
go. determined by the intent of the resolution.
(Teacher looks on thoughtfully, showing Melodic line The melodic line should be rounded off.
that she understands where the stu-
dent is coming from.) Rhythm Rhythmic intensity should be considered when ending a piece.
Teacher: Hmmm . . . I see. Well, I see Complex rhythmic structure says one thing, while simple
that you’ve done some pretty excit- rhythmic structure says another.
ing things with the rhythm in the
Dynamics Dynamics can contribute to a sense of finality.
low voices and percussion at the
beginning.
Student: (Slight pause.) I was thinking
that the low voices were like the rum-
blings of an approaching army  .  .  .
and the percussive hits work like the FIGURE 2
pounding of their drums.
Teacher: (Smiling) You mean like in Musical Elements Associated with Ending a Piece of Music
Braveheart or Lord of the Rings or
something?
Student: Yeah . . . like the buildup to
the battle . . . but not quite the bat-
tle yet.
Teacher: Oh, so you’d like things to heat
up in this piece soon, but not yet?
(Student smiles as if agreeing.)
Sample Student Ending Idea
Teacher: Well, a fanfare type of riff
might be nice, used artfully as you
approach where you see the climax
happening. You might introduce it in
a low, more sublime timbre . . . and
then, at your point of impact, pull
out the stops and bring in the brass
with the same riff.
Student: Oh, cool  .  .  . so I could like Teacher suggestion taking into account the strategies
foreshadow the impact point with
another voice?

Again, most compositional situa-


tions do not end as neatly as this narra- articulate those ideas. Hosts of other process, not reducible to “the ending.” It
tive suggests. However, the process can terms borrowed from dance or cinema, should be a priority of the composer and
be—as was illustrated—enlightened by such as sense of movement or flashback, the composition teacher from the begin-
using ideas borrowed from the world of can sometimes illuminate the ongoing ning of the process. The ending must be
narrative. Borrowed terminology, like creative process. the ultimate resolution of the ideas of
dramaturgy and transformation, can the piece. It must take into account the
be useful terms to have in the teacher’s How to End concept of resolution, specifically, the
tool belt. Procedural concepts, like fugal areas of harmony, melodic line, rhythm,
technique—and more abstract notions, The conclusion is the last thing that the and dynamics. In all works, the ending
such as analogy, translation, and exten- listener hears. The ending imparts sig- establishes the desired degree of clo-
sion—can be helpful to students who nificance to everything that has hap- sure and coherence, and creates the last
have ideas but are not clear on how to pened previously in a piece. It is also a reflections on processes of variety and

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change, as well as identity. See Table that lead to the student’s personal music education. The National Standards
3 for a summary of these specific end- interpretation of how the piece should have mandated the inclusion of creative
ing musical gestures. Figure 2 shows an sound at the end. The student demon- music-making opportunities for students
example of a student conclusion, with strates what it means to “think in sound.” of music; at the same time, high-stakes
possible teacher suggestions based on Thinking in sound can be an empower- standardized testing is forcing educa-
Table 3. ing experience for students, indeed, the tional policymakers to question the role
Hickey and Webster suggest that ultimate goal for all teachers who inspire of the arts in the education of students.
all musical activities advanced by the to give their students opportunities to Those of us music educators who have
music teacher, whether they be listening, flex their creative muscles. worked toward giving music students
performing, improvising, or compos- If the composer waits to compose opportunities to compose music in the
ing, should engage students’ ability to the conclusion at the end of the process, school music setting realize that it is
“think in sound.”14 Following this train there is a danger that the work will be precisely these types of creative music-
of thought, the following narrative dem- wrapped up in haste or in an inappro- making activities that are essential to the
onstrates how a teacher’s feedback could priate or ineffective stock—or generic— education of all children, if they, the citi-
function in helping the students con- ending. Aside from the opening material, zens of tomorrow, are going to compete
clude a piece of music: the choice of how to structure the end- in an increasingly competitive global
ing might be the most important musical economy. Einstein once said, “Logic
Student: Here’s my ending. What do decision the composer makes. There- will get you from A to B, but imagina-
you think? fore, careful consideration must be given tion will take you everywhere.” Teaching
(Teacher looks at the work. Student tries to resolving every aspect of the process. students to compose within the school
to read the expressions of the teacher Once again, distinctions in language music program is essentially tapping into
to figure out how well the ending expressed to students would need to be the second way of thinking that Einstein
statement is being received.) scrutinized and clarified by the teacher. advocates.
Teacher: Well, you have some nice It is important that the music teacher pre- While not addressed specifically
ideas here. I like the movement in sent meaningful compositional sugges- in this article, the role of technology in
the flute melody line. (Slight pause.) tions based on the language and focus “thinking in sound” should be explored
What do you think the purpose that has been established throughout in music teaching and learning as an
of the clarinet and alto saxophone the process. Closure, climax, surprise, exciting way of managing the task of
part is? response—the whole world of ending— organizing and manipulating student
Student: The purpose—what do you is full of language that would need to created musical work. Leaders in the
mean? be worked through to make it useful to field, such as Reese and Kratus, pre-
Teacher: The flute line is the melody—it the composer; doing so will likely result sent the possibility that music education
has a place as the conveyor of the in quality assistance on the part of the might be best served by embracing all
primary musical thought. But, what teacher as he or she guides students to areas that computers can augment16 —
are you trying to do with the clarinet a conclusion of their creative composi- what Hickey and Webster call the four
and alto saxophone parts? Are they tional efforts. Ps of creative musical activity: the per-
working together? son, process, product, and place.17 Com-
Student: Yeah  .  .  . I think that they Coda puters are not the only solution to the
should work together somehow. problem of why and how to teach music
(Thinking.) They really aren’t doing As stated earlier, this article is not meant composition, but they likely will serve a
much here . . . are they? to be the definitive statement on teach- significant role in making creativity more
(Teacher gives a supportive glance.) ing composition; rather, we hope that the accessible to students of music education
Student: Maybe they should drive the ideas presented here will offer the K–12 in the future. Teachers leaving collegiate
ending a bit more. Instead of being music teacher a number of practical ways music education programs will need to
like still background pictures, like in to address the challenges of teaching embrace these types of tools for K–12
the old cartoons, maybe they could composition in the school music setting students to benefit from them.
be like moving action pictures . . . a in accordance to previous work in com- One of the main reasons that uni-
little more Avatar-like? position pedagogy.15 When considered in versity students in music education cite
Teacher: That sounds promising. I think light of the numerous ways that music is for wanting to study composition is that
you might be on to something. made in the school setting, composition they desire to create musically mean-
is an area that could allow students to ingful literature for the ensembles they
This narrative portrays the teacher’s express themselves in personally mean- will direct. This desire is based on
desire to let the student lead the flow of ingful ways not often explored within utility—that students recognize, some-
ideas by giving feedback and prompts the traditionally conceived model of times early on in their studies, that it

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would be beneficial for a teacher to be
able to compose original music and Request for Submissions: Articles from
arrangements of music for student per-
formance. The composition field admires
PreK–12 Music Teachers for Music Educators Journal
this unique arrangement, in that music
Have you been thinking about submitting an article to Music Educators Journal but hesitat-
teachers often have more outlets for their ed because you’ve never done it before? Practicing music teachers at the prekindergarten
created work—whole communities that through high school levels have much to share with others in the field, both beginners and
come to see their students perform regu- veteran educators.
larly. Oftentimes, composers lack regu- MEJ Academic Editor Patrick K. Freer is seeking submissions of articles that deal with
lar venues for their created works to be topics and issues critical to practitioners in child care centers and schools of all sorts
performed. throughout the world. What you’ve learned with your students may help another teacher.
Composers might learn from the If you’re interested in writing with a coauthor and being mentored through the online
music education community, as music submission/manuscript review process, Patrick Freer may be able to pair you up with a
educators focus their work on under- university-level mentor who would help you at each stage and share a byline if your article
standing the complex world of peda- is printed. Don’t hesitate to query him about potential topics prior to submission (pfreer@
gogy, theory, and practice. One must first gsu.edu) or to have him help you find a willing coauthor among the members of the MEJ
do before one can teach. It is therefore Editorial and Advisory Committees.
the belief of the authors that educators Authors should follow the “Manuscript Submission” guidelines found at www.mej.sage-
who are serious about teaching composi- pub.com.  All submitted manuscripts will be reviewed by members of the Editorial and
tion first learn to compose themselves. Advisory Committees.  Some of these may also appear on the National Association for
While engaging in the process of com- Music Education (NAfME) website, www.nafme.org.
position, the reflective teacher will likely Ideal length should be no more than 12 double-spaced typed pages plus references.
develop strategies for teaching compo- Instructions for submitting manuscripts are found at www.mej.sagepub.com.
sition that will enlighten their teaching
practice. Perhaps then they can share
their strategies with both communities—
composition and music education.
The Compositions and Invented 7. Wiggins, Composition in the
Notations of Children (Portsmouth, Classroom.
NOTES NH: Heinemann Press, 1992); and
John Kratus, “Structuring the Music 8. Belkin, A Practical Guide.
1. Consortium of National Arts Education
Curriculum for Creative Learning,
Associations, National Standards for 9. See Sandra Stauffer’s chapters on nar-
Music Educators Journal 76, no. 9
Arts Education: What Every Young rative thinking and creative thinking in
(1990): 33–37.
American Should Know and Be Able the book Musicianship: Composing in
to Do in the Arts (Reston, VA: MENC, 4. Alan Belkin, A Practical Guide to Band and Orchestra (Chicago, IL: GIA
1994). Musical Composition, 2008, http:// Publishing, forthcoming).
www.musique.umontreal.ca/personnel/
2. Maud Hickey, ed., Why and How to 10. Belkin, A Practical Guide.
belkin/bk/F-1.html (accessed
Teach Music Composition: A New December 4, 2009). 11. Reese, “Responding to Student
Horizon for Music Education (Reston,
Compositions.”
VA: MENC, 2003); Betty Anne 5. Reese, “Responding to Student
Younker, “The Nature of Feedback Compositions”; Younker, “The Nature 12. Younker, “The Nature of Feedback.”
in a Community of Composing,” of Feedback”; Pamela Burnard,
in Hickey, Why and How to Teach “The Individual and Social Worlds 13. Belkin, A Practical Guide.
Music Composition, 233–42; and of Children’s Musical Creativity,” in
Sam Reese, “Responding to Student 14. Hickey and Webster, “Creative
The Child as Musician: A Handbook
Compositions,” in Hickey, Why and Thinking in Music.”
of Musical Development, ed. Gary
How to Teach Music Composition, McPherson (New York: Oxford 15. Reese, “Responding to Student
211–32. University Press, 2006), 353–74; Compositions”; and Younker, “The
and Jackie Wiggins and Peter R. Nature of Feedback.”
3. Maud Hickey and Peter R. Webster, Webster, “Fostering Revision and
“Creative Thinking in Music,” Music Extension in Student Composing,” 16. Reese, “Responding to Student
Educators Journal 88, no. 1 (2001): Music Educators Journal 91, no. 3 Compositions”; and Kratus,
19–21; Jackie Wiggins, Composition (2005): 35–42. “Structuring the Music Curriculum.”
in the Classroom: A Tool for Teaching
(Reston, VA: MENC, 1990); Rena 6. Kratus, “Structuring the Music 17. Hickey and Webster, “Creative
Upitis, Can I Play You My Song? Curriculum,” 34. Thinking in Music.”

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