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CHEMISTRY PROJECT

Dry distillation of
JEERA,AJWAIN
And
FRUIT PEELS

Nakul Sethi
XII-A
Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

R.no.-23

INDEX

1. CERTIFICATE OF EXCELLENCE
2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
3. OBJECTIVE
4. THEORY
5. APPARATUS REQUIRED
6. APPARATUS DIAGRAM
7. PROCEDURE
8. OBSERVATION TABLE
9. PRECAUTIONS
10. SOURCES OF ERROR
11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the accomplishment of this project successfully ,many


people have bestowed their blessings upon me and have
supported me whole heartedly through this endeavour and I
would like to utilise this opportunity to thank all he people who
have been concerned with this project.
I would like to thank my Principal and Chemistry teacher
,whose valuable guidance has helped me a lot in being able to
patch this project .I would like to thank my parents and
friends who took great in going through the entire manuscripts
and made valuable comments .I have especially indebted.

Finally, I thank my classmates for their support and


encouragement.

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Nakul Sethi , a student of class XII-A has


successfully completed the project on DRY DISTILLATION OF
FRUIT PEELS,JEERA ,AJWAIN.

Under the partial guidance of Mrs.Sanjana during the year


2017-2018 in partial fulfilment of chemistry practical
examination conducted by CBSE.

TEACHER’S SIGNATURE

___________________.

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

INTRODUCTION
Dry Distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce
gaseous products (which may condense into liquids and
solids).The method may not involve pyrolysis or thermolysis
.The products are condensed and collected .This method
usually require higher temperature than classical distillation.
The method has been used to obtain liquid fuels from coal and
wood. It can also be used to breakdown mineral salts such as
sulphates through thermolysis , in this case producing sulphur
dioxide/sulphur trioxide gas which can be dissolved in water to
obtain sulphuric acid. By this method, sulphuric acid was first
identified and artificially produced. When substances of
vegetable origin , e.g. coal ,oil shale , peat ,or wood ,are
heated I n the absence of air (dry distillation) ,they decompose
into gas ,liquid products and coke/charcoal.
Tar kilns are dry distillation ovens , historically used in
Scandinavia for producing tar from wood .They were build
close to the forest .,from limestone or from more primitive
holes I the ground .The bottom is sloped into an outlet hole to
allow the tar to pour out .The wood is split into the dimensions
of a finger ,stacked densely ,and finally covered tight with dirt
and moss .If oxygen can enter ,the wood might catch fire ,and
the production would be ruined .On top of this a fire is stacked
and lit .After a few hours ,the tar starts to pour out and
continue to do so for a few days.
OBJECTIVE

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

To dry various dehydrated fruits peels and observe the colour,


acidic/basic nature of the liquid obtained after the process and
the composition of the gases evolved in this process.

THEORY
Distillation is either used to separate volatile liquid from non-
volatile impurities or liquid having sufficient difference in their
boiling points. Liquids having different boiling point vapourise
at different temperature .The vapours are cooled and he liquid
so formed is collected separately. Chloroform and aniline are
easily separated from the process of distillation .The liquid
mixture is taken in a round bottom flask and heated carefully
.On boiling, the vapours of lower boiling components are
formed first. The vapours are condensed using condenser and
the liquid is collected in a receiver .The vapours of higher
boiling component form later and the liquid can be collected
separately.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
If the difference in boiling points of two liquids is not much,
simple condition cannot be used to separate them .The vapours
of such liquids are formed within the same temperature range
and are condensed simultaneously. The technique of fractional
distillation is used in such cases. In this technique, the
vapours of a liquid mixtures are passed through a
fractionating column before condensation .The fractionating
column is witted over the mouth of the round bottom flask.
Vapours of liquid with higher boiling points condense before
the liquids having lower boiling point.
One of the technological application of is method is to separate
different fractions of crude oil in petroleum industry.

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

DISTILLATION UNDER REDUCED PRESSURE


This technique is to purify liquids having very high boiling
points and those which decompose at or below their boiling
points. Such liquids are made to boil at a lower temperatures
lower than their boiling points by reducing the pressure on
their surface. The pressure is reduced with the help of a water
pump. Glycerol can be separated from spent-lye in soap
industry by using his technique.
STEAM DISTILLATION
This technique is used to separate substances which are steam
volatile and are immiscible with water. In steam distillation,
steam from a steam generator is passed through a heated
flask containing the liquid to be distilled. The mixture of a
steam and the volatile organic compound is condensed and
collected. In steam distillation, the liquid boils when the sum of
vapour pressures due to the organic liquid[p1]and that due to
water[p2] becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure [p].i.e.
p=p1+p2. Since p1 is lower than p, the organic liquid vaporises
at lower temperature than its boiling point. Thus if one of the
substances in mixture is water and other ,a water insoluble
substance ,then the mixture will boil close to but below,373K.A
mixture of water and the substance is obtained which can be
separated by using a separating funnel. Aniline is separated by
this technique from aniline-water mixture.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Round bottom flask
2. Bunsen burner
3. Conical flask
4. Clamp stand

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

5. Liebig’s Condenser

APPARATUS DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
1. Procure and dry at least 10 grams of fruit peels.
2. Chop these fruit peels to small pieces.
3. Arrange and set the dry distillation apparatus.
4. Place the chopped fruit peel pieces in the dry distillation
flask.
5. Carefully place the flask over the wire gauge.
6. Light u the Bunsen burner and start a timer for
approximately 25 minutes.
7. Let the flask heat up during this interval.
8. Collect the distilled liquid in a measuring cylinder.
9. Note the colour and smell of this distilled liquid.

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

10. Identify if tis liquid can give a sooty flame by dipping a


glass rod in the measuring cylinder and taking the glass rod
near the flame.
11. Test PH of this liquid using PH paper.

OBSERVATION TABLE
Sample Flame test PH Solubility in Colour
water
Jeera White smoke 6 insoluble yellow
Ajwain NO smoke 7 insoluble Brown
Orange peel NO smoke 4 soluble Oranges yellow
Apple peel NO smoke 5 soluble Reddish brown
PRECAUTIONS
1. The apparatus should be air tight and should be properly
sealed.
2. The flask shouldn’t be overheated.
3. The fruit peels should be properly dehydrated.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The flask may crack due to overheating.
2. The sample might be slightly hydrated.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. NCERT textbook of class XI
2. NCERT textbook of class XII
3. Wikipedia.com
4. Concise Encyclopaedia chemistry

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Chemistry project file-Dry Distillation

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