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---.. DAY LEVEL I1


The South West School of NDT

(A Division of Minton, Treharne & Davies Ltd)
Merton House
Croescadarn Close
Pen twyn
CF2 71-IE
TEL: 01222-540000
FAX: 01222-5401 1 1

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, - Document Issue No Arnendmznt No Lesson Page No Date

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MTITRN!IVS 1 0 Front Sheet 1 of 1 20.07.94
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Lesson 1

Magnetism, magnetic poles, magnetic theory, lines of force, the Weber, the Tesla, leakage

I ~ s s o n2
Magnetic materials, diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, flux density, field strength,
permeability, reluctance, residual magnetism, retentivity, coercive force, remanence, hysteresis

Lesson 3
Electric current, fields in and around a conductor, right hand rule, right hand grip rule, current
and its effect, D.C., A.C., H. W.R. A.C., measurement of current, ammeters.

Lesson 4
Fields around a conductor, AC & DC field distribution, solid conductors, hollow conductors,
magnetic and non magnetic conductors, sensitivity of methods.

Lesson 5
Circular magnetisation, direct and indirect induction.

Lcsson 6
Longitudinal magnetisation, coils, yokes, permanent magnets.

-Lesson 7
Quipment, wet horizontal method, dry con:jnuous method, mubile, portable, bench units,
demagnetising equipment.

Lesson. -8
Magnetic particle mediums, s i x , density, mobility, shape, colour, viewing conditions,
sensitivity, advant-iges and limitations, suspension characteristics.

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hfTARNIW5 1 0 * Contents 1 of3 10.01.94

Lesson 9
Current requirements, selection of amperage, circular, longitudinal.

Lesson 10
Magnetic field measurements, flux meters, hall effect, shared flux devices, eddy currents.

Lesson 11
Demagnetisation, causes of magnetisation, review of remanent magnetism, demagnetisation
procedures, remanent tests.

Lesson 12

Ultraviolet, fluorescence, sources of ultraviolet, UV-A filters, intensity variables, fluorescent

emissions, dark adaptation, mercury arc hazards.

Lesson 13
Magnetic particle applications, residual method, continuous method, surface preparation,
location of discontinuities, magnetic rubber inspection.

Lesson 14
Rotating vectors, resultant fields.

Lesson 15
Classification of discontinuities, non-relevant indications, false indications.

Lesson 16
Quality control, solid contents, test pieces, current and coil.

I ~ s s o n17

Generd precautions to be observed whsn haildling or working with chcmjcal products.

Lesson 18

Instruction writi ng, reporting.

aendix A
Glossary of terms.
b ~ e n d i xB
Material references.

A ~ ~ e n dC
Reference literature aerospace.

A ~ ~ e n dD
Reference literature general.

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Magnetic particle inspection is one of several non-destructive tests utilised by industries to

control the quality of their products. Whilst no single method or series of me.thods will give
100%assurance of quality, the various methods, properly selected and performed, will give a
high degree of assurance of quality to a product.

This assurance is dependent on the i!~tegrityof the inspector and the accuracy of the equipment
used. The inspector must have a thorough knowledge of the method used. He must also be
able to interpret, evaluate and record inspection results with accuracy.

Poorly run tests or incorrect interpretation of the results can lead to the rejection of good
components and acceptance of poor components. Rejection of good components is costly and
acceptance of poor components may lead to disaster.

The objective of Magnetic Particle Testing is to insure product reliability by providing a means

A. Obtaining a visual image of an indication on the surface of a material.

B. Disclosing the nature of discon tinui t ics without impairing the material.

C. Separating acceptable and unacceptable material in accordance with predetermined


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1. Non-Magnetic mateials cannot be tested.
2. Magnetic particle testing will not detect discontinuities that are deeper than
approximately 5mm bclow the stir face.

However, the penetration depends on the permeai.ility of the material, type of discontinuity, and
amount and type of current used.

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The earlist recorded use of magnetism was in ancient Greece where an ore called magnetite was
mined. This ore is commonly known as Lodestone, and has the ability to attract materials such
as Iron, Cobalt and Nickel and a few of their alloys. This phenomenon, natural to lodestone,
can be artificially induced i n other substances, but most successfully in ferromagnetic materials.

As magnetization of ferromagnetic materials is possible, by utilising a medium (iron powder)

having magnetic attraction, discontinuities can be revealed.

The medium is applied to the surface of the component during or after induction of a magnetic

Figure 1 below shows a build-up of the medium over the discontinuity in the magnetized part.




Magnetic particle testing is a relatively easy arld simple method that can be applied at various
stages of manufacture and processing opera:ions.

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If a bar (permanent) magnet is dipped into iron filings, the filings would cling in clumps around
its ends as shown in figure 2. The magnetic force pulling the filings appears to originate from
two points, known as the poles of the magnet. A straight line passing through these poles is
called the magnetic axis of the magnet.

A bar magnet, suspended at its centre by a length of thread will swing around until its magnetic
axis lines up roughly north - south (see figure 3). This happens because the earth itself
possesses a magnetic field, and behaves to some extent as if a huge bar magnet were buried
through its centre. (see figure 4).

Figure 3 Figure 4

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The pole at the end pointing north is called a north-seeking pole, or N pole for short. The pole
at the end pointing south is called a south-seeking pole, or S pole for short.

If the N pole of a magnet is brought towards the N pole of a suspended magnet, the movement
of this second magnet shows that there is a repulsion between the two poles, as shown in figure

Similar experiments show that there is also a repulsion between two S poles, but an attraction
between a S and a N pole. These results can be summed up as follows:

Like poles repel each other;

Unlike poles attract each other.

between t!GEz3S
unlike poles like poles

A bar magnet can be bent and formed into a horseshoe magnet as shown in figure 6. If the
horseshoe magnet is dipped into iron filings, the iron filings would cling in clumps as shown
in figure 7. Figure 7 shows that magnetic fields are in three dimensions.

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In order to understand magnetism, a basic knowledge of molecular theory is necessary.

If a magneti~-d steel strip is broken into pieces as in figure 8 polarity tests show that each piece
is itself a magnet. If the strip is broken into very much smaller piecer, these too are found to
be magnets, and there is evidence to suggest that the smallest magnets of all lie within
molecules themselves.

i;'ipure 8
If a magnet is broken, all the pieces from conlplete magnets.

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According to the generally-accepted theory of magnetism, each electron acts as a tiny magnet
as it spins and moves around the nucleus of an atom. In some materials, the electron motions
are such that the magnetic effects normally cancel out. In others, they do not cancel, and each
atom therefore behaves as a tiny magnet. F rromagnetic materials are made up of "atomic"
magnets of this type.

In a ferromagnetic material, the "atomic" magnets line up with each other in groups called
domains. Within any one domain, the magnetic axes of the atoms all lie in the same direction,
but this direction varies from one domain to the next if the material is unmagnetized.

A simplified representation of the domains in an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material is given

in figure 9. In reality, domains vary considelably
e in their sizes and shapes, and a domain
0. Imm across might contain 10" molecules. Note that the magnetic axes of the domains form
closed loops. Overall, the magnetic effects of the domains cancel.

cular magnets N--S)

When a ferromagnetic material is magnetized, sorrtz domains grow at the expense of otlle~s,and
..ome domain axes turn, so that more and more "atomic" magnets end up with their magnetic
axes in the same direction. This is illustrz'ed in figure 10. Through most of the material, the
poles of each molecule cancel out the effw:s of opposite poles near by, but unmncelled or 'free'
poles are left at both ends. Repulsion between these 'free' poles causes the dornain axes to fan
out slightly. The 'free' poles around each end of the material together produce the effect of
a single N or S pole just in from the end.

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Figure 10
Partially magnetized ferro-magne!ic material

A material is said to be magnetically saturated when its "atomic" magnets all 'ie with their
magnetic axes in the same direction. It isn't then possible to make the material into a stronger
magnet. This is illustrated in figure 11.

Figure 11
Magnetically saturated ferro-magnetic material

With all of the lnagnetic domains lined up, the magnetic bar develops a total force equal to
the sum of all the magnetic domains.

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Magnetic lines of force surround every magnetic body and every conductor which carries an
electric current. The lines of force always point in the direction of the magnetic field and their
spacing inversely represents its magnitude; the smaller the spacing between the lines of force,
the stronger the magnetic field. Lines of force can represent either the magnetic field intensity,
H , or the magnetic induction, B. To avoid ambiguity, it is made clear which is being used.

Lines of flux, representing B. always form closed loops with no breaks or reversals of
direction. They repel each other to fill all the available space, without crossing and flow
through magnetic materials i n preference to non-magnetic materials. (See figure 12a)

Lines of field intensity, representing fl, also repel each other and never cross. They do not
always form closed loops; at the surface of a magnetic material, lines appear to be created or
destroyed and, i n permanent magnets, they may even reverse their direction at the surface. (See
figure 12b)

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-%/ The Magnetic Lines of Flux, have the followil,g characteristics:
1. 'They form closed loops.
2. They resemble rubber bands in that they will stretch and change shape under the
influence of any magnetic fields PIesent.
3. They return upon themselves and form closed paths.
4. They never cross.
5. They seek the path of least resistance.
6. They are most densely packed at the poles.
7. They flow fro111north to south outside of the magnet and from south to north inside the
ferromagnetic material.

These characteristics can be seen in figure 13.


figure 13
All the lines of force make up the Magnetic Field.

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The force that attracts other magnetizable materials to the magnetic poles is known as magnetic
i c is made up of all of the lines of force.) p h e SI unit of magnetic flux is
flux. ( ~ a ~ n e t Flux
the weoer (Wb) the c.g.s. u n i t was the maxivell (1 ~ a x u f e l=i 10.' w).)

Magnetic flux density or induction refers to the Flux-Per-Unit-Area at right angles, to the
direction of the flux. The SI u n i t of magnetic flux density is the Tesla and is equal to 1 IVb/rn2
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of force cgs u n i t for magnetic flux density is the Gauss, and is equal
(1 gauss = 10.' tesla).)

A magnet will attract other magnetizable materials only wh(-;rethe lines of force leave or enter
the magnet. (see figure 14).

( If a magnet is bent into a complete loop as shown i n h

figure 15 below, the magnetic field is
entirely within the magnet and thus no extei iml force. '

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However, a crack in the circular magnet shown in figure 16 will disrupt the flow of lines of
force and create a flux leakage. These leakage fields are actually magnetic lines of force that
leave the part and pass through the air from one pole to the other pole of opposite polarity.


Figure 16

Whenever the field is forced out at the component iron particles would be attracted to the
leakage field, showing an indication of a discontinuity.

If ihe discontinuity lies in the rnaterial parallel to the flux lines (see figure 17 b), therc will be
no detectable change. If however there is a surface discontinuity (see figure 17 d), t l v flux
lines have to cross the gap. Within the air, they repel each other and spread out. This
tendency is limited by the preference for the flux lines to flow through the material, rather than
the air. The result is that part of the flux h:idgcs the air gap, but i n the air around the
discontinuity a leakage field (leakage flux) is established. In this srnall area the magnetic field
is much larger than that near the surface of the material remote from the discontinuity.

Embedded discontinuities which break the lines of flux give rise to a leakage field, but this is
weak and spread over an area larger than produce by a surface breaking discontinuity. The
sensitivity of the magnetic particle inspection is therefore reduced for embedded disconiinuities.
Round discontinuities are more difficult to detect than sharp, angular discontinuities, such as
cracks, whether they are surface or embedded. (See figure 17c, d, e).

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Indications of maximum size are formed when the magnetic lines of force are at right angles
to the discontinuity. k t is generally possible to detect discontinuities which lie at 45' from this
ideal direction) biscontinuities which lie parallel to the magnetic lines of force cannot be

(a) A segment o f s o u n d material (b) A searnent containing a f l a w parallel to t h e flux lines

(cl A segmenl with a c o m p l e t e break id) A segment with a surface-breeiing flaw

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If an object is placed in a magnetic field a force is exerted on it and it is said to become


The intensity of magnetization depends upon the susceptibility of the material to become


( Have a SMALL and NEGATIVE susceptibility to magnetization (slightly repelled). Copper,

Silver and Gold are examples of diamagnetic materials. (see figure 1).


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\ > ~ a v ea . SMALL and POSITIVE susceptibility to magnetization (slightly attracted).
Magnesium, Molybdenum, Lithium and Tantalum are examples at paramagnetic materials. (see
figure 2). )

L ithiurn Magnet


( Have a LARGE and POSITIVE susceptibility to magnetization. They have a strong attraction
and are able to retain their magnetisation after the magnetizing field has been removed.
Iron, Cobalt and Nickel are examples of ferromagnetic materials. (see figure 3).)
( ~ e r r o m a ~ n e t i cmaterials are the only materials commonly inspected with the magnetic particle
testing method.

The magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials are dependent upon several factors such as
atomic structure, degree of hardness, chemical composition, variations in heat treatment and the
intensity of the magnetizing force.

( The magnetic properties of a material, may be shown by producing a "hysteresis loop" for that
material. )
These properties are as follows:-


Magnetic flux density or induction refers to the flux per unit area at right angles to the
direction flux. It is usually designated by the letter B. The SI unit of flux density is
the TesIa and is equal to 1Wb/m2 of circuit area, the cgs unit for flux density is the
Gauss, and is equal to 1 line per cm2. (1 Gauss = 10" Tesla).


This is the intensity of a magnetic fit?!d at a given point. It is usually designated by

the letter H and its S.I. unit is the Ampere per metre (AIM). The c.g.s. unit is the
Oersted. (1 Oerstzd = 79.58AlhI).
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This refers to the ease with which a ~nagneticflux is established in the component being
tested. It is not a constant value for a given material but a ratio. It is nun~b~rically
equal to the ratio of BIH, and is designated by the Greek ;~"ni6hl. ;

p, is a constant, known as the permeability of free space it has the value 47r x lo7
henries per metre (SI units) or l(cgs units).
p, is the relative permeability of a material and is approximately 1 for diamagnetic and
paramagnetic materials.

This is a measure of the degree of difficulty with which a component can be magnetized.
Reluctance is given by L/Ap where

L = Material length.
A = Cross-sectional area.
p = Permeability.


The magnetic field remaining in a material after the magnetizing force has been reduced
to zero.


This refers to the ability of the material to retain a certain amount of residual


This refers to the reverse magnetizing force required to remove the residual magnetism.

This referes to the magnetic flux density remaining in a material after the magnetizing
force has been removed.

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If we place a piece of demagnetized ferromagnetic material between the heads of a bench and
plot a graph of the changes in flux density (B) against variations in magnetizing force (19,a
hysteresis loop will be formed.

By using an alternating current whose frequency is such that it takes several minutes to
complete a cycle we can take flux density measurements utilizing a flux meter at various points
along the sinusoid. Assume that the current we use is sufficient to cause saturation of the
material under test. With reference to figure 4 when the current value is 1 unit (the unit could
be amps per meter) we measure the flux density, for this material, we find that it is 0.1 Tesla
now plot the value on the graph. We again increase the current value to 2 units and measure
the flux density and we find that it is 0.4 Tesla again plot the value on the graph. We continue
increasing the current value in units and measuring and plotting the resultant flux density up to
a current value of 5 units point A on the sinusoid. At this point if we increase the current value
to say 6 or 7 units and measure the flux density we would find that the flux density had not
increased from the 2.5 Tesla value noted at 5 units of current. This point is classed as
magnetic saturation. The current value is now reducing and if we again continue to measure
and plot on the graph the flux densities we will arrive at point B on the sinusoid which is zero
current units, note the flux density at this point is not zero but 1.5 Tesla. This is the residual
field in the material and is designated B,. The current value is now increasing in the negative
direction and again we continue to measure and plot on the graph the flux densities until we
arrive at point C on the sinusoid which has a current value of -2 units note the flux density at
this point is zero, the material is demagnetized. The current units required to reduce the flux
dt3nsity to zero is known as the coercive force and is designated H,. Again we continue
increasing the current value in the negative direction measuring and plotting on the graph the
flux densities until point D on the sinusoid is reached. This is the saturation point but j n the
negative direction. Further increase would not result in any further increase in flux density
from -2.5 tesla. The current is still negative but decreasing in value, again continue to measure
and plot on the graph the flux densities uvtil point E on the sinusoid is reached. At thi? point
the current value is zero current units, note the flu; density at this point is not zero but -1.5.
Tesla. This is again the residual field in the material B,. The current value is now incriming
in the positive direction and again we continue to measure and plot on the graph t ! flux ~
densities until we will arrive at point F on the sinusoid which has a current value of 2 units note
the flux density at this point is zero, the material is demagnetized. The current units required
to reduce the flux dt nsity to zero are known as the coercive force H,.

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Again we continue increasing the current value in the positive direction measuring and plotting
on the graph the flux densities until point A on the sinusoid is reached. This is the positive
saturation point on the graph and the loop is now c ~ x p l e t e d . If the sinusoid were allowed to
continue and measurements taken and plotted as previous, the values would follow the outline
A , B, C, D, E, F and A continuously. (The dotted line 0-A is referred to as the virgin curve
and will only appear when the material tested is in the demagnetized state. The area within the
loop is called the hysteresis curve (The lag between the magnetizing fo e and the flux in the
material is called hysteresis.)(~heshape of the loop is indicative of the magnetic properties of
the material from which it was derived.''
+ 1 cycle

Density T3

Fioure 4

Hysteresis Curve

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The shape of the loop is indicative of the magnetic properties of the material from which it was
derived. Figure 5 illustrates typical hysteresis loops for materials having high and low



Slender loop Wide loop

THIN hysteresis loop indicates a n~aterialof high permeability. The loop shows the qualities
of a soft niatcrial such as low carbon steel, and are as follows:-

Ilkh p e r m e a m
- easy to magnetize

--Low retenti& - rctains a weak residual magnetic field.

Low coercive---force - requi:es a low reverse magnetizing force io remove

the reddual magnetism.

Low reluctance
- - low resistance to the magnetizing force.

Low rcsidual magnetism

-- - retains a weak residual magnetic field.

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A WIDE hysteresis loop indicates a material of low permeability. The loop shows the qualities
of a hard material such as high carbon steel, and are as follows:-

Low ~ermeability - hard to magnetize

I&h retentivity - retains a strong residual magnetic field.

High coercive force - requires a high reverse magnetizing force to remove

the residual magnetism.

IJdh reluctance - high resistance to the magnetizing force.

High residual mapnetism_ - retains a high residual magnetic field

Note: With modem day materials and sintering processes the general rule above can fail for
some of the more exotic permanent magnets.

Figure 6 illustrates the virgin curves for a selection of majnetic materials. Various flux
densities (B) are shown for variations in magnetizing forces (H). The permability of a material
can be determined by increasing the magnetizing force until the material reaches its saturation

Each different type of material has a point of maximum flux density (saturation).

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Magnetizing f i e i d H

0.10 % carbon $:eel

0.40 9. carbon steel

0.55 % carbon steel

Hardened and tempered l o w alloy steel

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The use of electric currents is the best means of magnetizing parts for magnetic particle testing.
Either longitudinal or circular fields can be set up easily. The strength of the resultant field can
be easily varied, and by using several types of current, useful variations in field strength and
distribution can be accomplished.



When an electric current is pxsed through a conductor, such as wire, a magnetic field is set
up in the conductor and in the space surrounding it. The strength of the field will be directly
proportional to the strength of the current flowing. The lines of force take concentric circular
paths around the conductor, so that the field is circular and at 90" to the axis of the conductor.

The field has directional properties, which depend on the direction i n which the current is
flowing. A simple rule for determining the direction of the field is to grasp the conductor with
the right hand (right hand rule) so that the thumb points in the direction of the current flow
(conventional current flow theory considers electricity to flow from + to -). The fingers will
then point in the direction of the field. (see figure 1).

Figure 1
The left hand rule determines the field direction when the electron flow theory is used. The
electron flow is from - to +.

The use of both the left hand rule and the right hand rule result in a magnetic field flowing in
the same direction.

If the conductor carrying current is bent into a single loop, the lines of force surrounding the
conductor will pass through the loop, all in a single direction. The field within the loop then
has a longitudinal direction. One side of the loop will be a north pole the other side a south
pole. (see figure 2).

The field in and arosncl a loop carrying d i ~ z c tcurrent, showing polarity.

If instead of only one turn, the conductor carrying current is looped a number of times, the
coil/solenoid will similarly be longitudinally magnetized. The strength of the field passing
through the interior of the coil will be proportional to the product of the current in amperes and
the number of turns of con 'ilctor in the coil, that is, ampere turns. Thus the magnetizing force
can be varied by either altering the currcnt value or the number of turns in the coil . (see
figure 3). The magnetic field is the greatest on the inner surface of the coil winding.

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Fipure 3
Field in and around a coil carrying direct current.

To determine the polarity of the magnetic field in a coil the right hand grip rule can be used.
Imaging your right hand gripping the coil such that your fingers point the same way as the
conventional current flows (+ to -). Your thumb then points towards the north pole. The left
hand grip rule can be used for electron flow theory (- to +). (see figure 4).

current direction

The right hand grip rule przdicts which end will be the north pole.

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There are basically two types of electrical current in common use, and both are suitable for
magnetic particle testing. These are direct current P C ) and alternating current (AC).


Direct current is considered to be a constant current flowing in one direction only. (See figure
5a). Alternating current is considered to be a current which is reversing its direction completely
at the rate of 50 (UK) cycles per second. One cycle consists of two complete reversals. (see
figure 5b).

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TIME (t)

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rldciivn or a second or the drain on the baticries at many thn;isand amperes would be to great.

Also charging systems had to be of sufficient capacity to J :place the lost charge during the
interval between shots. Other problems also ;.rose such as crir~osivebattery acid and explosive
gases given off during charging.

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he best source of direct current is from a rectified alternating Single phase (see figure
5 ) and three phase (see figure 6) alternating currents can to delivery a uni-
directional current, as discussed in the following paragraphs.

Figure 6



When single phase alternating current is passed through a simple rectifier, current is permitted
to flow in one direction only. The negative half of each cycle is blocked. This results in a uni-
directional current which pulsates, that is it rises from zero to a maximum and then drops back
to zero. During the blocked out negative cycle no current flows, then the half cycle positive
pulse is repeated, and so on at the rate of 50 Hz. (see figure 7).

Figure 7

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There is a slight skin effect due to the pulses of current, but this is not pronounced enough to
affect the penetration of the field. The pulsation of the current imparts a slight vibration to the
magnetic particles, which helps the particles to form the indiction.


When a single phase alternating current is passed through a bridge rectifier, current is permitted
to flow in one direction only. The negative half of each cycle instead of being blocked is
reversed and imposed next to the positive half cycle. (see figure 8).

yiyure 8
Full wave rectified single phase alternating current.

In general this current form possesses no advantage over half wave rectified, and is not as -
satisfactory as three phase rectified current when straight direct current is require, due to its

extrcme ripple. A disadvantage is that is draws higher current from the alternating current
source than does half uave current for the same magnetic field strength.

The most useful and a widely used source of direct current for magnetic particle testing is
rectified three phase alternating current. When rectified the only difference between three phase
rectified and direct current is that the three phase rectified has a ripple value of approximately
3% of the maximum current value. (see figure 9).
Document Ibuc NO Amcndmcnl No Lesson P o p No Date

MT/TRN/IIIS I 0 3 7of 11 '0 07.94

- - - -- - --
Figure 9
Full wave rectified three phase alternating current.


All magnetic particle instructions (technique) should give peak current value's, for the
calculations of magnetic field intensity. Since it is normally impracticable to use ammeters that
respond or indicate peak current, mean (Type A) or r.m.s. current (Type B) meters have to
be used. From these meters the peak current needs to be established by conversion (see table
1) or calibration against an instrument that responds to the peak current value, using current of
the same wave form as that generated by the magnetic particle equipment.

.- -. -- --

Direct Current 1 .OO 1.OO

Alternating Current Not applicable 1.41
Full-wave Rectified 1.57
Single Phase Current
Half-Wave Rectified 3.14
Single Phase Current
Full-Wave Rectified 1.05
Three Phase Current
Half-Wave Rectified 1.21
Three Phase Current

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

Ammeter type A utilises a perlnanent magnet, moving coil or others measuring mean values.

The average or mean value of a waveform is the average value of the waveform reckoned over
one half of a completed cycle. Ii'an attempt is made to average a purely alternating waveform
over a complete cycle, the negative haIf of the wave cancels the positive half exactly, and the
result is zero.

Ammeter type B utilises a moving iron, induction, electro-dynamic or others measuring r.m.s.

The root-mean-square (r.1n.s.) value of an electric current is a measure of how useful it is in

practice. As the heating effect of an electric current operates equally well for a.c. or d.c.
supplies, the r.m.s. value is such that a d.c. current of this value would produce the same
heating effect as the alternaling ciirrent concerned. he r.rn.s. value is also sometimes called
the effective or virtual value.

Vnltizs o f Sine Wave

he indic:,ied current valile on the ammeter is to be multiplied by the relevant factor from table
1 to obtain a peak value. Or the peak value is to be divided by the relevant factor from table
1 to give the current value to be set on the ammeter.)

Note: Some equipment does not conform to the requirements of table 1 and reference has to
be made to the manufactures literature for values eg. Magnafli~xequipment.

-- ---
Document lsstrc No Arnsndnlcnl No Lesson Page N O Dale
- p7 --

hlT/TRN/Il/S I 0 3 90f l l 20.07.94

----- -- -- ---
A type 'A' ammeter, (see figure 10) moving coil, works on the principle of when a current is
- passed through the coil, the coil turns in the magnetic field and moves the pointer across the
scale. The rotation of the coil is resisted by the two spiral springs (called hairsprings), and the
coil comes to rest when the couple (force) turning it is balanced by an opposing couple (force)
from the springs. The higher the current, the greater the degection of the coil, and the further
the pointer moves along the scale.

As described, the meter can be used to measure currents flowing in one direction only (direct
.- current). If a current flows through the coil in the opposite direction, it starts to move the
pointer backwards. The scale is linear.

--F i g u r e a
The moving-coil ammeter.

A type 'B' ammeter moving-iron, works on the principle of two soft-iron bars, as shown in
figure 11. One bar is fixed, the other is attached to a pivoted pointer whose movements is
opposed by a hairspring. When a current is passed through the coil, the iron bars become
temporarily magnetized, in the same direction and repel each other. The higher the current,
the more the bars are pushed apart arid the further the pointer moves along the scale.

As described the meter can be used to measure currenls flowing in either direction, due to the
iron bars being repelled whatever the direction the current flows. So the meter can be used
measure alternating current. The scale is non-linear.

Document lssuc No Amendment N O Lesson Page N O Date

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hlTfrRNIIII5 I 0 3 10of 1 1 20.07.94
-. -
-- --


A. The magnetic field strength increases evenly from zero at the centre until it reaches peak
strength at the surface. he
field at the surface would be equal to p x F, where ' p ' is
the material

" B. Because of the permeability of steel, the field strength is greater within a magnetic
conductor as compared to a non-magnetic conductor.

C. The magnetic field strength outside the conductor diminishes with the distance from the
central conductors centre. e.g. If the radius of the bar is R, and the field at the surface
is F, then the field at a distance 2R from the centre will be f at 3R f
2 3

- -- - -- ---

Document Issue No Arnendrncnl No Lesson Pagc No Dale

--- -- P

MTlTRh'IIU5 I 0 4 3 of 12 20.07.94
- - ----- -- --

When direct current is passed directly through in hollow non-magnetic conductor, such as a
copper tube, the following can be observed.


2R 3R

A. The magnetic field strength varies from zero at the inner surface to a maximum at the
outer surface.

B. The magnetic field strength outside the conductor diminishes with the distance from the
central conductors centre eg: If the radius of the bar is R , and the field is F, then the
field at a distance 2R from the centre will bc f at 3R, f.
2 3

Document lssuc No Amendmen! No Lesson Page No Date

MT~NIIIIS I 0 4 4 of I 2 20 07.94
-- --- -- -

When a direct current is passed directly through a hollow magnetic conductor, such as a steel
tube, the fullowing can be observed:



A. The magnetic field strength increases evenly from zero at the inner surface until it
reaches peak strength at the outer surface. The field at the sl~rfacewould be equal to
p x F, where ' p ' is the material permeability.

B. (~ecauseof the permeability of steel, the field strength is greater within the magnetic
conductor as compared to a non-magnetic conductor. '\\


Documnt Issue No Amendnienl No Lesson Page No Dale

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MTrnNIIUS I 0 4 5 or 12 20.07.94
--- -- - -
C. The magnetic field strength outside the conductor diminishes with the distance from the
central conductors centre eg: If the radius of the bar is R, and the field at the surface
is F, then the field at a distance 2R from the centre will be f at 3R, f
2 3
D. This distribution indicates an unfavourable field for the detection of discontinuities
existing on the inside surface of the tube, and this method of magnetization should
preferably not be used for the inspection of tubes for inside surface discontinuities,
where maximum sensitivity is required.


A better way to magnetize a tube when discontinuities on the inside surface are sought, is to
pass direct current through a conductor threaded through the interior of the tube.

lJi.-L.L - L . A A
2R 3R




Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date
MT/TRNIIll5 1 0 4 6 of I2 20.07.93
- - --
As illustrated when direct current flows through a non-magnetic central conductor, a maximum
field will be produced, on the inside surface of the tube being inspected. This increase in field
is caused by the permeability of the magnetic tube under inspection, the field then decreases to
the outer surface. her^ the field again drops to the same decreasing curve it was following in
the air space inside the tube.

Since it is the field external to the conductor itself that constitutes the magnetizing force for the
cylinder, it makes no difference whether the central conductor is a non-magnetic or a magnetic
material. ow ever, a material such as copper is often recommended as a central conductor
because there is less heat build-up due to coppers better

Figure 1 shows the effect of the placement of a central conductor, on the magnetic field. If the
central conductor is placed so that it traverses the exact centre of the tubular cross section the
field in the tube will be symmetrical around its cylindrical wall (figure la).

If, however, the central conductor, is placed adjacent to one point on the inner circumference
of the tube, the field in the tube wall will be much stronger at this point, and weaker at the
diametrically opposite point, (figure 1b).

Although only the flux lines of the external fields are shown in the magnetographs, some idea
of the unsymmetrical field is given by the illustration.

Document Jssuc No Amcndmenl No Lesson Page No Dare

hfT~NI1IIS 1 0 4 7 12 20.07.91
-- -
In the foregoing paragraphs, the magnetizing current has in all cases been considered to be
direct current. Most of these rules do not hold when the magnetization is done with alternating

It is a well known electrical fact that alternating current tends to flow only along surface of a
conductor. This tendency is in part a function of the frequency of the current, and is extremely
pronounced at very high frequencies. Even at commercial frequencies (50 cycles) the tendency
is appreciable, especially i n magnetic materials. The phenomenon is referred to as "skin


When alternating current is passed directly through a solid magnetic conductor, such as a steel
bar, the following can be observed.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

A. Outside the conductor the field strength at any point is decreasing in exactly the same
way as when direct current is the magnetizing force. e.g. The magnetic field strength
outside the conductor diminishes with the distance from the central conductors centre
e.g. If the radius of the bar is R, and the field at the surface is F, then the field at a
distance 2R from the centre will be f at 3R, f
2 3

B. While the alternating current is flowing, the field is constantly varying, both in strength
and direction.

C. Inside the conductor the field is zero at the exact centre, and increases toward the outside
surface, slowly at first, then with increasing rapidity to reach a high maximum at the
surface. The field at the surface would be equal to p x F, where ' p ' is the material

Document Issue No Amendment N o Lesson Page No Date

MT~RNIWS 1 0 4 9 of 12 20.07.94

When alternating current is passed directl:! through a hollow magnetic conductor, such as a steel
tube, the follow can be observed.

A. Outside the conductor the field strength at any point is decreasing in exactly the same
way as when direct current is the magnetizing force. e.g. The magnetic field strength
outside the conductor diminishes with the distance from the central conductors centre
e.g. If the radius of the bar is R , and the field at the surface is F, then the field at a
distance 2R from the centre will be f at 3R, f
2 3

Document Issue No Arnendtnenl No Lesson Page No Date

B. While the alternating current is flowing, the field is constantly varying, both in strength
and direction.

C. The field at the inside surface of the conductor is zero. Between the inside and outside
surface, the field increases at an accelerating rate from zero on the inside surface to
reach a high value near the outside surface with a ~naximumfield at that surface. The
field at the surface would be equal to p x f, where ' p ' is the material permeability.

Figure 2 below shows that direct current provides the best conditions for locating subsurface
discontinuities because of the distribution of the flux density.

The field strength outside the conductor is comparable for both alternating current and direct




' --A
I-- R I---.- DISTANCE -


It is a well established that the alternating current method is bes! suited for finding surface

However, the chart on the following page illustrates the ability of various currents using both
wet and dry magnetic particles in locating subsurface discontinuities.

Document Issue No Amcndinent NO Lcsson Pagc No Date

4 00 1 IN. D I A

5 IN. D I A R I N G


1 1/4 IN. D I A

Document Issue No Amcndment No Ltsson Page No Date

A circular magnetic field can be induced into a specimen by direct or indirect induction.


Direct induction of a circular field into a component can be accomplished several ways. They
are Head Shot, and Prods.


This is where the current is passed directly through the component via the heads of the bench
as shown in figure 1.

(TEST A R T I C L E ) 9 @'

Document Issus No Ainc.ndmenl No Lesson Pnge No Date

MT~IIII5 I I 5 I of5 20.7.94
-- -- -

This is where the current is passed directly through the component via two hand held electrodes
@rods) as shown in figure 2. PRODS


Figure 2

With the direct induction rnethods there is always a danger of damaging the component by
arcing or high temperature due to resistance heating in the part. h h n v Specifications have
banned the use of prods on aircraft or their components for these reasons.


Indirect induction of a circular field into a component can be accomplished several ways. These
are threader bar / central conductor, toroidal field, induced current flow technique and flexible
cable adjacent to the test surface.

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MTrl-RNIIYS 1 I 5 2 of5 20.7.94

-- .-

This is where a current carrying conductor is placed through a specimen. As the conductor is
usually insulated along its length there is no possibility of arcing or burning the component see
figure 3. N E T l C FIELD




Fieu re 3
Threader Bar


This is where a ring shaped component is placed inside and concentric to a magnetizing coil.
A laminated core (made from low retentivity iron) is placed inside the corn onent parallel to
the axis of the coil. This will induce a circular magnetic field in the part. ,If the component
is ring shaped the core lengths should be approximately equal to the ring diameter, but never
less than 150mm and must be centered in the component see figure 4)

Fipure 4
Toroidal Field

doc urn en^ Issue No Alilsndnxnl No Lesson Page No Date


This is where a current flow can be set up in a ring component by making the component, in
effect, the secondary of a mains transformer see figure 5 .

Fiwre 5

Induced Current Technique


This is where a current carrying insulated cable is laid parallel to the surface of a component,
adjacent to the area being tested. See figure 6.

Fiwre 6

Flexible Cable Technique

Documen; Issue No Anlendmen1 No Lesson Page No Date

In the cornponet under test, utilizing circular magnetization, the lines of force are at right
angles (90") to the direction of current flow. Circular magnetization will detect discontinuities
that are at 90•‹4 4 5 " to the lines of force. Tlierefore which ever way the current flows thats
the way the discontinuity goes.

Which of the discontinuities in the bar shown in figure 7 would be detected utilizing current
flow through the ends of the bar, illustrated in figure 8.

Documen1 Issue No Amendmcnl No Lesson Page No Dale

MTmNIIY5 I 1 5 sof5 20.7.94


A longitudinal magnetic field can be induced into a specimen several ways. These are coil
techniques (rigid, flexible, close fitting), yoke, magnetic / flux flow and permanent magnet.


This is where a current is passed through a coil, and the resultant longitudinal field couples with
the component placed inside the coil. See figure 1.




Figure 1
Coil Technique

The coils may be rigid devices which are part of the bench or are clamped between the heads
of the bench, or flexible cables. The cable is formed into a coil which can be either loose
fitting or close fitting. See figure 2.

Document Issue No Anlsndnlcnl No Lesson Page No Date



Figure 2


A yoke is essentially a temporary horse shoe magnet. It's legs, usually moveable, are made
of soft, low retentivity iron, which is magnetized by a small coil wound around its horizontal
bar. See figure 3.


Figure 3

Document Issue No Amcndmcnl No Lcsson Page No Date

- -- -
MTfRNIWS I 0 6 2of4 20.7.94
- -
Another method of inducing a longitudinal nlagnetic field into a component is by placing the
component betwecn the head and tail stocks of a bench. Around the head and tail stock coils
are wound. The component will then complete the flux loop enabling the lines of flux to flow
through the component and create a longitudinal field. See figure 4.

Current Current


Figure 4
Magnetic 1 Flux Flow


A permanent magnet can also provide a magnetic flux. When the magnet is placed onto a
component the component will complete the flux loop enabling the lines of flux to flow through
the con~ponentand create a longtudinal field. See figure 5.

&i~re 5
Permanent Magnet

Document Issue No Arncndtncnl No Lesson Page No Date

When utilizing the coil technique discontinuities, lying parallel + 45' to the coils opening will
be detected.

When utilizing flux flow, yokes or permanent magnets discontinuities lying transverse to the line
joining the pole pieces.

(If when utilizing the coil technique the coils were not insulated the component could be
damaged by arcing and burning.

Which of the discontinuities in the bar shown in figure 6 would be detected utilizing the coil
technique illustrated in figure 7.


hument Issue N o Amendment N o Lesson Page No Date

M T ~ m / S 1 0 6 4of4 20.7.94
-- -..- - -- -
A typical wet horizontal unit usually utilize both A.C. and H.W.R. wave forms and some units
utilize FWR wave forms.

The wet continuous-field method has several basic steps, dependant upon whether the equipment
is automatic or manual, in its operation.

The basic steps for automatic operation are:

1. The ink flows through the nozzles and covers the entire surface of the part.
2. The ink stops flowing.
3. The current is applied at the instant the ink stops following.

The basic steps for manual operation are:

1. The ink flows through the nozzle and covers the entire surface of the part.
2. Apply the current.
3. Stop the ink flow.
4. Stop the current flow.


With this method the powder is usually applied from a shaker, bulb or blower and follows these
1. Apply magnetising current (H.W.R. or A.C.)
2. Blow powder particles over the magnetised area.
3. Blow excess powder off the part.
4. Shut off the magnetising current.

Dry particles depend upon air to carry them to the surface of the part, and care must be taken
to apply them correctly. The particles should float to the inspected surface as gently as possible
and not be thrown against it forcibly. As they float to the magnetised surface, the particles are
free to be influenced by magnetic leakage fields and form indications. Powder which is forcibly
applied is not equally free to be attracted by leakage fields, and form indications.


With this method the dry powder or ink is applied after the specimen has been magnetised and
the magnetising force removed. This method is not to be used on specimens that have a high
permeability as a high rernanent field is required.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTflIL"llW5 1 0 7 2of6 20.07.94

Dry Continuous Field Method

In general it is necessary to bring the specimen to the equipment.

humcnt Issuc NO Amendment No Lesson Page No Date


M/I-RN/WS 1 0 7 3 of6 20.07.94

Typical bench equipment such as the one above usually operates on 220/440 volts A.C., single
ard three phase znd can prodxc up to !0,090 2zi)eres.

Bench equipment will usually produce A.C., H.W.R. and D.C. magnetising currents.

Circular magnetisation can be produced using a head shot or central conductor clamped between
the heads.

Longitudinal magnetisation can be produced by a) a coil, either clarnped between the heads or
built into the bench or b) magnetic flow with the component clamped between the heads.

Typical bench equipment uses the wet continuous method.

Prods and cables may be used with the bench equipment. It often takes two technicians to
manipulate the prods and apply the magnetic medium.

In many cases it is necessary to bring the equipment to the specimen.

Typical mot.ile equipment such as the one above usually operates on 220/440 volts A.C. and
will produce about 6000 amperes.

Mobile equipment will usually produce both A.C. and H.W.R. magnetising current.

humen1 bsuc NO Amendment No Lesson Pagc No Date

MT/ZRNm/S 1 0 7 4of6 20.07.94
The cables used on the unit above vary from 15 feet to 100 feet. Shorter cables will permit the
maximum current output.

Prods and cables are usually used with the mobile equipment. It often takes two technicians
to manipulate the prods and apply the magnetic medium.

However, longitudinal magnetisation can be produced by wrapping the cable into a coil. It is
also possible to use a central conductor clamped between the two cables to produce circular

Typical mobile equipment can use either the dry powder method or the wet continuous method
using aerosols, or external tanks.

Portable equipment is lighter and less expensive than the other types of magnetic particle testing

Typical portable equipment as shown above operates on 110/240 volts A.C. with an output of
between 500 and 2000 amperes.

These units usually have a choice of either A.C. or H.W.R. magnetising current.

--- - -
Document Issue No Amendment No Lcsson Page No r . LC
MTfRNIWS 1 0 7 5016 20.07.94
-- --
The cables used on the unit above vary from 15 feet to 100 feet. Shorter cables will permit the
maximum current output.

Prods and cables are usually used with portable equipment. It often takes two technicians to
manipulate the prods and apply the magnetic medium.

However, longitudinal magnetisation can be produced by wrapping the cable into a coil. It is
also possible to use a central conductor clamped between the two cables to prodlce circular

Typical portable equipment can use either the dry powder method or the wet continuous method
using aerosols or external tanks.

The most common type of demagnetising equipment consists of an open coil through which
A.C. is flowing.

A typical unit is shown below and includes a track that will carry the part through the coil. As
the part is cam& away from the coil the magnetic field is reduced. The continuously
alternating current in the coil completes the demagnetisation.

Document ksue N O Amendment No Lesson Page No Date
It is said that ideally the magnetic particles used for magnetic particle inspection shculd have
a very high permeability, so that a small leakage field would easily magnetise the particles and
draw them to the field to form an indication, also a low retentivity, so that the particles could
easily be removed from the component after testing. Under normal conditions the sensitivity
of the test has little to do with the particles permeability. Factors such as the particles density,
size, shape and colour all affect the sensitivity of the test.


specification. For the d_fy_.-_metbd

The size of the particles used ranges from less than lpm to the maximum size allowed by the
British Standard 4069 recommends a maximum size of
2 m a n d for the wet method
.._..... it recommends a maximum size of lOOp~lm,~Very
small particles
will be attracted to very small leakage field where as larger particles won't but the smaller
particles may adhere to the component when there is no leakage field and give a false

( The
The density (mass per unit volume) of iron powder is approximately twice that of iron oxide.
heavy iron powder tends to settle rapidly when suspended in liquids, hence the need for
reduced particle size. The pigment coating applied to some particles to enhance their
"seeability" can reduce the overall density due to the coatings lower (than the particles) density.
he iron powder is normally used for the dry method whilst the iron oxides zre used in the wet
me!hod. )
Mobility is important because when the particles are brought into a leakage field they m u ~ be
able to move to form a pattern or indication.

In the dry method, mobility is assisted by dusting or blowing the particles over the surface of
the specimen. hlobility can also be assisted by vibrating the specimen after the particles have
been dusted on the surface. Alternating current also assists mobility, since the alternating field
causes the particles to "Dance".

(ln the wet method mobility is greatly assisted because the particles are suspended in a liquid
bath .)
Document Issue N o Amendmen! No Lesson Page N o Date
If the shape of the particle is rounded and smooth i t will offer good mobility but have a low
attractive power due to its lack of north and south pole.

If the shape of the particle is elongated and jagged it will offer excellent attractive powers due
to particles aligning themselves along the lines of force and developing a strong polarity. But
the particles lose their mobility and tend to clump together.

The iron powder used for the dry method are normally a mix of globular shapes, for mobility,
and elongated shapes for their attractive powers. Where as the iron oxides mobility is aided
by being dispersed in fluid and flowed in suspension over the component so the particles can
be of the elongated shape.

- -
Visibility and contrast are very important because, if a great deal of care is taken choosing the
correct shape, permeability, density etc so that the particles form a good indication and the
inspector does not see it, why carry out the inspection. Visibility and contrast are enhanced by
choosing the colour of a particle that stand out against the surface of the material under test.
The natural colours of the particles (iron powder silver-grey and iron oxide, black or red) can
be coated with a pigment to enhance their visibility. Several colours are available such as
white, black, red, yellow and the fluorescent yellowlgreen visible under UV-A. The choice of
colours must be made by the operator to provide the best possible visibility against the surfaces
of the test component under the conditions of shop lighting that prevail. Contrast paints,
usually while are available to enhance the contrast and mask confusing back ground surfaces.
These contrast paints must be used in accorclance with the specification/procedure that you are
I working to.

The visible lighting require~nentswhen utilising colour contrast inks and UV-A requircrnents
when utilizing fluorewent inks must be obtained from the procedurelspecification that you are
working to. Further information can be found on UV-A and fluorescent in Lesson 12.

<AS we have already stated several factors contribute to the sensitivity of the system and no one
single item makes it more sensitive. For instance: Iron powders have a higher permeability
than do iron oxides but iron oxides are more sensitive to finding extremely fine surface cracks,

Document Issue No Amendment N o Lesson Page No Date

when used in the wet method, than iron powders. But iron powder excel when the location of
sub surface inclusions is required utilizing the dry method. For the best visibility and contrast
fluorescent particles utilized in either the wet or dry method are the best.


Most sensitive for very fine surface cracks.
Most sensitive for very shallow surface cracks.
It quickly covers all surfaces.
Its a fast test method.
Excellent particle mobility.
The concentration is easy to control.
Well adapted to the short time shot technique (continuous method).
Readily adaptable to automatic unit operation.
Its not usually capable of finding discontinuities lying wholly below the surface, if it is more
than 25pm deep.
L . ..
Its messy to work with.
A recirculating system is required.
Post inspection cleaning can be a problem.


Excellent for discontinuities below the surface.
Easy to use on large objects.
Easy to use for field inspection.
Good mobility when used with A.C. or H.W.R.
Not as messy as the wet method.
Equipment can be less expensive.
Not as sensitive as the wet met: od for very fine and shallow surface cracks.
Not easy to cover all surfaces properly.
Slower than the wet melhod.
Not readily usable for the short time shot technique.
Difficult to adapt to a mechanised system.

The bath fluid or vehicle may be either a light petroleum distillate of specific properties or

do cum en^ Issue No A~nendmsnlNo Lesson Page N o Date

. -
MTITRNIWS 1 0 8 3 of5 20.07.94
Oil was a natural first choice as a bath liquid, since most machine parts that are inspected tend
to have an oily film on their surface. Gross amounts of oil or grease shall bc removed, but any
film remaining is readily wetted and dissolved by the light oil of the bath. 'The oil should have
very definite properties to be suitable for bath purposes. It should be a well-refined, light
petroleum distillate of low viscosity, odorless, with a low sulphur content, with a high flash
point and fairly high, narrow boiling range. Conditioners are added to maintain proper
dispersion of the particles in the oil.

Of these properties, viscosity is probably the most important from a functional standpoint. High
viscosity sufficiently retards the movement of particles under the influence of leakage fields to
have a definite effect in reducing the build-up, and therefore the visibility of an indication of
a small discontinuity. Heavy oil from the surface of parts tends to build up in the baths and
increase its viscosity. This is the main reason for pre-cleaning parts to remove oil and grease.

Much lighter distillates would have a much lower viscosity than those usually used, but they
would have other properties undesirable in a magnetic particle bath. Lighter distillates would
have an initial boiling point lower than that required and therefore a lower flash point, making
them a greater fire hazard. Also, evaporation losses from the tank would be greater with a
lighter oil. Breathing unpleasant fumes from a high distillate leads to operator discomfort.

The attractions for the use of water instead of oil for magnetic particle wet method baths are
lower initial costs, lower viscosity (about 1 centistoke) resulting in higher mobility with a more
rapid formation of indications and ready availability and not a fire hazard.

The cost for the water based baths increases as wetting agents, anti-foaming materials, corrosion
inhibitors, suspension and dispersing agents are added to ensure the correct function of the bath.

Since water is a conductor of electricity, units in which it is to be used are designed to isolate
all high voltage circuits in such a way as to avoid all possibility of an operator receiving a
shock. The equipment should be thoroughly and positively grounded. Electrolysis of parts of
the units can occur if proper provision is not made to avoid this. Units designed to be med
with water as a suspensoid are, however, safe for the operator and minimize the corrosion
problem. There is no restriction as to the water that is used for the bath, as there is in the case
of oil. Ordinary tap water is suitable, and hardness is not a problem since the mineral content
of the water does not interfere with the conditioning chemicals necessary to prepare the bath.

Document Issue No Atnendlnsnl N o>on Page No Date

hfTlTITRNIIII5 1 0 8 4of5 20.07.94
The particles used are obtained in a highly concentrated form and may be either fluorescent or
non-fluorescent. Particles to be used for water based inks cannot be used for oil hased inks and
visa versa. To achieve the required test sensitivity, the degree of particle concentration in the
bath must be correct.

Agitation must be constant while the bath is in use to maintain the particles in suspension.

Agitation is usually accomplished by electrically driven pumps.

The bath should be checked daily due to evaporation and loss of particles that are removed from
the bath by the specimen, see Lesson 16 for more information on quality control.

A further vehicle for magnetic particles is a fluid rubber. This is utilized in the magnctic
rubber technique. The carrier is a fluid rubber which has the magnetic particles in suspension.
To cure the rubber, to a solid, small amounts of catalyst and cure stabilizer are added. After
a period of time (dependent on the amount of catalyst and stabilizer added) the rubber cures
trapping the particles where they were held by the magnetic leakage field.

Document Issue No Amrndnienl No Lesson Page No Dale

. ---9


A number of factors must be considered when determining what current amperage to use for
circular magnetisation. Some of the more important of these factors are:

The type of discontinuity being searched for and its expected ease or difficulty of being

The part's permeability, size, shape and cross-sectional area through which the current
will flow.

.o The amount of heating that can be tolerated in the part and at the current contact areas.

The magnetising force at any point on the outside surface of a part through which electric
current is flowing will vary with the current amperage. The greater the amperage the greater
will be this magnetising force. Inside the part, just under the point on the surface, the magnetic
flux density will be the product of this magnetising force and the magnetic permeability of the
part at that point. It is this magnetic flux density which determines the leakage field strengths
at discontinuities. Thus current arnperage is directly related to the strength of leakage fields
at discontinuities and it is these leakage fields which capture and hold magnetic particles. The
more difficult the discontinuities are to detect, the greater amperage will be required to form
discernible magnetic particle indications. The discontinuities referred to in this case are those
which approximately parallel the direction of current flow with all or part of the c-;wrlar field
generated by current crossing them.

\ The amount of current will vary with the shape and permeability of the mate~ialbeing tested.
g A test specimen with a typical indication is a good method to assure that only enough current
is used to show the indication.

Too much current will burn that part or may cause heavy accumulation of iron particles.

Too little current may not provide sufficient flux leakage to attract the iron particles.

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hlTi1 RNllU5 1 0 9 1 of9 20.07.94
. -- -
The current value to be used on a component shall be determined from the relevant
specificationlprocdure used by the student at their place of work.

The following list illustrates the variation in current values used by different companies
and standards, all values are peak.


General Engineering: 7.5 Almm of diameter
2.4 Almm of periphery

Aerospace: 28 Almm of diameter

9 Almm of periphery

ASTM E 1444
Any use: 12 to 32 Almm of diameter (diameter equals greatest distance between any two
points on the out side circumference of a component).

40 Almm of diameter is to be used when inspecting precipitqtion hardened steel

for inclusions.


Rolls-Royce Components: 20 A/mm of diameter
6.5 A/mm of cross section periphery


Dowty Components: 39.4 Almm of diameter
12.6 A/mm of periphery
20% to 40% increase for high carbon or alloy steel.

There are also different methods of calculating the current and number of shots required
to cover a component when utilising the threader barlcentral conductor technique, agkin the
specificationlprocedure in use must be followed.

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~ ~ ~ R N ~ 1I S 0 9 2of9 20.07.91
The following illustrates the calculation variation for the number of shots when utilizing
threader bars:

Where: Dp = diameter of hole

Dc = diameter of threader bar
- 3.14159
S - number of shots

or: Number of Shots = Circumference of component

-- +1

Where: r = twice the distance from the centre of the threading bar to
the outside diameter of the component.

or: The distance along the component circumference (interior) that is

effectively magnetised shall be taken as four times the diameter of the
central conductor.

What would the amperage be utilising the British Standard 6072 Ae.rospace values for the
component on the threader bar shown below: Utilise the formula

S - DDT to calculate the number of shots?


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MTARNIIII~ 1 0 9 3of9 20.07.94

When utilising prods the current value required is determined by the prod spacing and size of
the area to be covered.

The following list illustrates the variation in current values used by different specifications, all
values are peak.

ASTM E 1444
On materials less than 19mm in thickness 3.5 to 4.5 Almm shall be used. When the material
is greater than 19mm in thickness 4.0 to 5.0 Almm shall be used. he
effective width of the
magnetising field is one fourth of the prod spacing on each side of a line through the prod

On flat surfaces and those with radii of curvature greater than half the prod spacing, the current
value is not to be less than 7500 Alm.

Alternatively, with the same restrictions on the radii of curvature, the inspected area shall be
an ellipse inscribed between the prods, with the minor axis equal to half the prod spacing. The
current value shall not be less than 4700 Alm.

When inspecting a narrow region (approximating prod width) the current shall not be Jess
than 3750 Alm.


When halfwave rectified current is used, the field strength per ampere is about the same as with
direct current (D.C.) at typical prod spacings.

However, since H.W.R. consumes less power and produces lower heating effects at the prod
contact points, it is often recommended. H. W .R. also produces better powder mobility than


When a coil is used to produce longitudinal magnetisation, the effective field it creates is
determined by the product of the number of amperes and the number of turns on the coil.

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MTITRN/IUS 1 0 9 4of9 20.07.94

f For example, a current of 800 amperes through a five-turn coil creates a magnetising force of
4000 ampere turns, (4000 NI).

A number of factors must be considered when determining current amperage for longitudinal
magnetisation of parts. Some of the more important factors are:

A. The coil diameter and the number of turns.

b. Cross-sectional area of the part and the coil.
c. The length to diameter (LID) ratio of the part.
d. The size, permeability, shape and composition of the part.
e. The orientation of position of the part within the coil.
f. The kind of discontinuities being sought and their ease of detection.

The magnetising field strength (H), in the centre of the magnetising coil increaes or decreases
with either the coil current or its number of turns. ( ~ l s oit can be seen that the field strength
will decrease if the coil radius is made larger or will increase if the radius is made smalle9
(The field is theoretically zero in the coil--centre and increases to a maximum at the inside edge

of the conductor(s)) \Thus a part placed against the inside of a coil, for example lying in the
bottom of the coil, will experience a greater magnetising field strength than when it is centred
in the coil?

A magnetic part while being magnetised in a coil has magnetic poles generated at its ends. The
magnetising force between these poles is in a direction opposite to that of the coil field resulting
in a demagnetising effect. The closer the poles are together and the stronger they are, the
greater the demagnetising effect will be. This demagnetising effect decreases the magnetising
force within a part so that it will be less that it would be if the part was removed. Rule-of-
thumb formulae have been developed to help determine the amount of amperage required to
induce an ,.dequate longitudinal magnetic field i n a part. These formulae apply particularly well
to cylindrically-shaped parts and are explain. d in the following paragraphs.

The rule-of-thumb formulae to be used for determining coil amperages for longitudinal
magnetisation shall be taken from the relevant specificationlproced~~res
used by the student at
their place of work.

The following list illustrates the variation in formulae used by different standards, all vallles are

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MTITRNIWS I 0 9 5of9 20.07.94

For cylindrical components, this is equal to the following:

Where: OD = Outside diameter of the cylinder

ID = Inside diameter of the cylinder

The LID ratio is to be greater than 2 and less than 15 for the above formulae.


For all components: position to the side of the coil.

L = Length of component
D = Diameter of component for circular sections (for non circular
sections D = perimeter T)
N - Number of turns in the coil
I = Amperes required through the coil

No compensation is made for hollow components and the LID ratio is to be greater than 5 and
less than 20.

The following formulae are to be used when the cross-sectional area of the coil is less than
twice the cross-sectional area (including hollow portions) of the component under test.

ASTM E 1444
NI = K

Where: K - 35000 A turns
L = Length of component
D = Diameter of component
- Numbcr of turns in the coil
I = Amperes required through the coil

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MTTTRPJIIIIS I 0 9 7 of9 20.07.94

-- -. - -
D,, may be used on hollow or cylindrical components, and the LID ratio is to be greater that
2 and less than 15 for the above formulae.

D.C. I = 7.5 (T 3- (Y 2/4T))

Where: I -
- Peak current value
T = Wall thickness of the component, or its radius if it is a solid
bar of circular section. (mm)
Y = Spacing between adjacent windings in the coil. (mm)

A.C. I = 7.5 (10 + (Y /40))


Where: I -
- Peak current value
Y = Spacing between adjacent windings in the coil (mm)

No compensation is made for hollow/cylindrical components.

Where an intermediate fill factor coil is used (cross-sectional area of the coil is between 2 and
10 times the cross-sectional area of the part) ASTM El444 utilises the formula:

Where: (NI), = Value of NI calculated for low fill factor coils using the
previous formula
(NIh = Value of NI calculated for high fill factor coils using the
previous formula.
t -
- Ratio of the cross-sectional area of the coil to the cross-
sectional area of the part (for example if the coil is 300mm
in diameter and the part is 150mm in diameter, t = (T x
1502)l(nx 752) = 4)

If the LID ratio is less than required by the specification the lines of flux tend to distort with
a chance of self demagnetisation occumng. 'To alleviate this problem extenders may be used.
Extenders should be of sufficient length to increase the LID ratio and be of the same material

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MTmRNiWS 1 0 9 8of9 20.07.94

as the component under test and approximately the same sizeldian~eter. The use of extenders
will also reduce the current flowing through the coil.

So far only simple shapes have been dealt with, when the components shape becomes complex,
calculation of the current value required becomes a very different matter.

Over a non-uniform cross-section current will distribute itself evenly over the cross section, so
that current flowing in each area of the section is the same, provided contact is made evenly
over the entire cross section.

It the cross-section varies along the length of the component, the current will spread out or
condense to occupy the changed section with a resultant change in field strength.

Thus other means are required to obtain the correct current value to be used. These methods
are covered in lesson 10.

Document Issue N o Amendment No Lesson Page No Date


Some specifications require a minimum flux density to be obtained to ensure that all
discontinuities (perpendicular to the flux direction) are located. The measurement of magnetic
flux or field strength either within a part or at the part's surface is extremely difficult. There
have been several attempts at developing practical methods or devices. These methods or
devices have all been limited in success and contain serious limitations. They do serve a
purpose in instruction development if their limitations are understood. A procedure or
instruction will be developed for a particular part using rule of thumb and past experience.
The actual part will then be subjected to the proposed procedure and the devices c ; method used
to check the field strength at critical points.

The following paragraphs discuss some of the methods available and their advantages and
limitations. The requirements laid sown in the specification/procedure, being followed, at their
place of work regarding field measurements are to be followed by the student.

( T h e flux meter is an instrument that measures the total change of flux through a coil
independent of the rate of change.) It consists of a coil connected to a ballistic galvanometer
through suitable long-time-constant circuitry. When the magnetic flux through the coil changes,
either by moving the coil or the part, or otherwise varying the field in the part by some means,
the needle of the galvanometer swings and indicates the amount of change. The change in flux
may be in either the positive or the negative direction.

If the flux is zero to begin with and is increased to a value "A" the total change will be the flux
at the value "A". If the area of the coil is known, the average flux density within the coil that
is, the average flux per unit of area can be readily calculated.

This device measures the average flux, and consequently the flux density (B) through the coil,
provided the flux through the coil is zero either at the start or at the end of the measurement.

If an unmagnetized piece of ferromagnetic material is magnetized while in the coil, the total
change of flux is indicated by the meter which is the total flux in the part.

- - .-
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- -
The coil is separate from the meter, and is wound by the user to suit the particular problem
at hand. It is connected to the flux meter by a pair of electrical leads. The flux measured is
that parallel to the axis of, and within the coil. Therefore the direction of the field must also
be known before a measurement can be made. In an irregular shaped part the direction of the
field is not easily determined. But with a synmetrical part, such as a bearing race, which has
uniform cross-section around its circumference, the direction of the field when magnetized with
a central conductor is circumferential. In such a case the measurement of the flux is very
accurate. The coil is wound around the race so as to be perpendicular to the cross-section.
Figure 1 illustrates this arrangement. Generally the coil should be made to sit snugly; however,
little error is introduced by coil fit unless the fit is very poor, since, due to the high
permeability of the steel compared to air, nearly all the flux will be in the steel ring.

The change in flux is obtained by first setting the meter to zero with the magnetizing current
off, and then noting the reading when the current is turned on. The value of the flux is
obtained by the formula.

Flux = K x Deflection
Number of Turns

K is a constant for meter used, which in the example is 10'

D is the deflection read on the galvanometer
N is the number of turns on the coil

The flux density is obtained by dividing the total flux by the cross-section of the coil.

Flux Density = B - - Flux .-

Coil Area

A is the area of the area of the coil. The result is in terms of lines per unit of area. If the
cross-section is expressed in square centirnetres, the resulting value of flux density will be in

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTfTRNIIUS 1 0 10 :!of8 20.07.94



Flux Meter

e flux meter measures the flux density Q within the componerit, bu t the component has
be of a fairly simple geometry.


Hall Effect Meter
The Hall Effect meter measures the magnetic field strength (H) near the surface of a
component. The Hall Effect principle is based on electric current passing through a small
crystal of semiconductor (ie indium - arsenide, germanium) containeil with a probe. When the
probe is placed on the component and the magnetic field passes through the crystal a voltage
is generated across the crystal. The lnagnitude of the voltage is directly proportional to the
magnetic flux density within the crystal. The relative permeability p, of the sen~iconductoris
very close to 1, so the voltage generated in the crystal is proportional to the magnetic field
strength at the point where the probe is placed. The probe design (crystal orientation) dictates
whether the tangential, normal or axil field is measured. The voltage generated by the probe
is measured by an electronic circuit and indicated on a meter marked in units of field strength.

Document Issue No Amendment No . Lesson Page No Date

hff~h'llUS 1 0 10 30f8 20.07.94
- --
The Hall effect meter is meter is calibrated with a series of standard magnets which provide
known values of field strength within the working range of the instrument. Manufacturers
supply a zero-field chamber which is required to set the zero. If the peak value of a time-
varying field is required, the meter reading is multiplied by a conversion factor, the value of
which depends upon the shape of the waveform and upon the 111t:asuringprinciple en~ployedby
the instrument.

Tesla Star (DSF-1 Fluxmeter)

This meter utilizes two spring loaded contacts which when placed on a component measures the
current flowing within the con~ponentwhich is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic
flux density. The current value is then used in a calculation which relates to flux density (B).
The problem is that each different type of ferromagnetic materjal has a different permeability
which is required for the above calculation. To get round this the DSF-1 uses a relative
permeability of 240 for all its calculations. However as the majority of engineering steels are
of a higher permeability then 240, the actual flux density will be higher than that indicated.

The disadvantages of Field Strength Meters are that some measure field strength and not the
flux density within the component, whilst other use a fixed relative permeability. Some meters
can be used to measure remanent field whilst other cannot and the Hall Effect probe type ie
tangential, axial, must be known other wise incorrect readings will be obtained. Certain meters
require known field strengths to ensure that they are correctly calibrated for use and all will
require an annual calibration to known standards.


Flux indicators consist of a magnetic material which is interrupted by non-magnetic spacers.
When the flux indicator is placed on the surface of a magnetized specimen, flux is induced in
it. The non-magnetic spacers behave as artificial flaws. If the magnetic field at the surface of
the specimen is sufficiently high, leakage flux above the a~tificialflaws can be detected by the
application of a magnetic particle ink or powder.

Several flux indicators are presently available and a brief description of each follows:

Berthold G a u ~ e
The Magnetotest-Penetrameter consists of a remanence-free shield ring into which an iron
cylinder sectioned into four quarters, is ~1:'-ed.The cuts in the iron cylinder si~nulatedartificial
flaws in the form of a cross. The iron cylinder is covered by a thin brass plate, which can be
varied in distance to and from the test piece.

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- --
MTTTRNIIIIS 1 0 10 4of8 20.07.94
placed on a magnetized test piece, magnetic lines pass
,. . .,magnetic powder or fluorescent magnetic ink is sprayed
over the Magnetotest-Penetrameter, the cuts in the iron cylinder become visible. By turning
the Magnetotest-Penetrmeter around its axis, the maximum ~ndicationon the cut indicates
precisely the magnetic field direction. The magnetic field direction is perpendicular to the
artificial flaw at maximum indication.

For the determination of magnetizing efficiency, penetration and quality of the fluorescent ink
suspension, the outside ring of the Magnetotest-Penetrameter is turned slowly, increasing the
distance of the thin brass plate from the test piece. The amount of lift-off at the point where

the indication just disappears is a measure of magnetic particle test efficiency. The lift-off is
read to plus or minus % m m on the shielding ring.

Berthold Gauge

Pie G a w
This is similar in principle to the Berthold gauge and has eight identical segments of ferrous
material which are joined together with non-magnetic spacers of uniform thickness to form a
flat disc. One surface of the disc is covered with a non-magnetic foil so that the spacers form
sub-surface artificial flaws. The foil prevents the penetration into the surface of magnetic
particles which would produce permanent and misleading indications. The performance of
segment type indicators depends upon the magnetic properties of the ferrous segments and the
thickness of the spacer.

Documen! Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Dale

. -
hlT~NlIV5 I 0 10 5of8 20.07.94
Foil Type
Cast rol Strips
These indicators consist of a magnetic foil containing slots to simulate flaws, sandwiched
between two non-magnetic foils. The simulated flaws are arranged in parallel linear patterns.
Indicators with parallel linear flaws are thin (less than 0.2mm thick) and flexible, malclng them
suitable for use on curved surfaces. This feature gives them an advantage over the segment

Non- m a g n e t i c gaps

Foil Type Magnetic Flux Indicator

Ouantitative Ouality Indicators. (001's)

These shims are 19mm square and 50 microns thick which have bars or circles etched into the
surface depending on the type used. The depth of etch represents 20%, 30% or 40% or the
shim thickness.

Document Issue N o Amendment N o Lesson Page N o Dare

. -
MTRRNllllS I 0 I0 6 of8 20.07.94
- -- -- --
The magnetic properties of any portable flux indicators are chosen to produce visible indications
at selected field intensity values. They are made with high permeability magnetic materials with
low coercivity and low remanence so that flux can be easily induced in them without
permenantly magnetizing the indicators. To ensure complete symmetry, segment type indicators
need to be very accurately assembled.

Portable flux indicators show the principal direction of the magnetic field perpendicular to the
orientation of the artificial flaw which is most clearly indicated. If it is necessary to know the
sensitivity, the flux indicator is placed in known values of the field strength. Below the
sensitivity value no indications are seen, whilst above the value the pattern of indications is fully
developed. Portable flux indicators calibrated in this way can provide a guide to the field
strength at the surface of a test piece.

A flux indicator placed on the surface of a test piece senses the same quantity as a field strcngth
meter whose probe is placed at the same point. Both devices may be used with confidence
when the magnetizing technique produces no free poles. The techniques for which this is true
are current flow, current flow (prods), threading bar and induced current flow. Magnetic field
strength meters and portable flux indicators should not be used when magnetisation is performed
by permanent magnets or by d.c. electromagnets, except to verify that the ink or powder is
suitable for its purpose and is correctly applied. Permanent magnetic in good contact with the
test piece produce low values of surface field strength, but poor contact leads to large leakage
fields from the pole pieces. Such fields cause erroneous results on field strength meters and
flux indicators. These devices also give misleading results with coil magnetization techniques.
However, they can be used with care with bench magnetizers employing the magnetic flow
technique, and with electromagnetic yokes subject to alternating current excitation.


The use of a eddy current device in a prescribed manner can effectively indicate the direction
and relative level of magnetic field intensity at the surface of a magnetized test part. To relate
the meter readings of flux density hon.ever, necessitates the development of a separate
calibration curve for each material with full consideration given to all the physical and
metallurgical properties of the part. Since maximum material permeability is an optimum
characteristic in selecting a magnetization level, it would appear from a practical aspect than
an eddy current device would serve well to determine this characteristic. Recent tests have

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hlTKRNIIY5 1 0 10 7 of8 20.07.93

.- .
shown that when an eddy current probe (insensitive to stray magnetic fields external to the part)
is placed against the test part md the part magnetized with increasing current, the indicating
pointer will not significantly move off its zero position until near maximum material
permeability has been achieved. To test for discontinuities at a specific location on a test part
without using formulas or rules of thumb, it is only necessary to place the probe on the test part
in the area of suspected discontinuities and increase the current until the eddy current device
indicating pointer deflects signifying near maximum material permeability. At this time, further
processing may be initiated with reasonable assurance that suspected discontinuities, if present,
will be indicated. Unlike some laboratory instruments used to measure magnetic field intensity,
eddy current devices are designed to withstand the comparative rough handling that may be
found in a magnetic particle inspection shop.

Document Issue N o Amsndrnent N o Lesson Page N o Date

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MT/TRN/II/S 1 0 10 8of8 20.07.94

A remanent magnetic field may not be desirable in the part for several reasons:

1. Remanent fields will affect magnetic compasses or create problems with delicate
2. Remanent fields in rotating parts will attract metal particles, causing excessive wear or
3. Parts are also demagnetised so that all magnetic particles can be removed for further
4. Remanent fields can cause "arc blow" which deflects the molten metal during DC weld

A ferromagnetic part can become magnetised in many ways, such as:

1. The earths magnetic field can magnetise components. This usually occurs when a part
is vibrated or shocked while its long axis is parallel to the earths field.
, 2. Parts may become magnetised when subject to electric arc welding.
3. When tested utilizing magnetic particle inspection.
I 4. Components stored near high current electric circuits.
5. Contact with permanent magnets or other highly magnetised objects ie magnetic chucks.
, 6. Low frequency induction heating can magnetise a component.


1. The remanent field is in the same direction as the magnetic field.
2. The remanent field is weaker than the magnetising field.
3. The original magnetizing force causes the remanent field.
er 4. When an article has been magnetised in more than one direction, the second field applied
completely overcomes the first field. However, this is only true if the second field is
stronger than the first. Otherwise the original field remains the dominant.

It is difficult to tell whether a circularly magnetised bar is demagnetised because the flux lines
do not normally leave the bar. One the other hand, it is easy to tell if a longitudinally
magnetised bar is still magnetised or demagnetised due to the lines of flux entering and leaving
the bar.
- --

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MT~IIIIS 1 0 11 1 of7 20.07.94
* (Therefore, it is often recommended that n circularly rnagnetised part be longitudinally
magnetised and then go through the denlagnetisation procedure.

Dernagnetising a part that has been longitudinally magnetised.

Each time the magnetising field is reduced and reversed, the residual field is reduced.

@ 9 Reversing the Magnetic Field

1. Reversing the part in the magnetic field.
2. Reversing the current through the coil.
3. Reversing the coil (turn the coil 180").

e a Reducing the Magnetic E'ield

1. Reduce the magnetising current.
2. Move the part away from the coil.
3. Move the coil away from the part.

Any method of demagnetisation will combine one of the methods to reduce the rnagnetising field
with one of the methods to reverse the magnetising field.

@ Dernagnetisation is defined as:

( The removal of rernanent magnetism by simultaneously or alternately reducing the strength and
reversing the direction of 2 magnetic field.

-- -

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hlTfIXNIW5 1 0 11 2of7 20.07.94
Alternating current is electrical current flowing through a wire, first in one direction, then in
the opposite direction.

Each time the current reverses direction, the magnetic field of the coil reverses. ('This meets
one of the two requirements for demagnetisation).

To complete the demagnetisation process, the part is placed in the reversing magnetic field as
shown below, and the current is slowly reduced which reduces the strength of the magnetic

A Rheostat is often used to reduce the current through the coil.

I)elu;~g~retisatiouFlux-Curve Projected from Ilystpresis Curve

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hiTmNIIV5 1 0 1I 3 of7 20.07.91
. -----
( Reducing the magnetising field in an hC coil dernagnetiser is usually done by slowly moving
the article away from the coil.


With DC the current is not automatically reversed. It is therefore necessary to have some
mechanical means to reverse the current. Because DC is more penetrating than AC, it is used

on large parts. The maximum degree of demagnetisation can be obtained with DC when the
field is reversed at a frequency of one reversal per second.
I n DC demagnetisation, the magnetizing field should be reduced first, then reversed.

(A rule of thumb for demagnetising soft iron: At least 10 reversals, but not over 30.
AC hand yokes provide a portable means for some cases they are more
effective than coil-type demagnetisers, because can be concentrated into
a relatively small the legs of the yoke can be adjusted, the space between the legs
should be such demagnetised will pass between them as close as possible;) b i t h
the current flowing around the yoke, the parts are passed between the legs and withdrawn.)

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

On large parts, the yoke, with the current flowing is stroked across the part in a large circle.
This method of denlagnetisation is quite effective.

(when a ferromagnetic material is heated past its Curie Point (approximately 770•‹C for soft
point the steel becomes
.rYC X
steels) it becomes nonmagnetic and its permeability drops to 1, the same as air. Above this
When the steel cools down it goes through the reverse
transformation, and unless cooled under the influence of a magnetic field, will contain no
remanent magnetism.

\ ~ h e n an article is demagnetised,the earth's field will leave a small amount of remanent

magnetism in the article if the demagnetising field is also in a north-south direction.

Where complete demagnetisation is required, the demagnetisation field must be placed in a east-
west direction (the coil opening facing east and west).

Occasionally attempts to demagnetise a part will result in chasing magnetic poles from one
location on the part to another. This may be due to the particular geometry of the part or its
orientation with respect to the demagnetising field. This situation can usually be alleviated by
rotating the part while it is within the influence of the demagnetising field. \.,It has also been
found that vibration of a part during dz mgnetisation can held remove stubborn remanent fields.;.


There is no satisfactory method by which the magnetic field can be measured inside the article
without destroying it.

(There must be a leakage field in order to dct; mine whether the article is rnagnetised. &,

1. Compares the strength of the external
field of the article with a fixed field
inside the indicator.
@ 2. Is used more to locate flux leakage than
to measure field strength.
3. Is used to show when the part is dernagnetised.

Document Issue No Arnzndnicnl No Lesson Page No Date

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MTITRNIWS 1 0 II 5017 20.07.94
- -- - .- --
The field indicator, a pocket instrument, is used to determine the relative intensity of leakage
fields emanating from a part. A typical field indicator is shown i n figure 1 and the theory of
operation is quite simple. As indicated i n figure 2, as elliptically-shaped, soft-iron vane is
attached to a pointer which has pivot points in top and bottom bearings. A rectangularly-
shaped permanent magnet is mounted in a fixed position directly above the soft-iron vane.
Since the soft-iron vane is under the influence of the magnet, it will align its long axis to
correspond with the direction of the leakage field of the magnet. In so doing, the vane becomes
magnetised and has a magnetic pole induced at each end of its long axis. On the end af the
vane, which is below the south pole(s) of the magnet, a north pole will be induced.
Correspondingly, a south pole will be induced at the other end of the vane, below the north
pole of the magnet.

f,,i\i2) E L L I P T I C SHAPED
L.' ..J


Figure 1

When a field indicator is placed in a magnetic field, it indicates the strc.~gthof the portion of
the magnetic field which passes through the sensing element of the indicator. The indicator
gives an indication of magnetising force of the leakage field passing through its sensing element
rather then the flux density in the part from which the leakage field emanates. When meas~~ring
the strength of a magnetic field in air, the permeability of air being one, the nlagnetising force
and the magnetic field have the same numerical value: thus the flux density is the same. When
measuring the strength of the leakage field emanating from a part, the indicator senses only
the field at some distance above the part. The distance above the part is from the centre of the

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sensing element to the bottom of the indicator when it is placed on the parts siirface. The flux
density of the field in the part will be greater than indicated by the field indicator. How much
greater will depend upon the permeability of the part, shape of the part, and the effect of the
part distance from the sensing element in the indicator. Since these variables have an effect on
determining flux density, i t is recommended that the field indicator be used only as a
comparative indicator of the flux leakage from a part. The sensing element in newer indicators
are of a ceramic-like material which is very resistant to demagnetisation. The indicator,
however, must still be kept away from the field that are strong enough to damage the needle
because of rapid or violent defection beyond full scale reading.

Note: The field indicators come in a variety of different and sizes and will only read
correctly when its orientation to the field is is also important to note
different readings can be obtained with an identical leakage field.

A suitable compass is placed in a position well clear of all magnetising and demagnetising
equipment or any ferromagnetic material. The component under test is them positioned at the
specified distance on the east-west axis and slowly rotated through 360". During this operation,
the compass needle shall not be deflected through more than 1 ". If this limit is exceeded, the
component shall be demagnetised again and the compass test repeated.

The specified distance is laid down in the specification or procedure.

The measuring device, usually a Hall Effect probe, is placed on the surface of the component
and it is rotated and moved over the component to measure the largest value of magnetic field
adjacent to the surface. If the specified limit is exceeded, the component shall be demagnetised
again and the test repeated.

The Hall Effect is discribed in Lesson 10.

The indicated remanent field allowed after demagnetisation is laid down in the specification or

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Ultraviolet radiation is an clectromagnctic radiation whose waveiengths range between X-rays

and visible light. The ultraviolet range is divided into three bands of the following spectral

\ UV-A 315nm to 400nm. (Comnionly refered to as "Black Light").
UV-B 280nm to 315nm.
UV-C lOOnm to 280nm.

Figure 1 shows an electromagnetic spectrum whose range is 104m to 101'm. The position of
the ultraviolet spectrum is also shown.
long wavelenglh (rn) -. -short

--- .- -- -. hl.jh

Orange Yellow Green D l ue Violet UV-A UV-B UV- C

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(This is the property of a material to absorb electromagnetic radiation of a particular wavelength

and the re-emission of the electromagnetic radiation of a greater or visible wave length.

When fluorescent materials used in non-destructive testing, are energisedlexcited by ultraviolet

radiation they emit visible light, the colour of the emitted light depends upon the materials used.
Each type of material emits a specific wavelength ranging from violet (400nm) to red


There are several methods of generating ultraviolet energy. Three of these are:

a. Carbon arc.
b. Low pressure fluorescent tubes.
c. High pressure, mercury vapour bulbs.


The method utilises an electric current which is arcing between two carbon electrodes. This
generates a high quantity of electromagnetic radiation which spans a range from 10 nanometres
to over 10 micrometers. This covers the entire ultraviolet and visible light spectrum and a

portion of the infrared range. The disadvantzges of using a carbon arc are, the need for a high
electrical power supply and the system is very bulky


These are similar to the starldard fluorescent tubes used in house hold lighting, but instead of

an inert gas the tube contains metallic merctlry. When an electrical c ,rrent is applied, the
mercury vaporises and emits an ultraviolet r'ldiati n with a wave length of approximately
254nm. As this wave length is of no use in non-destructive testing to energise / excite
fluorescent dyes, the inside of the tube is coated with a phospher.) The phospher is energised
/ excited by the ultraviolet radiation and ernits wave lengths in the range of 320nm to 440nm.

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The amount of ultraviolet light at 365nm wavelength is small compared to the harmful short
wavelength radiation and the visible light emitted from the tube. The short wavelength and
visible light can be removed by making the tube from cobalt glass (Kopp 41). While this
removes all undesired wavelengths i t also reduces the 365nm wavelength making i t unsuitable
for inspection purposes. Also the tube cannot be easily focused so its intensity per unit area
is very low.


These b ~ l b sutilise a quartz envelope, containing mercury plus a small amount of neon gas,
under high pressure. When the bulb is turned on the mercury is a liquid and an arc, between
the electrodes, cannot be struck. This is the purpose of the neon. A small a]-rountof current,
limited by the resister, causes a discharge from the starting electrode through the neon. This
glow is sufficient to vaporise the mercury v,,hich then allows the arc to pass between the main
electrodes. This starting procedure requires a minimum of 15 minutes to fully vaporise the
mercury and produce the maximum output of ultraviolet light. (see figure 2) Every
specification has a set minimum time for the warm up of a lamp and this time shall be followed
even if it is less than or greater than the above stated time. '





.' lJULU

Figure 2
I&constnlction of a h k h pressure mercury arc lamp

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From the above it can be seen that the Iiigh pressure mercury arc bulb i s best suited for E o n -
destructive testing uses. The bulb has a good output at a reasonable distance, they can be
focused, to increase their intensity on a localised area. Also bulbs range from a 2 watt pencil
type, to a &QQ-.a~t floodlight. Figure 3 illustrates the output spectrum of a high pressure
mercury arc bulb.

Wavelength in nanometers

J%wt-e 3
The Spectnirn o f output of a high pressure mercury arc hulb.


\ T h e glass filter almost universally used, to remove practically all the visible light and all the
radiation whose wavelength is below 315nm, is cobalt/woods glass which has been designated
woods glass or "Kopp..'41 ". The colour of the cobalt glass is a dense red-purple. The surface
of the filter may be 'snlooth or fluted, the fluted surface gives a slightly larger foci~sedspot than
the smooth surface filter. The transmission curve of the Kopp 41 filter can be seen in tigure

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hfTflRNI1IIS 1 0 12 4 of 10 20.07.94
Wavelength in nanometers

Figure 4
Transmission curve o f the Kopp 41 filter

From figure 4 it can be seen that the transnlission curve peaks at 365nm and a small aniotint
of visible violet light is transmitted. This violet light is not undesirable since it allows the
inspector to see the objects in the immediate vicinity of the ultraviolet source and therefore
facilitates the handling of parts during inspection. The filter also passes some infrared
radiation, but this does not affect the inspection.


The intensity of the ultraviolet bulb should be checked at regular intervals, because a lower than
optimum intensity may seriously affect the inspection results. Several of the reasons for
intensity variations are as follows:

4 1. New bulbs may vary by as much as 50% in their output. This means that with two new
bulbs of the same type and manufacture, one may have the intensity that is half the other
without being defecti~~e.

+ 2. The Ultraviolet intensity varies almost linearly with the line voltage. Figure 5 compares
ultraviolet intensity with line voltage variation.

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Below approximately 90 volts, the lanip will not sustain the niercury arc and the lamp will
extinguish. The light will not restart until the bulb has cooled. Ultraviolet lamps should be
connected to a stable power supply, to alleviate this problem.


Figure 5
Ultraviolet light output as a function of line voltage.

3. The ultraviolet intensity of any bulb decreases with age and as a bulb nears the end of
its lift, output may drop to 25% of what it was when the bulb was new. The life of the
bulbs varies widely. More important than operating hours for decreasing the intensity
is the number of starts the bulb has. A single start can equate to 2 of 3 hours of
continuous use on operating life. The lights should be allowed to remain on until its last
use of the day, instead of being repeatedly switched on and off.

4. The accumulations of oils, films, dust and dirt on the bulb and filter will seriously
reduce the ultraviolet output, sometimes by as much as 50%. This reduction can be

avoided by keeping the filter clean.

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We have previously stated that the fluorescent dyes are selected to emit light in various parts
of the spectrum, from red to violet. Experiments have determined that the human eye has its
highest response to a yellow-green light. The yellow-green light also has the advantage of being
"out of context", compared to the white-blue or white fluorescence of oils and petroleum
distillates that are encountered in non-destructive testing. The yellow-green fluorescent dye is
the most widely used for general purpose non-destructive testing. Figure 6 shows the emission
curve of a typical dye, when energizedlexcited with ultraviolet light whose wavelengths are
between 340nm and 380nm (peaking at 365nm).

200 3 00 4b0
.- - SUll
.--.-- :
GUG 7b0

Wavelength in nanometers

Fimre 6
Emission spectrum of a yellow-green fluorescent dye.

From figure 6 it can be seen that the transmission curve peaks at approximately 520nm.


The ability of the eye to differentiate between colours and degrees of contrast is at a maximum
in strong white light. When the light falls to a low level a different perceptive mechanism
comes into use. In dim light the ability to see dimly-lighted objects and small light sources is
dramatically increased. Figure 7 is an attempt to show these two ranges in graphic form.

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Everyone has the sensation of "unable to see a thing" when passing from a well lighted room
to a dark one, but finding after a short time that objects in the dark room become readily
visible. This increased ability to see in dim light is called "dark adaptation".

.. \

S \


Figure 7
Chart of perception of the human eye no scale is applied.

Depending on the level of illumination that exists when carrying out an inspection, the human
eye has the power to change its ability to perceive objects and differences in light and colours.
Figure 8 shows the relative response of an average human eye to various wavelengths of visible
light using - scotopic and photopic vision.




rr,ctcuCln IM ~ ) r ~ . s r n ~

Figilre 8
Colour response of ;in average human eye.

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Fluorescent indications are viewed in dim light or darkness where the more sensitive eye
mechanism is being used. ('The dark adaptation of the eyes requires twenty minutes in dim light
before it is well attained (but this is w.ry dependant on the person): Every specification has a
set minimum time for dark adaptation and this time shall be followed even if it is less than or
greater than the above stated time.

Once the eyes are dark adapted, minute sources of light, to small to be seen in a bright light
environment, appear relatively brilliant and easily seen, /iThe ability to see small light sources
such as fluorescent indications is increased by the fact that the eye is drawn to any source of
light in a dark background.)


( Reseqch has- found the PROLONGED direct exposure to UV-A MAY accelerate the formation
\ o f z-g k z i n the eye's and that PROLONGED direct exposure to HIGH
damage the DNA in the cells of the skin, hence the higher the -

' The mercury arc produces large amounts of wavelengths less than 315nm, These short
wavelengths are completely removed by the glass envelope and the Kopp 41 filter. The glass
envelope surrounding the mercury arc capsule is not necessarily entirely impervious to the short
wave ultraviolet, and some may get through. The lamp should therefore never be turned on
without the Kopp 41 filter in place, and cracked filters or bulbs should be replaced immediately.
The wavelength from the Kopp 41 filter which peaks at 365nm is well above the wavelength
of ultraviolet light which causes burning of the skin, skin cancer, damages the eye's and
produces ozone, a gas which is pungent in small quantities and poisonous in large quantities.

L~eMercuqarc lamps have high operating temperatures which can reach as high as 390•‹C; This
IS above the ignition or flash point of fuel vapours which could burst into flame if they kontact

the bulb at this temperature. The bulb temperature also heats the external surfaces of the
housing. The temperature is not high enough to be visually apparent but is high enough to
cause severe bums with even momentary colitact of exposed body surfaces.

- -- - -- - - -

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When working with ultraviolet light it will be found that many objects and materials have the
property of fluorescence. The finger nails and teeth fluorescence with a bluish-white light.
Dyes in clothes can fluorescence and white shirts usually fluorescence a bright blue-white
colour, due to daylight fluorescent dyes incorporated in washing powders, to provide a "whiter
than white" finish. I ~ h wearing
e of gloves should stop the UV-A reaching the inspectors hands.

The human eye ball also fluoresces, when UV-A is shone directly into the eyes an unpleasant
effect is experienced when this fluorescence is seen, as it were, from the inside, the effect is
not permanent. The immediate effect of the eye's fluorescing is that the inspectors vision is
temporarily impaired. This effect can be avoided by the correct positioning of the lamp and
ensuring that reflections from polished surfaces do not enter the eyes. Yellow tinted glasses,
such as Bausch and Lamb are available to reduce the amount of UV-A entering the eyes.

Sunglasses or glasses with photochromatic lenses that darken when exposed to sunlight shall not
be worn by inspectors when carrying out any inspection which utilises a fluorescent dye. The
photochromatic lenses will darken when exposed to ultraviolet light and reduce the inspectors
ability to see small indications.

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-- - 13


Prior to discussing the applications, some previously mentioned principles are recapped below:

Several different bases are used for classifying magnetising methods:

1. Whether or not the magnetising force is maintained during the application of the
medium. This included the residual and continuous methods.
2. The character of the field utilized for magnetising which includes the circular and
longitudinal methods.
3. The type of magnetising current used which may be either A.C., D.C., or
H. W.R.

The medium is applied after the specimen has been magnetised and the magnetising force
removed. This method is not used on specimens that have low retentivity.

The magnetising operation is conducted simultaneously with the application of the dry powder
or wet suspension.





Where it is necessary to pass a current through the specimen, care must be exercised to prevent
arcing or overheating at the contact areas.

All contact areas must be clean, and suitable head pressure must be exerted to insure uniform

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Where a solenoid, coil or flux flow is used to magnetise a specimen. If a solenoid or coil is
used it should be no larger than necessary to accommodate the specimen.

To obtain indications of discontinuities that may be subsurface D.C. or H.W.R. should be used.

A.C. is used when the discontinuities are suspected to be on the surface of the specimen ie.


Dry Powder is commonly used for testing weldments where the prod method is employed.

The powder is sprinkled on the surface while the magnetizing current is flowing.

Liquid Medium (Non-Fluorescent) can be used for both wet residual and wet continuous

Liquid Medium (Fluorescent) can also be used with both wet residual and wet continuous

The particles are coated with a fluorescent dye which, when inspected under UV-A light,
fluoresce brilliantly.

The Bath Strength can be checked by the settling test described in Lesson 16 the frequency
of the test is determined by the degree of bath usage with the strength usually dependent upon
the manufacturers' specifications, or the specification'procedure being invoked.

Prior to magnetic particle testing, the specimen should be thoroughly cleaned and demagnetised.

Cleaning may involve removal of flake, slag, heavy build-up of paint, rust, grease or other
organic material that may interfere with the test results.

The smoother the surface and the more uniform the colour, the more favourable are the

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conditions for formation of a magnetic particle indication.

After Magnetic Particle Testing, the specimen should be demagnetised and cleaned to remove
any adherent particles and carrier fluids. Cleaning and component protection, from corrosion
, if required shall be carried out in accordance with the specification/procedure you are working

Discontinuities can be located either on or directly below the surface of the specimen.

Discontinuities located on the surface appear as sharp, distinct lines, whereas, discontinuities
located below the surface appear as irregular, rough, hazy indication.

If a specimen is to be magnetized in a second direction, ie. circular magnetization followed by
longitudinal magnetization, the last applied field will drive out the remanent field from the
preceding magnetization.

However, this will happen only if the magnetizing force last applied is equal to or higher than
the previous remanent field. A field indicator is used after performing demagnetization on an
article that has been longitudinally magnetized to determine if the field strength is reduced to
the desired level.

Large specimens can be found difficult to demagnetize completely shifting the specimen to align
it in an east-west position from an original north-south position facilitates demagnetization. The
reason for this is the influence of the earth's magnetic field.


The remainder of this lesson contains typical applications of Magnetic Particle Testing.

The magnetic particle technician must have a good understanding of the reasons for applying
the different techniques to the same part. It is even more important to be able to select the
proper technique and procedure to obtain the best results.

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What methods must be used to find all of the discontinuities shown in the bar below?

Head shot (circular Magnetization)

Inspecting for discontinuities in a longitudinal direction.

Flux Flow between the Heads (Longitudinal Magnetization)

Inspecting for discontini~itiesin a transverse direction.

Current Current

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Coil Shot (Longitudinal Magnetization)
Inspecting for discontinuities in a transverse direction.



Magnetization of a Large Gear

What methods must be used to find all of the discontinuities in the gear below?

Head Shot (Circular Magnetization) with Central Conductor

Inspecting for discontinuities perpendicular to the circular field.


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Head Shot (Circular Magnetization)
Using at least two shots and turning the gear 90".


Magnetization of Short Hollow Cylinders

What methods must be used to find the discontinuities on the inside and outside of this ring?

Head Shot (Circular Magnetization) With Central Conductor


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What method must be used to find the discontinuities on the inside and outside of this ring?

If necessary the ring can be magnetized by two head shots across the diameter as shown on the
previous page or by placing in a coil utilizing extenders. The coil shot will produce a
longitudinal field which will detect discontinuities in the direction shown below.



What methods must be used to find the discontinuities on the inside and outside of this cylinder?

Coil Shot (Longitudinal Magnetization)

Inspecting for discontinuities showing transverse indications on the inside and outside of the
cylinder as shown below.

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Head Shot (Circular Magnetization) with Central Conductor
Inspecting for longitudinal discontinuities on the inside and outside of the cylinder as shown




0.0. OR 1.0.

Magnetization of Irregularly Shaped Specimens

Each specimen must be thoroughly analyzed to determine which methods will be necessary to
find discontinuities in all directions.

The part shown below requires the use of a central conductor and two additional head shots.

Head Shot 1
(Circular Magnetization)

Heat Shot 2
(Circular Magnetization)


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MTfrRNIWs I 0 13 8 of 12 20.07.94
Head Shot 3
(Circular Magnetization)


Circular Magnetization of large specimens is usually accomplished with the use of prods. j
Magnetization of large specimens is usually done with either a yoke oriby
wrapping the part with the cables./

The weldment shown below requires a crisscrossed pattern in applying the magnetization current
with prods to insure 100 percent coverage of discontinuities.

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u-rmnus I o 13 9 or 12 20.07.9-1
The large shaft shown below requires the cables to be wrapped at two different locations to
insure 100 percent coverage. However, longitudinal discontinuities will not be detected with
this method.


Magnetic rubber inspection, developed to aid in locating discontinuities in holes, recesses, and
other hard-to-get-to places, utilizes a room-temperature-curing liquid rubber containing magnetic
particles in suspension. A mold, constructed of mylar or cellophane tape, aluminium foil, and
putty, is constructed around the area to be inspected. A catalyst and stabilizer are then added
to the magnetic rubber and the three are mixed to start curing. The mixture is then pored into
the mold and a magnetic field is applied. Any leakage fields present attract the magnetic
particles which are thereafter held in position by the rubber as it solidifies. After curing is
complete, the rubber replica of the hole or recess is removed and the indications thereon
interpreted. The rubber replica of the hole will also reveal surface conditions. The figure
below illustrates the use of magnetic rubber in a casting.



Magnetic Rubber Inspection Procedure

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MT/l-RNIIWS 1 0 13 10 of 12 20.07.94
Magrwtic Rubber Indication

It may be useful and some times required to have a permanent record of the indication produced
by magnetic particle testing. It may be required when monitoring crack growth for a meeting
where the component is too large to carry.

This is a common method for recording indications. Visible and fluorescent indications can be
photographed although for fluorescent indications, filters which remove the UV-A need to be
used, The scale of the picture can also be recorded by using a rule or tape measure and a
suitable contrasting background adjacent to the major axis of the discontinuity.

A benefit with magnetic rubber inspection previously discussed is the permanent record of
solidified rubber.

Prior to spraying the strippable coating the surface is to be clean and dry apart form the
indication. The area is then sprayed with a quick drying strippable coating. When dry the
coating is easily peeled from the surface. The face of the coating that has been in contact with
the surface is impregnated with particles of the test medium and, with care, the discontinuity
indications are clearly defined.

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A~lwnd~nenl Lesson Page No Date
Prior to coating the component with a strippable magnetic oxide paint the component is to be
thoroughly degreased. After application of the paint the component is magnetised close to
saturation and the coating is stripped off. The coating is then dipped into agitated magnetic ink
and the discontinuity indications are revealed on the coating.


This method requires a transparent adhesive film to be placed over the indication. The film is
then pressed onto the surface and peeled off. The film with the indications adhering to it is
then reapplied to a card or report. Special films are available but selotape is equally effective.

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When two magnetising forces (circular and longitudinal) are imposed simultaneously in the
same component the component is not rnagnetised in two directions at the same time.

A vector field is formed which is the resultant direction and strength of the two imposed fields.

This is illustrated in figure 1 below, where F, is the first magnetising force, F, is the second
force and F, equals the resultant magnetising force. The relative strength and direction of FR
depends on the applied currents.


Longitudinal magnetization

-Fkure 1

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Figure 2 illustrates the effects when the applied currents are altered.

Figure 2

Normally the test for discontinuities, which may be at any angle on the surface of a component,
requires two separate magnetisations and two separate examinations. This examination
technique has been covered in previous lessons and suffers from three problems - firstly the
time involved in making the two tests, secondly the variation in sensitivity throughout the 90"
arc from longitudinal to transverse, and thirdly the possible confusion of untested, half-tested
and completely tested parts.

The rotating vector (swinging field) technique alleviates all of these shortcoming on simple
- . - -.
components by using a single shot, single examination of the magnetised and inked pieces for
discontinuities regardless of their orientation. The total inspection time is virtually halved and
the risk of confusing tested parts is eliminated.

The principle of rotating vectors is simple and depends on the si~nultaneousimposition of a

longitudinal flux field and a circumferential field on the component, to form a vector of a
single direction flux.

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A longitudinal flux of the same amplitude as the circumferential flux will provide a flux
direction of 45" With changes in amplitude relative to each of the imposed longitudinal and
circumferential flux fields the vector angle will change through at least 90" (see figure 2.)

The necessary variation in the two basic flux directions is achieved by the use of two phases
of a three phase mains supply. One phase (A) is connected to the longitudinal flux generating
system which can be either a coil or a flux flow system. A second phase (B) is used to
generate circumferential flux, usually by current flow through the workpiece. Since the current
value changes sinusoidally as shown in Figure 3. at a rate of 50 Hertz and there is a phase
difference between (A) and (B), of 120•‹, the amplitudes of longitudinal and circumferential
fields will be different.

Thus, the magnetic field vector rotates, and in moving through 90•‹,provides indications of all
defects. This is true swinging field, as opposed to the method of rapid switchine: from
circumferential to loneitudinal (Sequential fields).



Figure 3

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Normally the two phases are both a.c., delivered by two high current output transformers to
provide the required magnitude of current. The longitudinal magnetisation may be generated
by either an encircling coil or by flux flow. The degree to which a specimen is magnetised is
related to the current. However, there is no reason why half wave rectified current (for
subsurface discontinuities) should not be used on one or both axes of the vector, provided the
results are otherwise acceptable.

It is important that the values of the currents which generate the longitudinal and circumferential
components are balanced for a particular component, so that sensitivity is uniform throilghout
the arc.

When the magnetising shot terminates there will be a remanent field, provided there is sufficient
carbon content in the steel (approximately 0.2%). This field will have a preferred direction,
depending on its orientation at the instant the current is switched off. Since magnetising in one
direction demagnetises in other directions, continued application of ink would wash away
previously formed defect indications. It is therefore, essential that the application of ink to the
workpiece ceases before the magnetic shot ends. As long as a thin film of liquid in which the
indication particles are suspended persist, the particles will migrate to the discontinuity edges.

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O Circular magnetization
O Longitudinal magnetization

Vector 360•‹
rotating #'

Resultant vectors for different position along the sinusoids

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The greatest aid in interpretation is a knowledge of what is likely to be present in any given

Knowing the history of a part, what it is made of and what processes it has been through all
form important considerations.

Every magnetic particle pattern produced is due to some magnetic disturbance setting up a
leakage field. The inspector must be able to determine whether there is a serious crack, or
some insignificant or unimportant non-relevant indication.

Surface indication produce sharp, distinct, clean-cut and tightly held indication patterns.

Subsurface indications tend to produce indications which are less distinct, forming diffused or
fuzzy patterns.





This is a group of non-relevant magnetic disturbances not due to discontinuities or actual breaks
in the metal.

A common non-relevant indication could be caused by a constriction in a metal through which

lines of force must pass, such as the shaft with a keyway shown on the next page.

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mfrmms 1 o IS 1 O ~ S 20.07.94
Non-relevant indications can be caused by the following:

1. Excessive magnetising current.

2. Structural design of the article.
3. Variances of permeability within the article.

Over magnetisation could cause a non-relevant indication due to the leakage field attracting
particles as shown below.

Excessive magnetisation can also cause non-relevant indications on a simple square object as
shown on the circularly magnetised part below.

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Abrupt changes of section thickness of a longitudinally magnetised part will cause flux leakage
where the lines of force leave or enter the part, causing non-relevant indications.

Permeability differences in the part can also cause non-relevant indications. Cold working a
metal can change the permeability.

Example: Bending and straightening a nail will cause the metal to become hard at the point
of bending. When the nail is magnetised there will be a flux leakage where the
permeability is changed.


A non-relevant indication would also appear across the shank of a cold chisel where the heat-
<. treated portion ends and the soft shank begins.



Pagc No Date
C- Documcnl luue No Amandn~enlNo Lesson

MTnXNIIVS 1 0 IS 3 of5 20.07.94

Magnetic writing is a condition caused by a piece of steel rubbing against another piece of steel
which has been magnetisedi\' Since either or both pieces contains some residual magnetism the
rubbing or touching createi magnetic poles at the points of contact. These local magnetic poles
are usually in the form of a line or scrawl and for this reason the effect is referred to as
magnetic writing. In the figure below the part in the top view is magnetised with a circular
field. If another part made of magnetic material is rubbed against or comes into contact with
the magnetised part, as in the second view, a weak field will be induced into the smaller part.
After the smaller part has been removed the circular field in the original part will be altered or
distorted to some extent as shown in the bottom view. Since there is no force to change the
direction of the altered field, there will be some leakage at the point of distortion which will
attract magnetic particles.



Lesson Page N o Date

\. DocumenI Issue No Anlcnd~nentNO

MTmIIIIS I 0 I5 4 of5 20.07.94

% Problems in identifying non-relevant indictions can be reduced if the operator remembers that:
1. They can be identified by a fuzzy, rather than sharp, indication.

2. They are usually associated with some feature of constmction like a keyway or sharp

e 3. They are usually inform in direction and size.

\ These are caused when particles are accumulated and held mechanically or by gravity not by
a flux leakage field if the part has a rough surface this may cause false indications.

(. Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date


In order to assure proper control of the wet baths and magnetising equipment, so as to ensure
there is repeatability of inspections and results, specifications and procedures have been written
by companies which control inks, powders and the magnetising equipment. These specifications
and procedures differ greatly in their content and intervals between checks and the student
should refer to the specificationlprocedure which controls the process in their place of work.

Whilst in use the bath will undergo changes due to:

Drag-out of magnetic particles, by mechanical and magnetic adherence to part, tending

to reduce particle concentration in the bath.

Drag-out of liquid due to the film which adheres to the surface of parts.

Loss of liquid by evaporation, tending to increase particle concentration.

A gradual accumulation of contaminants: shop dust, dirt from parts not properly cleaned,
lint from wiping rags, and oil from parts that carry a residual film of oil.

Miscellaneous objects and materials which are dropped into the tanks.

Dilution of the bath from wet test pieces, dripping overhead pipes, and moisture

When utilizing fluorescent particles in a wet bath three other problems occur:

The first is the separation of the fluorescent pigment from the magnetic particles. Such
separation causes a falling off of fluorescent brightness of indications, and an increase
in the overall fluorescence of the background. The condition is difficult to detect in the
settling test but can be observed by directing a UV-A light at the settling tube after the
normal settling period. Noticeable fluorescence of the solution with a r e d u c e d
fluorescence of the particles signifies separation. A second source of deterioration of
the bath of fluorescent particles which does not occur in the case of visible particles is
the accumulation of magnetic dust or dirt in the bath. When there is a considerable

Document Issue No Amendment N o Lesson Page N o Date

MTfrRNIIII5 1 0 16 l of5 20.07.94

amount of finely divided magnetic material in the dust carried by the air, this material
will accumulate in the bath along with other dust and dirt. This tends to decrease the
brightness of the indication. The fine magnetic material is attracted to indications along
with the fluorescent particles and it takes very little of such non-fluorescent material to
reduce significantly the fluorescent light emitted by the indication. A third source of
deterioration of the fluorescent particle bath is the accumulation of fluorescent oils and
greases from the surfaces of test parts. This accumulation, in time, builds up the
fluorescence of the liquid in the bath to a point at which it interferes with the viewing
of fluorescent particles indications.

The following procedures are taken from the British Standard 6072 and 4069. These are given
for illustration pumoses only.


Control test for in-service inks
Immediately after thoroughly mixing the ink, transfer a 100 mL sample to a settlement flask
of the type shown in figure 1, and allow the sample to stand for 60 minutes. Read off to the
nearest 0.1 mL the level reached by the solids and record it as the solids content by volume.

S~ecialtest for fluorescent inks

Check fluorescent inks under UV-A light for evidence of yellow-green fluorescent in the
supernatant liquid. If fluorescent is observed, the ink should be discarded and the system
cleaned and filled with fresh ink.

The British Standard recommended particle content for inks is:

Ferromagnetic particles (including adherent non-magnetic pigments):

i Non-fluorescent inks: Not less than 1.25% and not more than 3.5% by volume;
,\Fluorescent inks: Not less than 0.1 % and not more than 0.3% by volume.

Other solid constituents (if present):

Non-fluorescent inks
Not more than 10% by mass of the ferromagnetic content.
Fluorescent inks
Carrier fluid shall represent the remainder.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date



Current flow test ~ i e c e s
The standard test piece for checking current flow equipment should be in accordance with the
details given in figure 2 and table 1. It should be maintained free from corrosion and

a) Thoroughly degrease and demagnetize the test piece.
b) Clamp it within head and tailstock of the test bench.
c) Apply magnetic ink while the current is being increased.
d) Establish the current required to make the hole nearest to the outer surface of the ring
visible on the outer surface.
e) Further increase the current to establish indications from the other two holes on the outer
surface of the ring.
f) Note the current value required to establish each hole indication. (If the magnetising
system is functioning correctly, each hole should be visible at each subsequent check
with the test piece).

Repeat the test for each current waveform with which the magnetising unit is equipped, bearing
in mind that the 22.5mm pitch circle @.c.) radius hole is unlikely to show positively on an
alternating current waveform below 900A (r. m. s.)

\ Document Issue No Amendment N o Lesson Page No Date

MTfIXNIIU~ I 0 16 3 of5 20.07.94


d f OOS brnwlr

/.a.w l.w

Spacer drive l i t o n bar

Bar Material: r y n t h e l i c rcsin-
3 h o l e s do3 to0 m n
drilled throudr outer r ' m

L Outer ringdrive l i t o n spacer

Material: l o w carbon rtcel
NOTE I.An comwnenls to be c a n l r ~ l l ydosprcd on bar.
NOTE 2. Circumference of 0 0 to be vspur-blarcad wilh Or81 u* Ilta r o n p G 1 2 l o C 2 4 an accordance wul> OS 2 4 5 1 l o ploduc* the
sudace hIh specifmd.

The standard test piece for checking magnetic flow equipment and coils should be in accordance
with the details given in figure 3. It should be maintained free from corrosion and oxidization.

a) Thoroughly degrease and demagnetise the test piece.
b) Clamp it between the poles of the test bench (magnetic flow) or, alternatively, place it
centrally in the coil parallel to the coil axis.
c) Energize the equipment and establish that the transverse hole in the middle of the test
piece shows a strong indication.

Document Issue No Anlcndmanl No Lesson Pnga No Dale

NOTE 1 . All dtmensions arc in rnillimetres.
NOTE 2. Roughness grade hmits N 7 / N 6 .
NOTE 3. d All over.
NOTE 4. Matertal: low carbon steel complying with the requirements 01 B S 970.


Other than the ink and functional checks illustrated aboive there are n,umerous equipment and
ink checks such as UV-A light output, ammeter calibration, electromagnet lift test, viscosity,
etc. These checks if required by your specification/procedure should be carried out in
accordance with the same and documented in accordance with your quality manual.

,' Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTJTRNm/S 1 0 16 5 of5 20.07.94




Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

The Health and Safety at Work Act requires every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonably
practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. It also requires
employees to conduct themselves in a manner which will ensure their own safety and that of
their fellow workers.

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulntions 1988

The COSHH Regulations state that any work which is liable to expose any employees to any
substance hazardous to health shall not be carried out unless a suitable and sufficient assessment
of the risks created by that work to the health of those employees and of the steps that need to
be taken to meet the requirements of these regulations has been made. Every employee must
make full and proper use of any control measures and personal protective equipment provided.

The following general precautions should be observed when handling working with chemicaIs.

Read the appropriate Product Technical Information and Health and Safety Information sheets
and all warning labels on containers before using any product.

Make sure that you are familiar with warning symbols. Below are the warning symbols that
you are likely to encounter on chemical products.

. .

Document Issue No. Amendment No. Lesson Page No. Date

MTflXNISIII I 0 17 l of3 zfJ7%

These warning symbols have been designed to give you instant recognition of potentially
harmful or dangerous chemicals.

Do not swallow chemicals or breathe fumes or dust. Should this happen accidentally, obtain
medical attention immediately.

Do not smoke near any chemicals, especially those which contain chlorinated solvents or are
flammable or oxidising.

Take care when opening containers. Some materials are volatile and in warm weather it is
possible that pressure may build up in the container. Always wear suitable eyelface protection.

Do not 'sniff chemicals. It is an extremely dangerous practice that can cause serious damage
to your health.

Store all chemicals away from sources of heat or ignition, particularly volatile, flammable or
oxidising materials.

Clean up any spillages immediately, using the recommended procedure.

If any chemicals are splashed in the eyes, irrigate thoroughly with clean water for at least 15
minutes. If you are not sure whether or not the product is dangerous to the eyes - do it
anyway. Obtain medical attention as soon as possible.

If any chemicals are splashed on the skin, wash thoroughly with soap and water, unless specific
instructions to the contrary are given. If contact during use is possible, wear protective clothing
and gloves. Many solvent-based materials and detergents will remove the natural oils from the
skin. The use of properly constituted creams and cleansing compounds can help to replace
these oils.

Do not use solvent type materials in confined spaces unless breathing apparatus is used or
provision is made for forced ventilation.

Should a person be overcome by fumes of any nature, remove them to fresh air, keep them
warm and obtain medical attention as soon as possible.

-- - --

Document Issue No. Amendment No. Lesson Page No. Date

MT/TRN/SIU 1 0 17 2of3 a311794

Do not smoke, eat or drink in or near to areas where chemicals are being used (not even

Always wash your hands before eating, drinking or smoking. Remember you may have
splashes of chemicals on your protective clothing which can easily transfer to your hands.
Remove protective clothing before washing your hands.

Wash your hands both before and after using the toilet.

Protective clothing and other equipment should be cleaned and inspected regularly.

The above precautions are essentially COMMON-SENSE. Do not let familiarity breed

i Document Issue No. Amendmcnl No. Lesson Page No. Dale

MT~RNISIII 1 0 17 3of3 aMl%



To reduce the possibility of missing a discontinuity, to ensure repeatability of the inspection and
to ease interpretation, Instruction (technique) sheets must be as comprehensive as possible.
Care should be taken to ensure that the Instruction is not ambiguous and should be supported
by diagrams. The following Lesson serves only as a guide and the student should familiarize
themselves with the relevant standards/specifications that control the method at their place of


Before the Instruction can be written certain information is required from the body initiating the
Instruction. This information will usually be obtained from the Stress / Design Engineers
responsible for the equipment. The minimum information required from the Engineers is:-

1. The component part number, material and geometry.

2. The discontinuity to be found.
3. The discontinuity initiation point and direction of propagation.
4. The acceptance and rejection standard.
5. The frequency of the inspection.


The following is a list of some of the information which is going to be required for a Magnetic
Particle Instruction. But as already stated the students own standards and specifications are the
ruling documents, to be followed:

1. Company name and address.

2. Designation of the Instruction ie Magnetic Particle Instruction Sheet.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTflRNIWS 1 0 I8 1 of7 10.01.94

A unique Instruction sheet reference number (a master list of Instruction sheet reference
numbers would normally be held and controlled by the Quality Manager or his

The number of pages that make up the Instruction.

The Instruction issue number.

Component description.

Component part number and issue number (if any).

Components material and specification.

Purpose of the inspection. (Support by diagrams).

The area of the inspection. (Support by diagrams).

Preparation for inspection. (Precleaning, disassembly etc).

Acceptance / rejection standard to be used.

Reporting actions if a discontinuity 1 defect is found.

Prepared by name, signature, date and qualification.

Approved by name, signature, date and qualification.

Associated documents statedlinvoked within the Instruction.

The equipment used, including consumables.

Stage at which test required.

Post test procedures (Cleaning, protecting, assembly etc).

Document Issue No Anlendmen1 No Lesson Page No Date

MTrIXNIIIIS 1 0 18 2of7 10.01.94

20. Examination procedure including:-

Peak current conversion factor.

Viewing conditions.
Discontinuities sought.
Operation number.
Peak current value.
Sketch of work piece.
Flux direction.
Standard magnetizing symbols.
Datums for flux directions.

21. Manhours to carry out the Instruction.

22. Notes or other information. This may give details on safety considerations and aspects,
removal of sensitized material, fragile equipment which could become damaged, any
peculiarity with reference to stored or dismantled components and possible accident
hazards to personnel.

23. Recording. This should specify how and where compliance with the Instruction is to be

See page 4 and 5 for a typical layout of a Magnetic Particle Instruction Sheet.

Document Issue No A~nsndmenlNo Lesson Page No Dale

MT/TRNIWS 1 0 18 3of7 10.01.94

Telephone (0222) 540000 Fax: (0222) 540111 Telex: 497203 Minton G

Magnetic Particle Instruction Sheet

Instruction Sheet Reference No.: Issue No.: Sheet One of Sheets
Part Description: Part Nurnoer: Part Number
Purpose of Inspection: Area to be inspected:

Material Reference: Operational Stage at which Test Required:


..--. ..-
Equipment Required Consumables:

Pre-Inspection Requirements: Post-Inspection Requirements:

Peak Current Conversion Factors:

Op. Peak Current Value Amps Flaws Sought Viewing Conditions & Remarks

Doeumenl Issue No Amendment No Lcvson Pagc No Dak

~ ~ N I I Y S 1 0 111 4 of 7 10.01.94
Magnetic Particle Instruction Sheet
Instruction Sheet Reference No.: Issue No.: Sheet Two of Sheets
Sketch of Work-Piece.
(Including Operalion No., Direclions. Slandard Magnelisation Symbols. Area ol Inspection 8 Point of Disconlinuily Initialion.)

Associated Documents: / Acceptance Standard:

Procedure Reference No:

i Other Information:

Prepared by: Date: Approved by: Date:

Document Innre No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

~ ~ I I IY ~ 0 18 5 of7 10.01.94

To facilitate exchange of information concerning the results of inspections carried out in

accordance with the Instruction, the following forms of report should be used as appropriate.
These are the minimum requirements and reference should be made to your specifications and

The terms used in the report should not be ambiguous or of local origin. Where applicable the
terms set out in the British Standard 3683 Glossary of Terms should be used.

When the ins~ectionand remedial action can be carried out in accordance with the

The results of the inspection should be reported back to the manufacturer or originator for
processing as necessary. The relevant information in the report should be covered under the
following items.

1. Heading and service organization.

2. Title of Instruction, reference number and issue number.
3. Date, component identity, part number, etc.
4. Results of inspection.
5. Remedial action carried out.
6. Signature, name, qualification Level, etc.

Where the advice of the d e s i p authority is reauired before remedial action can be carried

In these circumstances, contact with the manufacturer or originator of the Instruction is

necessary before compliance with the Instruction can be completed. The Instruction should
accordingly specify all the information required on which to assess the necessary remedial
action. The relevant information in the report should be covered under the following items.

1. Heading and service organization.

2. Title of Instruction, reference number and issue number.
3. Date, component identify, part number etc.

Documol Issue No Amendment No Lesson. Page N o Date

h l T ~ I I I I ~ 1 0 18 6of7 10.01.94
4. Results of inspection (including list of attachments such as duplicate radiographs,
photographs, specimens etc).
5. Signature, name, qualification level etc.
6. Space to be provided for reply form manufacturer or for reference to such a reply.

Where difficultv is ex~eriencedin apolyin~the orescribed inspection Instructions or a

more favoured alternative is proposed.

The relevant information in the report should be covered under the following items.

1. Heading, eg. proposed to alter an Instruction and service organization.

2. Title of Instruction, reference number and issue number.
3. Reason for proposed a1teration.
4. Details of proposed alteration.
5. Evidence of results that the alteration achieves.
6. Signature, name, qualifications Level. etc.
7. Space to be provided for reply from manufacturer or for reference to such a reply.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTn-RNIWS I 0 18 7of7 10.01.94


Term Definition

adjacent cable technique A technique of magnetization in which an insulated,

current-carrying cable is laid close to the surface of
the component, adjacent to the area to be tested.

alternating current An electric current that alternatively reverses its

direction in a circuit in a periodic manner.

alternating current magnetization Magnetization by the magnetic field induced when

alternating current is flowing.

amperelmeter (Alm) The field strength in air, at the centre of a single-

turn circular coil having a diameter of lm, through
which a current of 1 A is flowing.
NOTE. This is the SI unit of field strength which
has replaced the oersted (1 oersted = 79.58 Aim).

ampere turns The product of the number of turns (N) of a coil and
the current in amperes (I) flowing through the coil.

aperture type coil An alternating current carrying coil constructed in

such a way that components may be passed through
it for the purpose of demagnetization.

arc A luminous high temperature discharge produced

when a current of electricity flows across a gap.

background The general appearance of the surface on which

indications are viewed.

background paint See 'contrast aid'.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

M T m I 11I5 1 0 Appendix A 1 of 19 20.7.94


Berthold penetrameter A flux indicator that contains an artificial flaw in the

shape of a cross, mounted below an adjustable cover
NOTE. It is placed on a magnetized component
during magnetization to check the magnetizing
technique andlor the ink.

black light (depreciated) See 'UV-A'

burning Local overheating of the component at the electrical

contact area arising from high resistance, or the
production of an arc, or prolonged contact.

captive fluid indicator A device comprising of a quantity of magnetic ink

sealed in a transparent container, the ink behaving
in the same way on a magnetized component as free
magnetic ink.

carrier fluid The fluid in which ferromagnetic particles are

suspended to facilitate their application.

central conductor See 'threading bar'.

centrifugal tube settlement flask A settlement flask used to determine the solids
content of magnetic flaw detection inks.

circular magnetic field The magnetic field surrounding an electric conductor,

resulting from the passage of a current through the

circular magnetization Magnetization in a component resulting from current

passed through a threading bar.

circumferential magnetization Magnetization that established a flux around the

periphery of a component.

'clip-on' ammeter (clampmeter) A portable instrument for measuring the current

flowing in a conductor without breaking the circuit.

Document Issue N o Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

M T ~ I l l I S 1 0 Appendix A 2 of 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

coagulation The agglomeration of ferromagnetic particles in a


coercive force The reverse magnetizing force required to remove

residual magnetism from a material.
NOTE: The corresponding field intensity value is
indicative of the ease or difficulty of
coil technique A technique of magnetization in which part or the
whole of the component is encircled by a current-
carrying coil.
NOTE: The use of the term is usually restricted to
instances in which the component does not form part
of a continuous magnetic circuit for the flux

coloured magnetic inks Fluids containing ferromagnetic particles treated so

as to produce an indication other that black.

compass test A test for demagnetization carried out by placing the

component in specified positions in relation to a
magnetic compass needle and ascertaining whether
the consequent deflection exceeds a specified

concentrates Magnetic flaw detected inks supplied in concentrated

form for dilution with the appropriate carrier fluid.

conditioning agent A soluble additive to water-based magnetic inks that

imparts specific properties such as proper wetting,
particle dispersion or corrosion resistance.

contact heads The electrodes, fixed to the machine, from which

the magnetizing current flows.

contact pads Metal pads, usually of copper braid, placed on

electrodes to give good electrical contact, thereby
preventing damage to the component under

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

M T ~ I 1IIS 1 0 Appendix A 3 o f 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

contrast The difference in reflectivity or coloration between

the component under examinaticn and the indications
as shown by the ferromagnetic particles.

contrast aid A coating or film applied to a surface to improve

contrast by providing a more suitable background.

continuous technique A technique where the ferromagnetic particles are

applied to the component while the magnetizing force
is present.

core Of an electromagnetic circuit. That part of the

magnetic circuit which is within the winding.

crow receiver A free standing, graduated measure that is mainly

cylindrical but tapered towards the bottom to allow
greater accuracy in reading small volumes.

curie point (curie temperature) The temperature above which ferromagnetic materials
can no longer be magnetized or retain their residual
NOTE: Examples of such temperatures are: nickel
358"C, iron 870•‹C and cobalt 1127•‹C.

current flow technique A technique of magnetization by passing a current

through a component via pads, contact heads or
NOTE: The current may be alternating or direct.

current flow (prods) technique A technique of magnetization by passing a current

through a component via prods.
NOTE: The current may be alternating or direct.

demagnetization The process by which a component is returned

substantially to an unmagnetized state.

demagnetizing coil See 'aperture type coil'.

Document Issue N o Anlcndlntnl No Lesson Page No Date

M T m I I 115 1 0 Appendix A 4 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

demagnetizing factor In coil magnetization. The reduction of the field

created by the coil due to the magnetic poles which
can be considered to exist at the ends of the test
NOTE: It is a function of the length/diameter ratio
of a given component and can be calculated for
components having the shape of ellipsoids of
revolution. For other shapes it has to be measured

detecting medium The powder or suspension of ferromagnetic particles

that is applied to a magnetized test surface to
determine the presence of absence of discontinuities.

diffuse indications Indications that are not clearly defined e.g.

indications of sub-surface flaws.

direct current An electric current flowing in one direction only and

sensibly free from pulsation.

dry powder Finely divided ferromagnetic particles suitably

selected and prepared for magnetic particle

dry powder technique The application of ferromagnetic particles without

the use of a liquid carrier.

dryout time The time allowed for carrier fluid to evaporate

leaving ferromagnetic particles in a dry condition.

effective magnetic permeability (peff) In coil magnetization. The ratio of the flux density
in the component to the applied magnetic field which
would exist in the absence of the component.
NOTE: The effective magnetic permeability of a
component is not solely a material parameter as it
is affected by the demagnetizing factor.

electrode A conductor by means of which a current passes into

or out of the component under examination.

--- - -

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTITRNI1 1IS 1 0 Appendix A 5 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

electromagnet A soft iron core surrounded by a coil of wire that

becomes a tempowy magnet when an electric
current flows through the wire.

energizing cycle The period of application of a magnetizing force to

the component under test.

examination medium See 'detecting medium'.

extenders Parts made from ferromagnetic materials that are

added to the ends of a component to increase its
effective length for magnetization purposes.

false indications Indications resulting from leakage fields not caused

by imperfections or defects.

ferromagnetic Having a permeability greatly in excess of unity and

varying with the flux density.
NOTE: Iron and steel are the most common
ferromagnetic materials.

ferromagnetic particles Finely divided ferromagnetic materials used as an

aid to the detection of leakage fields on magnetized

fill factor In the coil technique of magnetization. The ratio of

the cross-sectional area of the component within the
coil to the cross-sectional area of the coil.

flash point The temperature at which a liquid, heated in a

Cleveland cup (open test) or in a Pesky-Martens
apparatus (closed test), gives off sufficient vapour
to flash momentarily on the application of a small

flexible cable technique A technique of magnetization in which either (a) a

current-carrying cable is would around the
component or (b) the cable is laid close to the
surface of the component, adjacent to the area to be

Document Issue No Amendment N o Lesson Page N o Date

MT/TRNIl115 1 0 Appendix A 6 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

fluorescence The absorption of radiation of a particular

wavelength by a substance and its re-emission as
light of greater or visible wavelength.
NOTE: With many substances ultraviolet radiation
produces visible fluorescence.

fluorescent magnetic ink A liquid containing ferromagnetic particles coated

with fluorescent material, which will render
discontinuities visible when a magnetized component
is viewed under UV-A radiation.

fluorescent magnetic particle inspection A technique that utilizes fluorescent magnetic ink as
the detecting medium.

fluorescent powder Finely divided fluorescent ferromagnetic materials.

flux density See 'magnetic flux density'.

flux indicator Small devices, generally in the form of metal strips

or discs, containing artificial flaws and which are
used to determine when correct magnetizing
conditions have been achieved andlor the field
NOTE: The indicator is placed in contact with the
component being inspected.

flux-leakage field See 'magnetic leakage field'.

flux lines See 'lines of force'.

flux meter See 'magnetic field strength meter'.

flux penetration The depth to which a magnetic flux is effective

within a component.

full wave rectified current Sensibly direct current produced by rectification of

wither three-phase or single-phase alternating current,
the former method producing a smoother ripple

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MT/TRNIl I15 1 0 Appendix A 7of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

functional test (functioning test) A test method designated to assess the efficiency of
magnetic inks and powders or the performance of

furring A build up of ferromagnetic particles due to

excessive magnetization of the component under

gauss The c.g.s. electromagnetic unit of magnetic flux

density and equal to one line per cm 2 .
NOTE: The gauss has been replaced by the tesla (1
gauss = 10" tesla).

gauss meter An instrument designed to measure magnetic flux


half-wave rectified current Pulsed unidirectional current produced by clipping

a half cycle from single phase alternating current.
As a result there are intervals when no current is

hall effect A potential difference developed across the

conductor, which is at right angles to the direction
of both the magnetic field and the electric current,
when a current flows along a rectangular conductor
subjected to a transverse magnetic field.

hysteresis The lagging of magnetic flux behind the magnetizing


immersion procedure A procedure whereby the component being tested

is immersed in a bath of magnetic ink during the
magnetization cycle and subsequently removed for

indications A detectable accumulation of ferromagnetic particles

resulting from a distortion of the magnetic field and
which require assessment to determine their

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

M T m I I I I5 1 0 Appendix A 8 of 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

indirect magnetization Magnetization induced in a component by a current

passing through a conductor that is not in electrical
contact with the component.

induced current flow technique A technique whereby a circumferential current

passing through in a ring component by effectively
making it the secondary of mains transformer.

induced field The field induced in a component by indirect


induction (magnetic) The magnetism produced in a ferromagnetic material

by an external magnetizing force.

keeper A piece of ferromagnetic material placed across the

poles of a permanent magnet when it is not in use
in order to complete the magnetic circuit and thereby
prevent loss of magnetism.

laminated pole pieces Pole pieces consisting of separately adjustable

magnetic elements to enable irregular component
profiles to be accommodated.

leakage field See 'magnetic leakage field'.

lifting power The ability of a magnet to lift a piece of femtic steel

by magnetic attraction alone.

lines of force A conceptual representation of magnetic flux derived

from the pattern of lines produced when iron filings
are sprinkled on paper laid over a permanent magnet.

longitudinal magnetization Magnetization in which the flux lines traverse the

component in a direction essentially parallel to its
longitudinal axis.

magnetic circuit The complete closed path followed by any group of

lines of magnetic flux.

Document Issue N o Amendment N o Lesson Page No Date

MT~Il115 1 0 Appendix A 9 of 19 20.7.94

Term Defini tion

magnetic field The region in the neighbourhood of a permanent

maqnet or a current-carrying conductor in which
magnetic forces exist.

magnetic field distribution The distribution of field strength in a magnetic field.

magnetic field indicator See 'Flux indicator'.

magnetic field leakage The loss of magnetic field strength due to

discontinuities and changes in section in a magnetic

magnetic field strength (H) The intensity of a magnetic field at a given point.
NOTE: It was formerly measured in oersteds but it
is now measured in the SI unit of amperes/metre.

magnetic field strength meter An instrument designed to measure magnetic fields.

magnetic flaw detection ink A detecting medium consisting essentially of

ferromagnetic particles in a camer liquid.

magnetic flow technique A technique of magnetization in which the

component, or a portion of it, closes the magnetic
circuit if an electromagnet or permanent magnet.

magnetic flow coil test piece A standard test piece designed for checking magnetic
( flow equipment and coils.

magnetic flux The total number is lines of force existing in a

magnetic circuit.

magnetic flux density (B) The strength of the magnetic field, defined as the
normal magnetic flux per unit area.

magnetic hysteresis See 'hysteresis'.

magnetic indication See 'indications'.

Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MT/TIZNI1 1I5 1 0 Appendix A 10 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

magnetic ink See 'magnetic flaw detection ink'.

magnetic leakage field The magnetic field that leaves or enters the surface
of a component due to the presence of a discontinuity
and which is capable of detection by ferromagnetic

magnetic particle flaw detection A method of detecting surface or near-surface

discontinuities in magnetic materials by the
generation of a magnetic flux within a component
and the application of suitable ferromagnetic particles
to its surface so as to render the discontinuity visible.

magnetic particle flaw detector Equipment providing essential current or flux for the
purpose of magnetic particle flaw detection and
usually facilities for holding components of varying
dimensions and for adjusting and reading the
magnetizing current.

magnetic particles Finely divided ferromagnetic material capable of

being individually magnetized and attracted to
distortions in a magnetic field.

magnetic permeability ( p ) The ratio of the magnetic induction (B) to the

external magnetic field (H) causing the induction.

magnetic poles The points in a magnet that are the apparent seat of
the external magnetic field.

magnetic powder Ferromagnetic particles in dry powder form of

suitable size and shape for flaw detection purposes.

magnetic rubber A special formulated medium, containing

ferromagnetic powder, used to obtain replica castings
of component surfaces, with any discontinuity present
being reproduced within the replica by a suitable
magnetizing technique as a result of migration of the
powder within the medium to the position of the

- - - -

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h4TlTRNIllIS 1 0 Appendix A 1 1 of19 20.7.94

Term Definition

magnetic saturation The stage at which any further increase in the

magnetic field applied to a magnetized component
will fail to show any significant increase in the
magnetic flux within that component.

magnetic writing A form of non-relevant indication arising from

random local magnetization that is generally caused
when the surface of a ferromagnetic particle comes
in contact with another piece of ferromagnetic

magnetizing current The flow of either alternating or direct current used

to induce magnetism into a component being
in spec ted.

magnetizing force The magnetizing field applied to a ferromagnetic

material to induce magnetization.

magnetizing tongs An accessory consisting of two insulated conductors

crossing each other at a common pivot. On one side
of the pivot they form the two halves of a single turn
magnetizing coil and, on the other, two handles
whereby the coil is made and broken and is
connected to the source of current.
NOTE: Two turn and three turn tongs are also used.

magnetometer See 'magnetic field strength meter'.

multidirectional magnetization The imposition on a component, sequentially and in

rapid succession, of two or more magnetic fields in
different directions.
NOTE: Magnetic particles indications are formed
when discontinuities are located favourably with
respect to the direction of each field and will persist
as long as the rapid alternations of field direction
continue, thus enabling discontinuities with differing
orientations to be detected in one operation.

non-relevant indication An indication not produced by a discontinuity but

which is the result of spurious effects such as
magnetic writing, changes in section, or the boundary
between materials of different magnetic properties.

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MT~RNIIII~ 1 0 Appendix A 12 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

oersted The c.g.s. unit of magnetic field strength.

NOTE: It has now been replaced by the SI unit

parallel conductors Insulated, current-carrying conductors laid parallel

to each other close to the surface to be inspected but
so arranged that the current flows in the same
direction through each conductor, thereby producing
a substantially uniform magnetic field in the space
between the conductors.

particle con tent The apparent volume ratio of ferromagnetic particles

to carrier fluid in magnetic flaw detection ink.

peak current The relevant quantity used for the calculation of

magnetic field strength and which is the maximum
instantaneous value of the direct or periodic current
obtained during excitation.
NOTE 1: Usually with a d.c. battery source or with
three-phase full wave rectified a.c. it will be
approximately that indicated by the ammeter. With
a.c. or full wave rectified single-phase a.c. it will
be (2)"x the r.m.s. current, which is the current
normally indicated by the ammeter. With half-
wave rectified a.c. it will be approximately 2(2)"x
the r.m.s. current.
NOTE 2: Ammeters fitted to half-wave equipment
are usually calibrated to take account of the doubling
factor (x2) and therefore indicate equivalent a.c.
r.m.s. values.

permanent magnet A magnet that retains a high degree of magnetization

virtually unchanged over a long period, this being
a characteristic of materials of high retentivity.

permeability See 'magnetic permeability'.

pole See 'magnetic poles'.

polymer technique An examination technique in which a polymer is used

as the particle suspension vehicle.

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115 1 0 Appendix A 13 of 19 20.7.94

portable flux indicator See 'flux indicator'.

powder See 'dry powder'.

powder blower A compressed air device, operating at low pressure,

used to apply dry powder over the surface of a
component undergoing inspection.

prods Hand-held electrodes attached to wander cables to

transmit the magnetizing current from the source to
the component under examination.

pull-off force The force that has to be applied to one pole piece
of a magnet to break its adhesion to a femtic steel
surface, leaving the other pole piece still attached.

rectified alternating current An electric current obtained by rectifying alternating

current without the deliberate addition of smoothing
to remove the inherent ripples.

reference pieces Specimens containing controlled artificial defects,

or natural defects, used for checking the efficiency
of magnetic flaw detection processes and/or

relevant indicatoin An indicatoin produced by the presence of a

discontinuity and which requires assessment to
determine its significance.

reluctance A measure of the degree of difficulty with which a

component can be magnetized that is analogous to
resistance in an electrical circuit.
NOTE: In a material of length 1, cross-sectional area
A and permeability p , the reluctance is given by

remanence The magnetic flux density remaining in a material

after the magnetizing force has been removed.

remanent magnetism See 'remanence'.

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Appendix A 14 of 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

remanent magnetization tests Test to ascertain, either quantitatively or

qualitatively, the degree of demagnetization of a

residual magnetic field The magnetic field remaining in a material after the
magnetizing force has been reduced to zero.

residual magnetism See 'residual magnetic field'.

residual magnetization technique A technique whereby ferromagnetic particles are only

applied to a component being inspected after it has
been magnetized and the magnetizing force removed
or discontinued.
NOTE: The technique relies for its effectiveness on
the strength of the residual magnetic field.

resultant field The field produced when two or more magnetizing

forces operating in different direction are applied
simultaneously to a ferromagnetic material.
NOTE: The direction of the field is determined by
the relative strengths and directions of the
magnetizing forces applied.

retentivity See 'remanence'.

rigid coil technique A technique in which the coil turns are constructed
from a non-flexible material or are secured so as to
prevent relative movement between them if
constructed from cable.

r.m.s. current The root mean square value of an alternating current.

NOTE. It is the square root of the mean value of
the squares of the instantaneous current value taken
over a complete cycle and is almost invariably used
for measuring alternating currents.

saturation, magnetic See 'magnetic saturation'.

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~ ~ I l l l S 1 0 Appendix A IS of 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

self-demagnetization An effect occurring in any magnetized component

which possesses adjacent free poles (i.e. a ring with
a gap) that is due to the field between the poles
opposing that of the magnetizing force.

NOTE. The effect reduces the strength of the internal

field in short components magnetized by the coil

sensitivity The degree of capability of a magnetic particle flaw

detection technique to indicate surface or near
discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials.

settling time The time allowed for settlement of ferromagnetic

particles in a sample of magnetic ink prior to the
assessment of the particle content volume.

skin effect The phenomenon that causes the magnetization

produced by alternating current to be contained near
the surface of ferromagnetic component.

solids con tent The volume of ferromagnetic particles, including

adherent non-magnetic pigments, contained in a
magnetic ink. (See also 'total solids').

solenoid A multi- turn coil of wire wound on a ferromagnetic

NOTE. When carrying a direct current it behaves
like a bar magnet.

split coil A single or multi-turn coil constructed with plug

connections to allow it to be opened for positioning
over components having no free ends for normal coil

spurious indication A non-relevant indication.

sub-surface discontinuity A discontinuity situated wholly below the surface of

a component but sufficiently close to the surface to
produce a visible indicating during magnetic particle
flaw detection.

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~ ~ I l l I 5 1 0 Appendix A 16 o f 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

surface field The magnetic field at the surface of the component

under examination.

suspension A system in which visible, denser particles are

distributed throughout a less dense carrier medium,
settling being hindered by the viscosity of the carrier

Sutherland flask A flask used for measuring the apparent proportion

of solids separating under gravity from a known
volume of magnetic particle flaw detection ink, the
ungraduated upper portion, shaped like an inverted
pear, being constricted at the top to receive a stopper
and blended at the bottom into a graduated tube of
small uniform section.

swinging field magnetization technique A technique that utilizes a form of multidirectional

magnetization to enable discontinuities having
different directions to be detected in one operation.
NOTE. Generally, longitudinal magnetization is
generated by one phase of a three-phase a.c. supply
and transverse magnetization by a different phase.
Standard current flow and coil and flux flow
techniques are used.

temporary magnets Commonly a piece of soft steel or iron that is readily

magnetized but retains only a very small field after
removal of the external magnetizing source.

tesla The SI unit of magnetic flux density equal to

1 Wb/m2 of circuit area.
NOTE. It has replaced the gauss (1 tesla = 10,

test piece A specimen containing known artificial or natural

defects used for checking the efficiency of magnetic
particle flaw detection techniques.

threading bar A current-carrying conductor passing through a

hollow component and used to produce circular
magnetization within the component.

- - -- pp

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MTflXNI 1 1 I5 1 0 Appendix A 17 of 19 20.7.94

Term Definition

threading bar technique A technique of magnetization in which a current-

carrying bar, cable or tube is passed through a bore
or aperture in a component under examination.

threading cable technique A form of threading bar technique utilizing a flexible

cable to carry the current.

threading coil technique A development of the threading bar technique in

which a magnetizing coil rather than a straight run
of bar or cable is threaded through a bore or aperture
in a component.

total solids The ferromagnetic particle content of a magnetic ink

plus other solid constituent present that make up the
total solids content of the ink.

ultraviolet radiation Radiation for which the wavelengths of the

monochromatic components are smaller than those
for visible radiation and more than about lmm.
NOTE: The limits of the spectral range of
ultraviolet radiation are not well defined and may
vary according to the user.

The International Commission on Illumination (CIE)

distinguishes the following spectral range:
UV-A 315nrn to 400nm;
UV-B 280nm to 315nm;
UV-C lOOnm to 280nm.

UV-A Ultraviolet radiation having a wavelength in the

range of 315nm to 400nm, used for exciting

vehicle A liquid medium for the suspension of particles.

wet technique An examination technique in which the particles are

suspended in a liquid medium.

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M T m I1 I I5 1 0 Appendix A 18 of 19 20.7.94
Term Definition

yoke Those parts of an electromagnet that are extensions

of the core, not beinp, surrounded by windings, and
which form the pole pieces.
NOTE: The term is, however, often applied to an
electromagnet as a whole.

yoke magnetization A longitudinal magnetic field induced in a

component, or a part of a component, by means of
an external electromagnet.

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M T m I I 115 1 0 Appendix A 19 of 19 20.7.94



1. British Standards Institute.

2. Explaining Physics. Stephen Pople.
3. Electrical Principles for Installation and Craft Studies. J.O. Paddock & R.A.W. Galvin.
4. General Dynamics Programmed Instruction Handbook.
5. Principles of Magnetic Particle Inspection. C.E. Betz.

6. Swinging Fields, Baugh and Weedon.
7. T.O.33B-1-1.

ik . Document h e No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

~ ~ ~ 1 1 1 1 5 0 Appendix B 1of1 20.12.94


Essential Reading
BS M38: Guide to compilation of instructions and reports for the in-service Non-Destructive
Testing of Aerospace products.
BS 3683: Part 2 - Glossary of terms used in NDT - Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.
BS 4069: Magnetic Flaw Detection inks and powders.
BS 4489: Method for measurement of UV-A radiation (black light).
BS 5044: Contrast aid paints used in Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.
BS 6072: Method for Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.
PD 6513: Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.
MIL-STD- 1949: Inspection, Magnetic Particle
Training Course Notes. PCN requires candidates to have attended an approved course of
training. Accredited Training Establishments are required to provide trainees with an up to
date set of training course notes. These are considered essential reading.

Recommended Reading
Civil Aviation Airworthiness Inspection Procedures Part 4 Leaflet 4.7.
Basic Metallurgy for Non-Destructive Testing, Edited by J L Taylor. British Institute of Non-
Destructive Testing.
Materials Processes for NDT Technology. ASNT.
Non-Destructive Testing (second edition,l991) by R Halmshaw Edward Arnold.
Non-Destructive Testing Handbook, First Edition, edited by R McMaster.
t Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing, C E Betz, Magnaflux C o p , Chicago. 1967, or:
Non-Destructive Testing handbook, Vol 6 - Magnetic Particle Testing. ASNT.
ASNT Classroom Training Handbook originally published by General Dynamics.
ASNT Self Study Handbook originally published by General Dynamics.
ASNT Question and Answer Book.
ASNT Level I11 Study Guide.
ASNT Student Package.
ASNT Instructor Package (overheads for training)
Note: Some of the above are available only in reference libraries. For information on sources
of the above recommended reading, contact the Technical Secretary, The British Institute of
Non-Destructive Testing, 1 Spencer Parade, Northampton NN1 SAA.

\ Document Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date

MTflXNII 115 I 0 Appendix C I of 1 20.7.94



Essential Reading
BS 3683: Part 2 - Glossary of terms used in NDT - Magnetic particle flaw detection.
BS 4069: Magnetic flaw detection inks and powders.
BS 6072: Method for magnetic particle flaw detection.
PD 6513: Magnetic particle flaw detection.
BS 4489: Method for measurement of UV-A radiation (black light).
BS 5044: Contrast aid paints used in magnetic particle flaw detection.

Recommended Reading
Classroom Training Handbook CT-6-3, Magnetic particle testing - General Dynamics, Convair
Electrical, Magnetic and Visual Methods of Testing Materials. J Blitz, W G King and
D G Rogers, Buttexworth 1969.
Non-Destructive Testing Handbook, edited by Robert G McMaster, The Ronald Press
New York.
Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing, D E Betz, Magnaflux Corp., Chicago. 1957.
Recommended Procedure for Surface Flaw Detection of Steel Castings, by Magnetic Particle
Examination. Steel Castings Research and Trade Association 1970.
Basic Metallurgy for Non-Destructive Testing, Edited by J L Taylor. British Institute of Non-
Destructive Testing, 1 Spencer Parade, Northampton, NN1 5AA.
f ASNT Classroom Training handbook originally published by General Dynamics.
ASNT Self Study Handbook originally published by General Dynamics.
ASNT Question and Answer Book.
ASNT Level III Study Guide.
NDT Handbook, second edition, volume 3 (1985)
ASNT Student Package.
ASNT Instructor Package (overheads for training)

do cum en^ Issue No Amendment No Lesson Page No Date
- -

MTfIWlI 1 1I5 1 0 Appendix D Iofl 20.7.94



e.g. Etch Inspection, Hardness Testing, Tensile Testing and others available on request.

In Satisfaction of:-
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* The Dowty Group I m a s Aerospace (Actuators Div.)

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of NDT.
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