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Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Energy

Security Using Optimization Technique

Anis Afzal, Harish Kumar, V.K. Sharma

energy sources, i.e, combining a conventional generator

Abstract-- The initial cost of a stand-alone renewable energy powered by diesel/conventional fuel and a renewable source
(RE) option is higher than a conventional fuel-driven engine, such as SPY, wind or SPY/wind known as HRES [4].
but has less or negligible operating cost. Due to advantages of
The HRES has become feasible alternative for power
RE on the technology reliability and cost front, system
production as strengths of both conventional and RES are
designers are looking for ways to combine both generators -
renewable and fossil fuel based into one system known as
considered. For isolated place like islands, HRES is reliable
hybrid power system. Therefore, hybrid power system is used and economical way of power generation. Combination of
to reduce the dependency either on conventional energy or RE wind and SPY into HRES reduces fluctuation of power
systems (RES). This paper deals with the sizing, generator production, therefore greatly reducing energy requirements
running hours, sensitivity analysis, optimization, and green
[2, 5]. However, the HRES invariably installed with storage
house gas (GHG) emission. For this purpose two different
batteries to meet peak demand and energy security in the
locations have been selected where feasibility of hybrid
renewable energy systems (HRES) is analyzed for the same load
absence of RE.
demand using different suitable RES. One site is a small remote For analytical studies, a remote location namely Amini
community of Amini in Lakshadweep Islands, located in Island is chosen, which is one of the clusters of 36
southern India in the Arabian Sea, where solar or wind energy Lakshadweep Islands, located in southern India in Arabian
is always available throughout the year to provide energy
Sea at latitude 11.1 ON and longitude 72.7°E at 1 m above sea
security. Another place is a rural township of Hathras, in
level [6].
northern Indian State of Uttar Pradesh, where agricultural
biomass is found in abundance for whole year. For optimizing
Government of India aims at providing elementary
and simulating the system requirements, practical data is used education by opening 40 boys' and 51 girls' schools for all
in the HOMER software of National Renewable Energy children in 6 to 14 age group in Amini Island by the year
laboratory, USA. 2010. Nine telephone exchanges and six satellite stations are
also proposed to install in all the main islands of
Index Terms-- Emission, hybrid energy, optimization
Lakshadweep, in which Amini is one of them. One solar
technique, renewable energy integration, sensitivity analysis.
copra drier plant is also planned for the island. At present,
power supply is ensured only for limited hours in the entire
islands. There are DG grid of installed capacity 1034 kW

E industrial, agricultural, and living-standard growth. The

NERGY is the ultimate factor which is responsible for
and 100 kW grid-interactive SPY in Amini which is
insufficient for the future planned load [7]. In Amini Island
use of RE technology has been rapidly increasing to meet
any one of RE sources is available throughout the year, i.e.,
growing energy demand. However, the main disadvantage
either sufficient solar radiation or wind speed is available for
associated with standalone RES are their inability to provide
whole year. In June and July, if solar radiation is not
energy security due to unpredictable, seasonal and time
sufficient, high wind speed is available to run the wind
dependant nature. The standalone solar photovoltaic (SPY)
turbine (Appendix I). The future plan is to construct a wind­
system cannot provide reliable power during non-sunny days
diesel hybrid system in Amini and other prominent islands of
whereas standalone wind system cannot deliver power to a
Lakhshadweep to ensure energy security.
constant load due to significant fluctuation in wind speed
A different location Hathras is chosen, at latitude 27.5 ON,
magnitude for high cut-in speed range from 3.5 to 4.5 m/s
longitude 77 °E, and elevation 224 m near cities of Mathura
[1]. Therefore, oversizing of system becomes necessary to
and Aligarh in northern State of Uttar Pradesh, India.
achieve reliability which causes the design expensive [2]. As
Chemical, brass works, readymade garment, and carpet
far as initial cost is concerned, solar or wind energy system
industries are the backbone of economy of this district.
(WES) is costlier than diesel generator (DG) set for the same
Major crops of the area are Pearl Millet (Botanical name:
capacity but operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are
Pennisetum Glaucum), Sweet Sorghum (Botanical name:
always lower than DG set [3]. Over the last decade,
Sorghum Vulgare), pulses, potato, wheat, and rice etc. Being
researchers have started looking for integration of different
a big whole-sale market of food stock (paddy, rice, pulses
etc.), different types of biomass residue and husk are found
in abundance in and around Hathras. The average husk
Copyright Notice: 978-1-4673-6008-1/11/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE
production from the rice mill is found to be 187 Kg/t of Design, Optimization, and Analysis of Energy Projects
paddy [8]. Therefore, large biomass generator is operative (energyPRO 3) Software is used for designing, calculating
without any shortage of biomass supply with lesser conversion in a specific year, and operational economics. It
transportation cost. It is also economical to run biomass also offers planning strategy for more years, investment
generator at all capacities from 5 kW onwards [9]. detail and finance aspects. Optimization of daily operation is
A comparative study is made for the two locations for the another feature of the software. The software is designed for
same load demand by simulating HRES. Optimization model conditions in European/western countries.
of HRES is prepared which simplifies the task of evaluating Other softwares do not provide simulation with sensitivity
design of both off-grid/standalone and grid-connected and optimization analyses. The data and simulation are not
systems. After simulating all possible system equipments applicable universally.
with their sizes, a list of many possible configurations is
evaluated and sorted out by net present lifecycle cost to III. METHODOLOGY
compare the design options. An elaborate sensitivity analysis HOMER software is used as a tool for analyses purpose.
is used for each input variable; the whole optimization Optimization technique is applied to HRES according to
process is repeated to get simulated system configurations. different criterions based on each component of the system,
total integrated system, and optional energy control. The
II. SELE CTION OF SOFT WA RE parameters of investment, cost of energy, consumption of
Modeling of HRES is the process of developing a energy/fuel, and system sustainability are also considered as
mathematical model of its components and factors affecting parameters [3, 13].
its function. By means of mathematical model and its Cost of energy (COE) is the average cost per kWh of
simulation through computer, performance of a system is useful electrical energy produced by the system, given by:
analyzed under different situations. Methodologies are
COE= (Cann,tot - Cbmlcr Ethcnnal)/ (Epnm,AC + Eprim,DC + Edef + Egnd,sales) (\)
generally adopted for modeling system component of HRES
with special reference to solar and wind energy [10]. Where, Cann,tot = total annualized cost of the system
Some specialized software are available for simulation [$/yr]
and/or optImIzation hybrid systems, e.g., HOMER Cboiler = boiler marginal cost [$/kWh] = 0
(Optimization Model for Electric Renewables), RETSreen Etltennal = total thermal load served [kWh/yr] = 0
(Renewable Energy Technology Software), LEAP (Long­ Eptim,Ac= AC primary load served [kWh/yr]
range Energy Alternatives Planning), Hybrid2, energyPR03 Eptim,Dc= DC primary load served [kWh/yr] = 0
(Energy Projects), RAPSIM (Remote Area Power Supply Edef = deferrable load served [kWh/yr] = 0
Simulator) etc. Egrid,sales = total grid sales [kWh/yr] = 0
HOMER is a micropower optimization model, simplifies
the task of evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid­ The second term in the numerator is the portion of the
connected power systems for a variety of applications. annualized cost that results from serving the thermal load. In
Before designing a power system, configuration of the systems that do not serve a thermal load (Ethennal=O), this term
system must be defined in terms of its components and their will be equal to zero.
sizes. The large number of technology options, the variation To get optimal configuration and control of HRES, an
in technology costs and availability of energy resources analysis of multifactor function is conducted:
make these decisions difficult. HOMER's optimization and
sensitivity analysis algorithms make it easier to evaluate the • COE is to be kept minimum, which is given by
many possible system configurations [11]. min(COE f(L, CU" n" COF" QF" RE, T;, Pi... ))
= (2)
The RETScreen International Clean Energy Decision
Support Centre, Canada developed the Software RETSreen. L - Energy consumption,
The software can be used to evaluate the energy production CU, - Overall cost of each unit,
and savings, costs, emission reductions, financial viability ni - Number of the units of the same type,
and risk for various types of Renewable-energy and Energy­ COF, - Cost of fuel,
efficient Technologies. Provisions of sensitivity and QF, - Fuel consumption of the unit,
optimization analyses are not incorporated in the software. A RE - Available Renewable Energy,
non-optimized Spy system is simulated to find out technical T, - Life time of the unit,
status, environmental impact, and financial viability by using P, - Rated power of the unit.
RetSreen software [12]. LEAP is a scenario-based energy­
environment modeling tool. Its scenarios are based on • System sustainability is the maximum stability or
comprehensive accounting of how energy is consumed, minimum number of supply interruption, is given by
converted and produced in a given region or economy under min(Err = /(L;, RE, P;, SFmm> SFmax ... )) (3)
a range of alternative assumptions on population, economic Where
development, technology, price and so on. Err - Number of supply interruptions,

Copyright Notice: 978-1-4673-6008-1/11/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

Li - Load with its own priority, SFmm, along with Power Transfer Unit as used in Parc de la
SFmax - Minimum/Maximum stored energy. Verendrye, Quebec, Canada [14]. This technique provides
energy with high efficiency at cheaper rate.
• If use of RE (REV) is maximum, the fuel consumption WES
(FC) is minimum. The objective is represented by
max(REU f(L, RE, P" SFmin, SFmax
= ... )) (4) py

min(FC = f(L, RE, Ph SFnlln, SFmax ...)) (5)

From equations (2) and (3), optimization criterion is

combined to get a target function is:

opt(min(COE),min(Err)) (6)


The main control strategy of hybrid system is based on
sizing optimization of the system where a part of input
cannot be controlled. The control is centralized, scattered on
the units or combined for entire HRES. Generally control is
not meant for RE sources; it is applied to the generators with
conventional fuel, batteries and converter (combination of
rectifier and inverter) independently or jointly.
A control system is determined as passive or active
according to their course of action. Most of passive system
works on the 'on/off principle. It is used with simple HRES.
On the other hand, active control system is used with large
HRES using large numbers of components. The active
system measures and calculates input data of energy flow,
solar insolation, wind flow etc. The system is flexible and
works in different modes.
A programmable controller or software is developed, Fig. 1. Control algorithm of the suggested HRE S.

which is used to execute function of a control system. It may

follow a control algorithm to keep the system maintain V. HRES SIM ULATION
activities in sequence in a mode, as mentioned. As shown in The proposed HRES is to be installed for light and power
Fig. 1, SPV-WES-DG system is considered for the analysis. loads in different schools located at Amini Island (Appendix
Power produced by WES is required to monitor if voltage of II). The objective of HRES is to achieve energy security with
wind generator is greater than a minimum set voltage, DG optimized values of system components. The equipments
set is stopped. If the voltage from wind generator is less than used in hybrid system are selected for simulation as shown in
the minimum set voltage, then voltage received by the Fig. 2. For the sake of optimization, the software chooses
converter is the sum of voltage from WES and DG set. In equipment/s and sizes of different systems such as SPY,
this control, the harmful effect of deep discharging of wind turbine, DG set, battery bank and converter.
batteries is avoided by a set point state of charge (SoC), Spy and batteries are directly connected to a dc bus
which is the total amount of energy currently contained in whereas wind induction generator and diesel generator
the battery bank, measured in kWh. When the batteries are connected to an ac bus. A converter combination acts as a
fully charged, the absolute SoC is equal to the maximum coupling between the two buses to keep the batteries always
capacity of the battery bank. The SoC is constantly in charging mode directly through dc bus or to supply the
monitored; if the batteries are discharged below a prescribed load through ac bus. Different input variables are chosen for
limit of SoC at 25 percent, the DG set starts. The timer is 'Solar Resource Inputs' (Appendix-I), 'Wind Resource
used to count time for the measurement of SoC, as indicated Inputs' (Appendix-I), and 'Diesel Inputs' (Price 0.6, 0.8, 1
in Table 1 for a 12 V battery. The charger is given a signal $/L). Other variables are 'Economic Inputs' (Annual Real
between SoC 25% and 100% (batteries not fully charged) to Interest Rate 6%, Project Lifetime 25 years), 'General
restart charging process. The battery bank is also protected Control Inputs' (SoC 25, 75, 100 %), 'Emission Inputs'
from overcharging by stopping the DG set and keeping it on (emission penalty 0 $/t), and 'Constraints' (as percent of load
trickle charge, rather than dissipating excess generated/stored - Hourly Load 10%; percent of renewable output - Solar
energy in a dump load [3]. Some changes in the control power output 25%, and wind power output 50%).
algorithm will be required; if more than one DG set is used
for the purpose of energy security, Peak Shaving Unit is used

Copyright Notice: 978-1-4673-6008-1/11/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

T ABLE 1 several sensitive cases of each component and variable. A
sensitivity case is a specific combination of sensitivity
So C in % 100 75 50 25 Discharged
Open Circuit 11.89 variable values. Eight values are specified for the wind speed
12.65 12.45 12.24 12.06
Voltage or less (average value 4.61, 5, 6, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m/s) and
Courtesy: Cadex ElectronIcs Inc. Data 2007, Vancouver, Canada three values for diesel price (0.6, 0.8, and 1 $/L). The
software performs a separate optimization for each
Similarly, in the second case of Hathras, as shown in Fig. sensitivity case.
2, wind generator is replaced by biomass generator and then
These results are indicated either in tabular or in graphic
the simulation is carried out using suitable inputs and
form. In the tabular form, sensitivity results consist of a list
sensitivity variables.
showing the least cost system for each sensitivity case. The
breakdown of the system cost is:

• The production and consumption of electrical energy by

the system
• The operation of SPY, wind generator, and DG, if the
system contains one
• The use and expected life time of the battery
AC Bus DC Bus • The quantity of emission of the pollutants
Fig. 2. Equipments of Hybrid Renewable Energy System. • The hourly data to analyze those variable that are stored
for each hour of the year
VI. SIM ULATION RE SULT S The optimization result obtained from the simulation of
Simulation result provides important detail of optimal the hybrid SPV-WES-DG system suggested for the Amini
hybrid system, like size of the system component, total net Island is shown in Table 2 and 3. Besides other detail, it is
present cost, COE, and GHG emission. also found that electrical energy production by WES is
In first case, hybrid SPV-WES-DG system is proposed for 1,130,671 kWh/yr (93%) whereas 87,552 kWh (7%) by DG,
an actual primary load demand of 880 kWh/day, 149 kW for wind speed 4.61 m/s.
peak (Appendix-II) along with batteries (Vision 6FM200D, Sensitivity case: Wind speed: 4.61 mis, Diesel Price: 0.6
12 V, 200 Ah, 2.4 kWh) and converter for Amini Island. DG $/L, Hub Height: 25 m, SoC: 25%
set and battery bank are opted to maintain electric supply if Sample calculation of COE for wind speed 4.61 m/s:
solar and/or wind energy is not able to supply the load Primary load = 880 kWh/day
sufficiently. In second scenario, SPY-biomass generator-DG =321,200 kWh/yr
set, converter and batteries (Surrette 6CS25P, 6 V, 1,156 Ah, From Table 4, total annualized cost of the system =
6.94 kWh) are considered for the same load demand in 40,083 $/yr.
different weather conditions of Hathras (Appendix-I) for the From Equation (1), COE = Cann,tot/Eprim,Ac=40,803/321,200
sake of comparing the feasibility of the two energy systems. =0.12479 $/kWh
In this case also, energy security is given priority by using "" 0.125 $/kWh
DG set and batteries and not relying fully on Spy or biomass In this case, total energy produced is 300,161 kWh/yr by
generator. biomass generator, when the biomass price is 20 $/t. In Table
There are two choices of optimization results: 4, the optimization result is shown, obtained from the
• Overall system ranking shows top-ranked system simulation of one the different sensitivity cases of hybrid
configurations according to net present cost. SPV-biomass-DG system considered for Hathras.
• Categorized ranking shows least cost system of each type. Sensitivity case: Biomass Feedstock Price: 20 $/t, Diesel
Sensitivity results provide huge amount of output data for Price: 0.6 $/L, SoC: 25% .

Optim.1 S stem ConfiRurntions Optimal
Wind B.llery Cost of Initial DO GUG
peed PV DG os. Convener Energy Capi,al Running Emission
m/s kW kW kW $!kWh S Hours Kg/year
4.61 10 100 168 100 0.125 159,600 903 76,661

5 10 100 180 100 0.106 162,000 643 55,207

6 10 100 156 100 0.076 157,200 310 26,838

10 6 100 96 100 0.038 113,200 99 8,050

15 4 50 96 50 0.024 74,200 85 3000

20 - 5 96 50 0.022 74,200 0 0

25 - 4 96 50 0.020 66,200 0 0

30 4 96 50 0.020 66,200 0 0

Copyright Notice: 978-1-4673-6008-1/11/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

Initial Annualized Annualized Annual Annual Total
Capital Capital Replacement O&M Fuel Annualized
($) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr)
WE S 80,000 6,258 0 500 0 6,758
DG 16,000 1,252 276 1,806 17,467 20,801
Battery 33,600 2,628 6,877 672 0 10,177
Converter 30,000 2,347 0 0 0 2,347
Total 159,600 12,485 7,153 2,978 17,467 40,083

Opt imal System Configurations Optimal Bio'mass
Biomass initial GHG
Biomass B.nery Cost of Gencl"'J.tor
Price Spy DG Converter Capital Emission
Generator Energy Running
t kW kW S
$!kWh l'lours
20 -
60 -
60 25 0.[89 87_500 5_894 76_9

'0 60 - n 25 0.232 93,500 5,748 76-5

40 -
GO -
72 25 0.276 93,500 5,748 76.5

50 50 -
50 60 25 0.279 3 05,417 -


a) In the first case of Amini Island WES, SPY, DG set, Energy security is important for an island; therefore hybrid
battery, and converter are selected for simulation purpose but system is preferred over one particular RES, so that strong
equipments configured after simulation are WES, DG set, points of conventional and RES are availed. It is worth
battery, and converter. Spy is not found in the configuration consideration that excess unutilized producer gas from the
in this simulation result as shown in Table 2. gasifier of biomass generator is recovered and converted into
b) The result in Table 2 is found for the eight different 12-17 percent of hydrogen by weight of dry biomass and
sensitivity variables of wind speed, diesel price of 0.6 $/L, also methanol, which depends upon type of biomass and
hub height 25 m, and set point SoC 25%. The simulation
process. It is used as another RE source. If biomass is
shows that COE (i) decreases as wind speed increases, (ii)
available, it is always beneficial to use biomass energy so
increases with the increase in diesel price, (iii) decreases as
that GHG emission is avoided. Biomass releases carbon
hub height increases, and (iv) increases with set point Soc.
dioxide when it is used for gasification. Because biomass
c) As wind speed increases, the running hours of DG set
absorbs carbon dioxide during sunlight hours as it grows; the
decreases and hence GHG emission decreases. The emission
entire process of growing, using, and re-growing biomass
is zero for wind speed more than 15 m/s as DG set is not
results in very low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. If
configured. Hence carbon credits are saved.
d) In the second case of mainland Hathras SPV, biomass proper balance is maintained between growing and gasifying
generator, DG set, battery, and converter are selected for of biomass in a particular area, zero emission is achieved
simulation but the equipments configured after optimization while generating electricity. RE equipments are being
are biomass generator, battery, and converter for biomass selected by the software itself to provide a particular optimal
price 20 $/t as shown in Table 4. SPY is not found at this configuration. Therefore, sometime a compromise is made at
sensitivity value of biomass price. SPY is configured in the the cost of COE, making simulation ineffective. Sometime
simulation when biomass price 50 $/t is too expensive to fuel optimal configurations simulated by the software are not
the biomass generator. practically possible to install, hence compromise has to be
e) COE in the biomass case is 0.189 $/kWh (shown in Table made in favour of second or third most economical
4) for biomass price of 20 $/t, which is more than first case configuration.
of 0.125 $/kWh (shown in Table 2) for average value of
wind speed of the island.
t) GHG emission in the case of biomass generator is 76.9
Kg/year whereas in first case its value is 76,661 Kg/year. It
is concluded that the use of biomass helps in getting profit in
carbon trading.
g) GHG emission is increased steeply to 208,697 Kg/year
(shown in Table 4) when biomass price becomes 50 $/t or
more because Spy and DG set are available as generators -
not the biomass generator.

Copyright Notice: 978-1-4673-6008-1/11/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE


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03:00-04:00 5.240 15:00-16:00 67.260 Virendra Kumar Sharma completed his B.E. from KRE C Surathkal (1984),
04:00-05:00 6.860 16:00-17:00 42.120 M.Tech (1993) and Ph. D (1999) from lIT Delhi and Post Doc Fellowship
05:00-06:00 8.370 17:00-18:00 32.940 (2001) from ET S Montreal Canada. He is working as full Professor since
06:00-07:00 25.630 18:00-19:00 28.710 2003. He has a few research papers in international and national journals and
07:00-08:00 53.060 19:00-20:00 16.580 conferences. He has developed technologies in the area of power electronics
08:00-09:00 68.750 20:00-21:00 12.450 applications in drives control. He has completed sponsored projects from
09:00-10:00 76.370 21:00-22:00 9.530 government agencies in thrust areas and R& D. He has visited many countries
10:00-11:00 79.280 22:00-23:00 8.510 to present his research findings. His current research interests include power
II:00-12:00 82.780 23:00-00:00 6.230 electronics and its applications, drives and hvdc. He has received many
Annual average: 880 k Wh/day; Annual peak: 148.9 k W awards including Railway board medal for research paper published in
Load factor: 0.246 Institution of Engineers (India). He has guided research scholars for award of
Ph D.

Harish Kumar ( SM'2002, M'2005) was born in city of Taj (Agra) in India in
[1] Elhadidy, M. A., and Shahid, S. M., " Promoting application of hybrid 1978. He received the B.E (E CE) and M.E, Ph D in Microwave
(wind+solar+diesel+battery) power system in hot regions," Renew Communication from Agra University, Agra, India in 2001, 2004 and 2008,
Energy 2004; 29 (4): 517-28. respectively for research work carried out at CEERI Pilani, India. He has
[2] Elhadidy, M. A., and Shahid, S. M., " Parametric study of hybrid served as a faculty member with department of Electronics and
(wind+solar+diesel) powegenerating systems," Renew Energy 2000; 21 Communication at lET (Agra University, Agra) SE C, GIT (Rajasthan
(2):129-39. University, Jaipur) from 2001 to 2008. and currently holds rank of Professor
[3] Notton, G., Lazarov, V., Zarkov, Z., and Stoyanov, L., "Optimization of and head, department of E CE at Bhagwant Institute of Technology
hybrid systems with renewable energy sources: Trends for research," Muzaffarnagar, U. P India He received best paper award of the IEEE
Identification No. 1-4244-0232-8/06, 2006, IEEE. International conference at MM S 2010 (Middle East Technical University) in
[4] Lazarov, V. D., Notton, G., Zarkov, Z., and Bochev, I., "Hybrid power Cyprus during 25-28/08/2010. He has received seven projects like AI CTE,
systems with renewable energy sources - types , structure, trends for UGC, N STE D B, M SME, Govt of India. Five projects have been completed
research and development," Proc. of Int. Conf. ELMA2005, Sofia, and two project going on.
Bulgaria, 2005, pp. 515-520.
[5] Notton, G., Muselli, M., and Louche, A., " Photovoltaic power plant Anis Afzal has done B.Tech. from National Institute of Technology, Patna,
using a back-up generator: a case study in Mediterranean Island," Renew India; M.Tech. and PhD. from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. His
Energy 1996; 7 (4): 371-91. area of specialization is Renewable Energy Systems. He has 14 research
[6] papers published in various journals namely IEEE, Taylor & Francis and
[7] Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, Gov!. ofindia, data as on proceedings of international conferences. Recently he has presented 2 papers
31.8.2004. in World Renewable Energy Congress held in Sweden from 8 May to 13 May
[8] Ahiduzzaman, M., "Rice Husk Technologies in Bangladesh," 20 II. He has nearly 24 years teaching experience of electrical engineering in
Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, Invited India and abroad. Presently he is working as an Associate Professor, Faculty
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