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HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DATR AS DEVKELOPMENTFOR

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THE80iM CORPORATION

1801 Randolph Road, S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106 0 (505) 848-5000

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Human Factors Engineering

Data Base

Development for

I

Armored Combat Vehicles

I

and Analyses of Three NATO Tank Systems

Volume IV - Human Factors

I

I

Engineering Analysis

of the French AMX-1 3 Light Tank

DTI C

F-CTE

AUG8 Q86D

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APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

July 3. 1986

RELEASE;

DISTRIBUTION

UNLIMI1TED

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

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THE HUM CORPORATION*

Randolph Road, S.E. Albuquerque, NM 87106'0 (505) 848-5000

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HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DATA BASE DEVELOPMENT FOR ARMORED COMBAT VEHICLES AND ANALYSES OF THREE NATO TANK SYSTEMS VOLUME IV

HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE

I/DJ

FRENCH AM4X-13 LIGHT TANK

July 3, 1986

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Chapter

Paqe

I

HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE FRENCH AMX-13 LIGHT TANK

I-I

A. FRENCH AMX-13

I-i

 

1.

Development

1-i

2.

Description

I-i

3.

Current Status

1-3

B. HFEA OF THE AMX-13 TANK

1-6

 

1.

General Boarding, Movement

1-6

2.

Driver's Station

1-6

3.

Commander's Station

1-13

4.

Gunner's Station

1-18

5.

Crew Integration, Safety, Health Hazards

1-23

6.

Evaluator's Ratings

1-24

C. DISCUSSION

1-24

ATTACHMENTS

 

3

HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DATA BASE FOR THE FRENCH AMX-13 MBT

3-1

a.N

I!4

iii

4

4

THE BDM CORPORATION

LIST OF FIGURES

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Figure

Page

I-1

French AMX-13

I-2

1-2

French AMX-13, Front Left View

1-4

1-3

AMX-13 Turret, Gunner's and Commander's Hatches

1-4

1-4

Six-Round Revolving Magazine, Right, Rear Turret Area

1-5

1-5

Boarding Made Easy Due to Low Deck, Numerous

Grasp Area

1-7

1-6

AMX-13 Driver's Seat

1-7

I-7

AMX-13 Driver's Controls

1-9

1-8

AMX-13 Flat Hatch Design

1-12

1-9

AMX-13 Commander's Hatch

1-15

1-10

AMX-13 Commander's Controls/Displays Arrangement

1-15

I-11

Linkage for Automatic Feed 90 mm Autoloader

1-16

1-12

Gunner's Browpad for Primary Sight

1-19

1-13

AMX-13 Gunner's Station

1-20

1-14

Gunner's Hatch

1-22

1-15

AMX-13 Obstruction Blocking Gunner's Hatch

1-22

ivi

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THE BDM CORPORATION

LIST OF TABLES

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

 

Table

Page

I-I

SELECTED MEASUREMENTS OF VEHICLE SEATING

 

AND ANTHROPOMETRY

1-8

 

1-2

HATCH DIMENSIONS

I-1l

1-3

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF EVALUATOR'S RATINGS,

*FRENCH

AMX-13

1-25

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BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

CHAPTER I

HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE FRENCH AMX-13 LIGHT TANK

A. FRENCH AMX-13

1. Development

The French Army

began development of the AMX-13 light armor

vehicle, shown in Figure I-1, following the end of the Second World War.

Design work started in 1946 with the first prototype system completed in

The

primary objective of the AMX-13 was to perform within the operational

environment as a tank destroyer or reconnaissance vehicle.

1948/49.

The AMX-13 entered service with the French Army in 1953.

It is

important to note that the original design intent of the AMX-13 was to

design the

system to accommodate crews

of

only

5 feet,

8 inches

in

stature.

2.

Description

The

hull

consists of all-welded steel

construction with a

maximum thickness of 1.575 inches (40 mm). The driver's station is posi-

tioned at the front of the hull on the left.

50FAM Model 8 GXB eight cylinder, water-cooled gasoline engine developing

Directly to the right is a

U 250 hp at 3200 rpm.

The turret is located toward the rear of the hull,

. with the commander's station located on the left and the gunner's station located on the right.

The AMX-13 contains torsion bar suspension, five road wheels,

pm't

5

idler located at the rear, drive sprocket positioned at the front, and

three track support rollers. The first and fifth road wheel stations are provided with a hydraulic shock absorber system. The gearbox is manual

and consists of five forward and one reverse gears with a Cleveland-type differential system. The turret is based on the French-designed oscillating type and

consists of two parts.

and

consists of two trunnions on which the upper part located on top of the

turret Is mounted.

The lower part is located on the turret ring

The top of the turret can be elevated or depressed in

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Figure

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French AIIX-13

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BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

This type of design

enabled the French to install an automatic loader which reduced the crew

The gun is fed from two revolver magazines with a total

of

ejected through a hole located at the rear of the turret.

conjunction with the gun system that is fixed.

size to three.

12 rounds

for ready use.

Empty cartridge cases are automatically

The French Army has refitted the AMX-13 vehicle with a new 90 mm gun

firing fin-stabilized rounds. A total of 34 90 mm rounds

Secondary armament includes either a 7.5 mm or 7.62 mm machine gun (3600

Two

smoke dischargers are located on each side of the turret section.

The AMX-13 can be equipped with both infrared driving and

fighting systems, but is void of amphibious capability and NBC protection

systems.

rounds) that is mounted coaxially with the main armament system.

can be carried.

3. Current Status

.

,

Currently, the AMX-13 serves Algeria, Argentina, Cambodia,

Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Nepal, Peru, Salvador, Saudi

Arabia, Singapore, Switzerland, Tunisia, Venezuela, and Vietnam. The driver's station is located in the front hull,

The engine is mounted directly next to the driver's station to the right.

Figure 1-2 shows the AMX-13 from a front-left perspective.

the

turret.

gun occupies the space between the turret occupants. Figure 1-3 shows the

The commander is positioned on the left of the turret. The main

left area.

The gunner's

station

is located on

the right

side

of

frontal view of the AMX-13 turret.

Like the other vehicles, the AMX-13 was inoperative during the

The turret could

be operated using the manual elevation and traverse controls but was restricted to just a few yards movement in either direction.

evaluation and was parked in a maintenance warehouse.

According to open source literature, elevation is limited to

+12.5 degrees, depression to -5.5 degrees, and elevation speed in the

powered mode to 5 degrees per second. The turret is traversable

360 degrees with a traverse rate of 533 mils per second.

V-

1-3

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THE BDM CORPORATION

Figure 1-2.

French AM1-13, Front Left View

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Figure 1-3. AMI-13 Turret, Gunner's and Commander's Hatches

THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

The 90 mm autoloader is fed by two 6-round revolving magazines

located at the rear of the turret on either side, as shown in Figure 1-4.

Extra rounds are stowed in the turret and driver's area. Internal access to the revolver magazines was very difficult.

(although made

Handwheels are provided at the

commander's and gunner's station to assist in clearing jams. Rounds are loaded into the revolver magazines through each magazine hatch shown in

The

breech

and

feed chute

however were accessible

Sdifficult

because of the lack of space).

-

Figure 1-4.

The autoloader allows the gun to fire 1 round per 5 seconds.

After

each round

is fired,

shell

casings are ejected automatically

.

through a single hatch at the turret rear. Stowage capacity is provided

for a total of 34 main gun rounds (21 in the turret, 13 in the hull) and

-

3600 rounds of coaxial machine gun ammunition.

*-*

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Figure 1-4. Six-Round Revolving Magazine, Right, Rear Turret Area

THE BDM CORPORATION

B. HFEA OF THE AMX-13 TANK

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

 

I

1. General Boarding, Movement Although dedicated handholds are not provided, boarding the

AMX-13 was found to be very easy because of the distance from the deck to

the ground (44 inches).

Mounting the vehicle could be done quickly and

easily by grasping

any deck

item, as Figure 1-5 demonstrates.

Metal

serrated steps

are designed onto the rear-most portion of each fender.

 

For these reasons, boarding was rated exceptional. The extremely limited interior space prevents movement from the

.-.j

commander's to the gunner's station.

There

is space provided to move

from the commander's station to the driver's area. However, the opening provided measured only 14 inches wide by 20 inches deep; this could be

accomplished by only the smallest of crewmen. Dead weight drag would be

almost impossible to or from the turret using this access opening. The evaluator (95th percentile in stature) found it very difficult accessing much of the tank interior because of the restricted space.

Crew movement from the outside to the inside of the turret was observed as very difficult, especially through the gunner's hatch. Hatches are very narrow. Details of hatch dimensions are discussed in

the following paragraphs.

 

2.

Driver's Station Table I-i summarizes selected measurements of the driver's sta-

I

tion, including seat dimensions. Five out of the nine dimensions failed

to meet human engineering design criteria of MIL-STD-1472C. Seat pan and

back rest dimensions fall

far short of standards, with a very

limited

seat depth of only 6.5 inches. Figure 1-6 shows the driver's seat in the AMX-13 viewed from the hatch opening. The seat pan is inadequate to support the popliteal understruc-

 

ture of the legs.

At the lowest adjustment, the seat sets flush with the

floor.

However, there appeared to be barely enough

static elbow room

(22.5 inches). Shoulder clearance was restricted to about 5 inches short of standards and would pose a problem for even the smaller stature

crewmen.

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Boarding Made Easy Due to Low Deck, N~umerous Grasp Areas

Figure 1-6. ArIX-13 Driver's Seat

THE BDM CORPORATION

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

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down position was

The station would accom- crewman without CVC helmet,

modate only the

closed hatch. Figure 1-7 presents a photographic view of the AMX-13 driver's

controls from the seated position. The seat lacked lumbar support alto- gether and would likely introduce fatigue and back pain during extended

operations. With the seat fully

only

4.75 inches. The position of the knees could interfere with the control

of both right and left laterals.

Head clearance with the

seat

in its full

about 7 inches less than minimum standards.

ist percentile U.S. armor

down, the

front of a 95th percentile

is

soldier's knee to the nearest forward object (the right lateral)

Figure 1-7. AMX-13 Driver's Controls

adjusted fully up

measured 15.25 inches, accommodating slightly larger crewmen than closed

seat,

when

for

open

hatch driving,

hatch

operations.

However,

viewing

all

of

the

critical

controls

and

displays from both open and closed hatch postures appeared inadequate.

.-

1-9

,.-

THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

No seat restraint system was observed. The tight fit, however, would

prevent excessive lateral body movement.

Reflective glare on instrument panels was not a problem because

The

the

right-most lateral blocked viewing of the display

of the recessed position of displays and controls in the tank hull.

located

to

immediate right of the master panel.

The gear shift

lever contacts the ceiling when shifted

into

first, third, and fourth gears. Operation of the gear shift would be

very difficult with bulky handwear.

The most difficult operational feature of the driver's station was free movement of the legs in open and closed hatch modes to operate

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.

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foot pedals.

Only

18 inches was provided,

measured between the hull

ceiling immediately in front of the driver, and the floor, with the foot

pedals and control panel in between. The bottom edge of the clutch pedal

is suspended 10.5 inches from the floor, leaving 6.5 inches clearance to

the ceiling. These workspace restrictions would probably interfere with

the most simple driving tasks for the full range of U.S. armor crewmen.

This design would require careful

crewmen for efficient, safe, and effective operation. Maintenance within

such a restricted area would also be a serious problem for all but the

smallest sized crewmen.

light

occupied a position to the left of the control panel

hatch rim, apparently a fire warning indicator. The position of the in-

dicator appeared adequate.

selection of the smaller stature

Only one

indicator light was observed.

A large, red

just beneath the

The

oblong design measures 14 inches wide, narrow enough to require even the

1st percentile U.S. armor crewman to turn the shoulders to enter and exit

Dimensions of the hatch opening are shown in Table 1-2.

the station. Crewmen clad in arctic or NBC gear would find it even

difficult to ingress/egress the station. Figure 1-8 shows the driver's

operates by swinging outward and back, as the photograph depicts. One in

the full open position, the hatch locks

mechanism.

more

flat hatch design.

The hatch

in place by a positive latch

down

by

the

steel

bar

The hatch

must also

be

locked

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THE BDMV CORPORATION

TABLE 1-2. HATCH DIMENSIONS

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Criteria

13 x 23 in.

(light)

16 x 27

in. (bulky)

 

Evaluator's Ratings

Centurion

Driver

 

15.75 x20.75

4

Cmdr

21.75 dia.

5

Loader

19.25 x19.25

5

Chieftain

Driver

 

15 x21.25

4 adequate

Cmdr

20.0

dia.

5 very adequate

Loader

20.0

x 17

5

AMX-13

Driver

 

14 x

17.5

3 inadequate

Cmdr

18.0 dia.

1 extremely inadequate

Gnr

*172 5(145in.)

1

86.0608-rR-W.04

THE BDM CORPORATION

arrangement seen in the photograph.

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Evaluators surmise that this bar

prevents the hatch from vibrating loose when open during cross-country travel. This arrangement demands more time and attention of the driver to lock open and to unlock and close than other, more traditional hatch

arrangements. To make the transition from open hatch to closed hatch, especially with the vehicle in motion, would present a safety hazard and would require excessive time.

Figure 1-8. AMX-13 Flat Hatch Design

The three periscopes located at the driver's station provide

about 140 degrees forward unity vision.

visibility is achieved with the hatch open. Padding is provided

periscope. A rubber or compressed vinyl padding is provided on the in- side of the hatch rim and would likely prevent serious contact injuries

when

is

designed for smaller stature crewmen and cannot be evaluated or judged

At

least 180 degrees forward

at each

getting in and out of the driver's station.

Generally, the driver's station

in the

French AMX-13

12

THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

against U.S. standards. It demonstrates successfully a lesson in armor

design, requiring selection of crews to a limited portion of the soldier

population, much like pilot selection was restricted in the past to

smaller candidates.

a.

Advantages

Advantages

of

the

driver's

station

in the AMX-13 are few.

Any advantages would be restricted

to operation and maintenance

by

smaller stature crews.

One advantage is the periscope arrangement. Although lim-

appeared higher

Also, the tight fit of the driver's station

would prevent excessive lateral body movement during violent cross-

country maneuvers.

ited

in forward visibility, the quality of the optics

" than the British tanks.

b. Disadvantages A number of disadvantages are associated with the AMX-13

safe

driver's station.

operation. Secondly, inadequate leg, knee, arm, elbow, and foot space is

First,

the hatch design prevents

quick

and

3

provided to operate the controls efficiently and effectively, even for

crewmen of smaller stature. Finally, inadequate space is provided for free and easy movement up and into the turret area.

Overall,

the

human

engineering design of

the

AMX-3

p

driver's station, based on static crew station measurements and evaluator

observations, is judged inadequate.

3. Commander's Station

although present in the

vehicle, was not mounted. The seat pan is round and measures 9.5 inches

in diameter, roughly half of military standard criteria. The seat back

was not present. The seat is provided with a fixed foot rest measuring 15 inches

from the seat pan. The minimum popliteal height for a 1st percentile

This means that for just about the

entire U.S. Army armor crew population, adequate

provided

The foot rest dimensions measure

The commander's

seat

in the AMX-13,

seated armor crewman is 15.5 inches.

for

popliteal

leg support.

support would not be

10 inches square, meeting human engineering design recommendations of

MIL-HDBK 759A.

1-13

THE BDM CORPORATION

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BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Entering and exiting the commander's station was made difficult

by virtue of the fact that very little room for maneuvering into and out

of the station is provided.

An overhead view of the hatch is shown in

Figure 1-9.

The photograph shows the rear portion of the commander's

station.

Foot steps to enter and

exit the station are not provided,

leaving the crewman to

step on the most convenient object available,

which appeared to be the binocular case or stowed 90 mm rounds. When mov-

ing through the hatch, a 95th percentile male contacts the hatch rim with

the shin.

This condition could cause serious injury to the commander,

especially

if his foot slips, because the drop to the turret floor is

65.75 inches

(almost

6 feet) without the

seat mounted.

However, the

injury

considerably.

The restricted area for free movement at the commander's sta-

tion would make maintenance

smallest of U.S. armor crewman.

touch the turret floor.

breech front, would be especially difficult to reach. Figure 1-10 shows

the forward area of the commander's station.

wheel, apparently for clearing jams in the 90 mm autoloader. Only

0.5 inch exists

the communications box to the left front, causing knuckle contact with

the box.

breech rear, shown in Figure I-11. A number of universal joints attached

to the handwheel and to the breech recoil mechanism are exposed and could

pose a safety problem during main gun firing.

main gun recoil is the metal tube housing the cable attaching the hand-

wheel to the revolver magazines.

seat, when properly mounted, would

reduce

the

risk

of

tasks extremely difficult for even the

A 95th percentile male cannot bend and

Radio equipment located beneath the main gun

To the right is a hand-

turning radius of the handwheel and

between the outer

The handwheel linkage runs the length of the gun breech to the

The only protection from

The previous photograph

also shows

90 mm ammunition

stowage

,

racks at the left of the commander's station, the radios located beneath

the breech, and backup fire control handle to the left. To the rear of

the station are located intercommunications equipment, 7.5 mm ammunition drums under the gun recoil area, hatch handle, and other miscellaneous

items.U

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THE BDM CORPORATION

BOM/ABQ-86-0608- TR

Figure 1-9. AMX-13 Commander's Hatch

Figure 1-10. AIIX-13 Commander's Controls/Disolays Arrangement

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THE BDM CORPORATION

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BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

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4.

Figure I-11. Linkage for Automatic Feed 90 mm Autoloader

Most

items

appear

to

have

been

mounted

without

regard

to

the

commander's task requirements. The commander does not have visual access to the gunner or driver. The larger occupants would have difficulty operating the radio and most other equipment requiring bending or stoop-

ing.

Moreover,

accessing the

stowed main

gun rounds

quickly

and

without

*damage

might

prove

difficult under

would

most

be

circumstances.

very

Removing wounded

operating

*or

* dimensions of

* the main gun breech to the right and to the turret wall to the left, with

* about the same distance forward and rearward.

incapacitated

the

crewmen

also

difficult.

The

commander's

station measured only about 31 inches

from

Referring

again

to

Table

1-2,

the

commander's

hatch

opening

falls well

short

of

the minimum

recommended

dimensions of

MIL-HDBK-759A.

*

The

minimum

recommended

%

size for circular

*%1

hatches

is

22 inches

--

for

light

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THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

clothing and 28 inches for crewmen garbed in arctic or NBC clothing.

hatch would not accommodate a 5th percentile U.S. armor crewman with

arctic clothing.

Hatch

The

The hatch cover swivels rearward and locks into place.

control

is provided by a

handle located at the rear of the commander's

head.

The rear-most periscope in the cupola obstructs operation of the

" handle. Only 0.25 inch is provided for clearance between the handle and

the periscope, making operation very difficult, especially with arctic or

NBC handwear. Anthropometric accommodation of a seated individual, closed

hatch could not be estimated since the seat was not mounted.

Eight periscopes provide near-360 degrees unity vision.

Peri-

scopes were not padded and present a safety hazard, especially during cross-country operation. The cupola is fixed to the turret and cannot be

rotated independently. A unique feature of the AMX-13 is the "iron sight" provided in

- front of the commander's and gunner's foremost periscopes. A cross hair

reticle is built into the periscope, occupying the right portion of the

viewing area. Using the periscope reticle, the crewmen aligns the front

iron sight (which can be folded down when not in use), with the target.

This sight arrangement provides the advantage of simplicity.

However,

target accuracy with the sights could not be evaluated.

 

.l

The commander's station,

like

the

others

in the

AMX-13,

provides very limited space for all but the smallest crewmen.

A number

of hazardous protrusions exist and ingress/egress is made extremely dif- ficult because of the tight fit. It appeared to evaluators as though

French designers began with a limited area in which to place operational

equipment, and did so with little regard for the occupant.

a. Advantages As mentioned previously, the iron sights provide a very

simple means for target engagement. However, the accuracy of this system

could not be measured. Another advantage of the human engineering design of the commander's station is the reduced crew of three, making battle

management somewhat easier.

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THE BDM CORPORATION

b. Disadvantages

,-

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Generally, the greatest disadvantage attributable to the

design of the AMX-13 commander's station is the limited work space. An-

thropometric accommodation of the design restricts crew selection. Even with smaller crewmen, the arrangement of control and display components

interferes with fundamental tasks.

4. Gunner's Station

The gunner's station in the AMX-13 is located to the right in

the turret. Table I-i provides selected dimensional measurements for the

gunner's seat. The seat back was not available for evaluation.

As

Table 1-1

indicates,

except

for seat padding

and

static

elbow space,

none

of

the measurements meet

U.S.

human engineering

standards.

The gunner's seat pan represents the worse case of all other

seats

evaluated in this report.

 

m

The seat would accommodate less than the

Ist percentile U.S.

armor crewman when considering hip breadth.

Vertical seat adjustability

 

measured only

2.5 inches.

Popliteal

height (distance from top of seat

pan to floor) measured 23 inches.

The maximum allowable height in U.S.

u

standards is 19.8 inches. Without a foot rest, blood circulation in the

gunner's legs could be restricted causing pain and discomfort.

Once seated inside, adequate elbow room is provided for 95th

percentile individuals. However, free shoulder movement for only the

1st percentile U.S. armor crewmen is provided.

Space allowed for leg and

knee movement is also inadequate.

Head clearance falls about 4 inches

short of standards, accommodating only 25th percentile males. Boot

clearance,

front of

the

seat

to the

nearest forward object measured

/.5 inches, leaving very little room for smaller crewmen. The gunner's seat is generally inadequate and would not lend to

effective human performance, especially during long term operations. Only two periscopes are provided for forward viewing, restrict-

ing the gunner's surveillance capabilities to about 120 degrees forward

vision. The periscopes are not padded and present a safety hazard. A

browpad measuring

1.5 inches square

is located just above the primary

sight, as shown in Figure 1-12.

The browpad would provide very little

 

_3

 

'

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*

*

.

*

.

.

THE BDM CORPORATION

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

protection against the effects of main gun acceleration and was very un-

comfortable even during the static evaluation.

Figure 1-12. Gunner's Browpad for Primary Sight

p'-L

The gunner's station is even more restricted in available work-

The

gunner's left elbow and arm contacts continuously the main gun breech. All controls and displays are within easy view except the tra-

verse handle, which is located below the two-handed fire control handle.

The manual traverse har'le is located 30 inches from the seat back

mated from the SRP). Manual target acquisition and gun lay would likely

be difficult for larger crewmen because of the limited space to operate

the manual traverse handle.

ovr

station from

space than the commander's, as described in the previous section.

(esti-

d

Figure 1-13

shows

a portion

of

the gunner's

overhead.

THE BDM CORPORATION

NU

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Figure 1-13. AMX-13 Gunner's Station

The elevation handle is located to the

left against the main

Operation of the handle was easy and, except for the

The two-handed yoke controller,

gun breech wall.

lack of elbow room, posed no problems.

located conveniently in front of the gunner was easily accessible. The

distance from the seat back to the controller measured 15 inches. Based on anthropometric data for the 95th percentile U.S. armor crewman, only

4 inches would remain between the chest and the controller, and even less

with arctic and NBC clothing. The intercommunications box is located only 5 inches from the

design

eye,

just forward

and

to

the

right,

posing

an

eye

contact

hazard.

Direct

visual

contact

with

the

other

crewmembers

is

not

possible.

Many

decals, placards, and other written instructions are located beyond the

gunner's seated view.

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THE BDM CORPORATION

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

A rotary handwheel, identical to that provided to the commander

for clearing 90 mm main gun jams (or for manually introducing a new round

from the revolver magazines, the evaluator

beneath the breech on the the turret rear wall. Manual access

difficult for larger crewmen.

is located

is very

could not tell),

Figure 1-14 shows

Figure 1-15

Notice

right of the photograph blocking partially the

the

However, actual hatch entrance size, measured from

the flat hatch arrangement.

shows a closer view of the gunner's hatch area toward the rear.

the obstruction on the

hatch opening. commander's hatch).

The hatch diameter is 17.25 inches

(narrower than

*the

obstruction to the hatch right rim area is only 14.5 inches, about 1.5 inches smaller than that required to accommodate the ist percentile

'

U.S. armor crewman.

 

Just within the hatch, only 17 inches is provided between the hatch handle, with the hatch open, to the front periscope. Evaluators had

to first lower the right shoulder into the turret, then the left. When

seated, the shoulders of a 95th percentile, lightly clothed individual

fits tightly against the turret right wall and a metal plate to the left protecting the crewman from the gun breech.

 

The fire control box can serve as a convenient foot rest when

entering and exiting the vehicle as it is located only 14.5 inches

from

U

the hatch opening. Of course, utilizing the controller as a step would

cause severe reliability problems for that item.

 
 

a.

Advantages There are two distinct advantages to the human engineering

-

design of the AMX-13 gunner's station. First, the reduced crewspace pre-

vents excessive lateral movement during violent, cross-country rides.

Secondly, the extremely close proximity of controls and displays may fa-

cilitate efficient and effective operation by smaller individuals.

b. Disadvantages

There are a great many more disadvantages to the AMX-13

*.

human engineering design than advantages.

the gunner's station, like the commander's and gunner's, allows only a

the design of

To summarize,

Ssmall portion of the soldier population adequate space to conduct gunnery

-_m

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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

:

THE 8DM CORPORATION

A-p

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

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Figure 1-15. AM*X-13 Obstl.ruction Bloccking Gunner's Hatch

THE BDM CORPORATION

BUM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

and maintenance tasks. Even the smaller crewmen would find it difficult

to operate without incurring injuries from protrusions, lack of padding,

and the arrangement of the main gun recoil system. Outside visibility is

severely restricted and, in a one-on-one engagement with other tanks, the

AMX-13 would be at a great tactical disadvantage. Its greatest defense

qin

combat, however, would remain speed and agility.

5. Crew Integration, Safety, Health Hazards

system displays/controls were not

observed at the commander's station. Operations with a disabled gunner

in a degraded mode may restrict battle capabilities to maneuver and pos-

Identical fire control

-

sibly command and control.

Considering the design of the crewstations, arctic and NBC ap-

parel would restrict more severely the abilities of the crew to perform.

Emergency ingress and egress likewise poses a problem, even for the smal-

ler stature crews.

Donning and doffing arctic and NBC clothing without

E

exiting the vehicle would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, und-

er any circumstance. Accessibility to items stowed in the interior of the

AMX-13

is extremely difficult, including the fire suppression system.

Decontaminating the interior of the vehicle would also present

a severe problem since a great many areas cannot be accessed by any but the smallest stature soldiers. Even they would find the tasks difficult.

U

Regarding stowage, some stowage space

is available

on the

outside of the turret by use of racks.

Very little area is provided

-

within the turret and hull for stowage of personal arms and ammunition,

NBC gear, rations, water, and other essential items. Moreover, access to

items stowed inside would be very difficult.

Extended operations could

tax crew members beyond reasonable human limits. Access to the engine for repair and maintenance

is possible

"'

from the front right deck and from a removable panel at the driver's

immediate right.

Access to the main gun and coax machine gun is made ex-

tremely difficult because of the lack of interior workspace for free el- bow, arm, body, and hand movement. The general adequacy of interior work-

-

space for performing checks and maintenance services was rated as ex-

tremely poor.

II

THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

The quality of protection afforded to cables, indicators, etc,

against inadvertent activation and damage during repairs is poor. Labels

and placards identifying items that may need repair or replacement were

difficult to see. Refueling operations would likely be very easy because of the

location of the fuel inlet at the rear of the vehicle.

provided for manipulating the fuel cap with arctic and NBC handwear.

Ample space is

U

Accessing the main gun ammunition, except for five rounds lo-

cated at the commander's left foot area and several at the gunner's

The rounds stowed at the

commander's station could suffer damage from the occupant (e.g., stepping

on them) or from other items dropped from above.

rounds into the revolver ragazines would require the occupants to exit

the vehicle, open the hatch on either side of the turret rear bustle, and reload each in turn, exposing the individual to hostile fire.

right, against the turret wall, is difficult.

To upload the 90 mm

6. Evaluator's Ratings

As shown in Table 1-3, evaluators rated the AMX-13 human engi-

neering design the lowest of the three systems subject to evaluation.

76-percent of the responses were negative. Only 24-percent indicated some

positive aspects of the vehicle.

total of 102 responses, indicated very negative to extremely negative

human engineering system characteristics.

51-percent of the ratings, based on a

C. DISCUSSION

It may not be entirely fair to compare the French AMX-13 Light Tank

with the British main battle tanks. The operational requirements of the

AMX-13 are significantly different from the Centurion and Chieftain vehicles.

low

silouette reconnaissance vehicle that could also defeat heavy armor.

However, the role of the AMX-13 apparently was not to engage heavy armor

First, the

AMX-13 was designed

to provide

a

high

speed,

in sustained combat.

-24

.

U

THE BDM CORPORATION

BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Secondly, the

tank

was

designed

specifically to accommodate

personnel five feet,

eight inches (5'8")

in stature.

The French,

it

seems, are willing to live with restrictions in crew selection to smaller

individuals. The United States

is not willing to do

this. Therefore, it

U.S. military human

may be unfair to compare

Of course, as an export item, other countries

purchasing the tank are also placed under the same crew selection

requirements. If other using countries assign crews who exceed the 5'8" stature limit, then some (possibly much) degradation in crew performance

crewstation design with

engineering standards.

can be expected.

"-

TABLE 1-3. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF EVALUATOR'S RATINGS, FRENCH AMX-13

 

TARGET SYSTEM

RATING VALUES

1

AMX-13

*

GENE RAL.BOARDINGETC.

1

4

DRIVER STATION

4

4

COMMANDER STATION

3

7

GUNNER STATION

2

4

CREW INTEGRATION

14

9

 

TOTAL=102

24

28

 

POSITIVE RESPONSES = 24%

 

NEGATIVE RESPONSES = 76%

 

.

5

-

q0q

 

4

/

5

0

0

0

1

3

7

0

1

3

4

2

13

6

0

1

7

1

1

0

26

18

3

3

86-0608-TR G.03

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THE BDMV CORPORATION

w

ATTACHMENT 3 HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DATA BASE

FOR THE FRENCH AMX-13 MBT

BOM/ABQ-86-0608-TR

Human Factors Engineering Data Base

File Name:

Evaluator's Rating Scales

AMR7

0300

Evaluator's Rating Scale 1

6

= Extremely adequate

5

= Very adequate

4

=

Adequate

3

=

Inadequate

2

= Very Inadequate

1

= Extremely inadequate

0304

Evaluator's Rating Scale 2

6

= Extremely easy

5

= Very easy

4

= Easy

3

= Difficult

2

= Very difficult

1

= Extremely difficult

0306

Evaluator's Rating Scale 3

6

= Extremely good

5

= Very good

4

= Good

3

= Poor

2

= Very poor

1

= Extremely poor

0308

Evaluator's Rating Scale 4

6

= Extremely accessible

5

= Very accessible

4

= Accessible

3

= Inaccessible

2

= Very inaccessible

1

= Extremely inaccessible

0310

Evaluator's Rating Scale 5

6

= Definitely not dangerous/hazardous

5

= Probably not dangerous/hazardous

4

= Maybe not dangerous/hazardous

3

= Maybe dangerous/hazardous

2

= Probably dangerous/hazardous

1

= Definitely dangerous/hazardous

0312

Evaluator's Rating Scale 6

6

= Extremely effective

5

= Very effective = Effective

-

a~a~

~-|

 

3

= Ineffective

2

= Very ineffective

1

= Extremely ineffective

U

0314

Evaluator's Rating Scale 7

6

= Extremely improbable

5

= Very improbable

4

= Probably