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Travel Security Online

11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Worldwide travel: Tsunami warning issued for Japan, Russia, several other
countries following major earthquake

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre on 11 March issued tsunami warnings for Japan, Russia and
Northern Mariana Islands, after a magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck at 14.46 (local time) 81 miles (130km)
east of Sendai, the capital of Miyagi prefecture (Japan). In addition, a tsunami watch has been issued for
Guam, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Kiribati and the US state of Hawaii. Tremors
shook buildings in the Japanese capital Tokyo, where airport, train and metro services have been
temporarily suspended.

Travel Advice

 Account for all personnel.


 Personnel in the affected countries should avoid low-lying and coastal areas until the situation
becomes clear or the tsunami warning is rescinded.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts.
 Expect disruption to travel and essential services in earthquake-affected areas.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.

11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Travel, essential services disrupted following major earthquake; tsunami
warning in place (Revised 08.18 GMT)

A tsunami warning issued on 11 March by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) remains in place after
high waves struck the coast of Miyagi prefecture (Tōhoku Region) on Honshu island. The tsunami was
produced by a magnitude 8.9 earthquake that struck at 14.46 (local time) 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai,
the capital of Miyagi; the tremor was initially reported to be of 7.9 magnitude. Several strong aftershocks
measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in the area. The JMA's tsunami warning applies to
several prefectures, including Iwate, Miyagi, Hokkaido and Fukushima. Local media has reported several
injuries, particulaly in the north of the country, but the exact number of casualties is unclear at this time.

The tremor shook buildings in the capital Tokyo, where airport, train and underground metro services have
been suspended, after a four-metre (13 feet) tsunami struck its coast. Meanwhile, fires have been reported
in Sendai, while power supply to at least 4m residences has been disrupted in Fukushima prefecture. The
country's three main mobile telephone operators have reported disruption to their services in many areas.

Flights have been suspended at Tokyo's Narita International Airport, while the city's Haneda airport is
reportedly only allowing arrivals. Operations have also been disrurpted at Hanamaki airport in Iwate
prefecture. Most international arrivals are being diverted to other airports.The authorities have ordered the
deployment of army personnel for rescue and relief operations.

Comment and Analysis

A clear picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster will take several hours to emerge.
However, travel and essential services, such as telecommunications and electricity, are likely to remain
disrupted in the affected areas, as the authorities first undertake rescue work before directing resources
towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In addition, further aftershocks are possible, which could cause
additional damage, thereby exacerbating the situation. Waves generated by the tremor could potentially
spread and strike other islands in the region, inundating low-lying coastal areas and posing a serious
threat to life and property.

Japan is prone to earthquakes and is situated on one of the world's most seismically active areas; nearly
20% of the world's temblors with a magnitude of six or above occur in the country. The JMA on 9 March
issued brief tsunami advisories for Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures in the north-east of
Honshu island after an offshore earthquake measuring 7.2 on the moment magnitude scale occurred at
around 11.45 on the same day in east of Honshu and around 105 miles (169km) east of Sendai. This was
followed by a 6.3-magnitude aftershock; though no casualties were reported, minor disruption to rail
services was experienced in the four prefectures after the authorities temporarily halted trains as a
precautionary measure. A 23-inch (60 cm) tsunami on the day was reported in the port town of Ofunato
(Iwate), while tremors shook buildings in Tokyo.

Travel Advice

 Account for all personnel.


 Avoid low-lying and coastal areas until the situation becomes clear or the tsunami warning is
rescinded.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts and could pose a risk to life and
property.
 Anticipate disruption to travel and essential services in earthquake-affected areas.
 Personnel scheduled to travel to, from or within the country are advised to contact their airline to
reconfirm the status of flights before setting out.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.

11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Worldwide travel: Tsunami warning extended to several countries after major
earthquake strikes Japan (Revised 09.00 GMT)

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center on 11 March extended tsunami warnings, which it had earlier issued
for Japan, Russia and Northern Mariana Islands, to include several other countries; the advisory was
issued after a magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck at 14.46 (local time) 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai in
Miyagi prefecture of Japan.

It currently also applies to Guam, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Kiribati,
Wallis and Futuna, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Samoa, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Australia, Fiji, New
Caledonia, Tonga, Mexico, French Polynesia, New Zealand, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica,
Nicaragua, Panama, Honduras, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Solomon Islands, and the US state of
Hawaii.

Comment and Analysis

While the intensity of the tsunami at its respective time of impact in the countries included in the advisory
cannot be accurately predicted, low-lying and coastal areas facing the waves are likely to be vulnerable to
damage or disruption. Personnel in the affected coastal areas could potentially face disruption to travel
and essential services such as electricity.

Travel Advice

 Account for all personnel.


 Personnel in the affected countries should avoid low-lying and coastal areas until the situation
becomes clear or the tsunami warning is rescinded.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts.
 Expect disruption to travel and essential services in the affected areas.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.

Japan

Earthquake and tsunami hits north eastern Japan

Created: March 11, 2011 08:08 GMT

Updated: March 11, 2011 09:17 GMT

An 8.9-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami has struck the northeast coast of the main island
of Honshu, Japan. International SOS will update this alert as more information becomes available.

The earthquake epicenter was 81 miles east of Sendai (see map), the capital of Miyagi prefecture. The
tsunami has swamped areas around Sendai. News sources are reporting significant damage to
infrastructure. A tsunami warning has been issued for Japan (see the Japan Meteorological Department
tsunami alert for details of affected areas), Russia and Northern Mariana Islands. A tsunami watch
has been issued for Guam, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Kiribati and the US state of
Hawaii.

Damage to infrastructure has occurred with temporary disruption to transport services such air and rail.
Services such as water supply power and electricity may by affected. Local medical facilities are likely to
be strained or overwhelmed. Authorities are assessing the situation and are urging people to monitor
media for updated emergency information and instructions.

Casualties have not been reported so far. Several aftershocks have been reported. Others may occur,
which can cause additional damage and raise the risk of injuries and fatalities.

International SOS Comment

Avoid travel to the affected region until the situation becomes clear or the tsunami warning is rescinded. If
in an affected area:

 Monitor developments and heed all warnings.


 Avoid low lying and coastal areas
 Drink only boiled or bottled water, or canned or carbonated beverages. The local water supply
may be contaminated.
 Avoid contact with contaminated water / sewer spills.
 Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands with soap and safe water, or use a hand sanitiser. This
is especially important before preparing food or eating.
 Clean skin cuts and abrasions thoroughly. Treat skin infections early.

For more information:

 See the Travel Security Online situation updates.


 Contact any International SOS Alarm Center.
 See the fact sheets on Avoiding Illness, Food and Water Safety During Disasters, and Avoiding
Injuries.
11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Tokyo largely unaffected but fatalities, disruption reported elsewhere
following major earthquake; tsunami warning remains in place (Revised 12.51 GMT)

A tsunami warning issued on 11 March by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) remains in place after
high waves struck the coast of Miyagi prefecture (Tōhoku Region) on Honshu island. The tsunami was
produced by a magnitude 8.9 earthquake that struck at 14.46 (local time) 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai,
the capital of Miyagi. At least 18 strong aftershocks measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in
the area. The JMA's tsunami warning applies to several prefectures, including Iwate, Miyagi, Hokkaido,
Fukushima and Wakayama, where the authorites have evacuted more than 20,000 people. More than 40
people have been killed and several others injured, mostly in the north-eastern parts of the country; this
figure is expected to increase. The authorities have deployed army personnel for rescue and relief
operations.

The capital Tokyo

Compared to the damage in the north-eastern parts of the country, local sources confirm that Tokyo is
relatively unscathed. However, the tremor shook buildings and prompted the suspension of airport, train
and underground metro services in the city, after a four-metre (13 feet) tsunami struck its coast. In
addition, significant traffic disruption has been reported on major roads and highways.

Elsewhere

Fires have been reported in Sendai, which is believed to be the worst-hit, while power supply to at least 4m
residences has been disrupted in Fukushima prefecture. Fires have also been reported in the northern
prefectures of Iwate and Ibaraki, while landslides have destroyed houses in Miyagi, where all expressways
have been closed to traffic.

Communication

The country's three main mobile telephone operators have reported disruption to their services in many
areas, and landlines have also been affected; however, local sources indicate that internet services are
unaffected.

Flights

Some outbound flights have reportedly resumed at Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT), while the
city's Haneda airport (HND) is accepting only arrivals. Operations have also been disrupted at Hanamaki
airport ( HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai airport (SDJ) is closed due to inundation; airports serving Yamagata
(GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) are closed. Most international arrivals are being diverted to other airports; All
Nippon Airways has cancelled more than130 flights and diverted 24 others, while UK-based British
Airways and Virgin Atlantic have cancelled their flights to Tokyo for the day.

Comment and Analysis

A clear picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster will take several hours to emerge.
However, air and overland travel, as well as essential services, such as telecommunications and
electricity, are likely to remain considerably disrupted in the affected areas, as the authorities first
undertake rescue work before directing resources towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In addition,
further aftershocks are possible, which could cause additional damage, thereby exacerbating the situation.
Waves generated by the tremor could potentially spread and strike other islands in the region, inundating
low-lying coastal areas and posing a serious threat to life and property.

Japan is prone to earthquakes and is situated on one of the world's most seismically active areas; nearly
20% of the world's temblors with a magnitude of six or above occur in the country. The JMA on 9 March
issued brief tsunami advisories for Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures in the north-east of
Honshu island after an offshore earthquake measuring 7.2 on the moment magnitude scale occurred at
around 11.45 on the same day in east of Honshu and around 105 miles (169km) east of Sendai. This was
followed by a 6.3-magnitude aftershock; though no casualties were reported, minor disruption to rail
services was experienced in the four prefectures after the authorities temporarily halted trains as a
precautionary measure. A 23-inch (60 cm) tsunami on the day was reported in the port town of Ofunato
(Iwate), while tremors shook buildings in Tokyo.

Travel Advice

 Account for all personnel.


 Avoid low-lying and coastal areas until the situation becomes clear and the tsunami warning is
rescinded.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts and could pose a risk to life and
property.
 Anticipate disruption to travel and essential services in earthquake-affected areas.
 Personnel scheduled to travel to, from or within the country are advised to contact their airline to
reconfirm the status of flights before setting out.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.

11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Worldwide travel: Tsunami warning remains in effect for several countries;
advisory prompts evacuations, airport closure in Hawaii (Revised 14.44 GMT)

A tsunami warning issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) on 11 March remains in effect
for Japan, Russia, parts of the US and several other countries; the advisory was issued after a magnitude
8.9 earthquake struck at 14.46 (local time) 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai in Miyagi prefecture of Japan.
It currently also applies to Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Solomon Islands,
Kiribati, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Samoa, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia,
Tonga, Mexico, French Polynesia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Honduras,
Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru.

Tsunami warnings issued earlier for New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands and Australia have been
lifted. In addition, the local authorities in some countries have revoked tsunami warnings they had issued
earlier, while others have stated that they will revoke such advisories in conjunction with the PTWC.

In the US, the authorities have shut down all the main airports in Hawaii as a precautionary measure, and
have evacuated residents from coastal areas; similar evacuations were reported in low-lying coastal areas
of other affected countries such as Chile and Indonesia. Minor tsunamis measuring between few
centimetres and up to one metre (3.3 feet) have been reported in several countries, including Taiwan and
Philippines, but these have not caused any damage.

11 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Disruption continues following major earthquake as tsunami warning
remains in place; authorities evacuate vicinity of nuclear plant (Revised 18.52 GMT)
A tsunami warning issued on 11 March by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) remains in place after
high waves struck the coast of Miyagi prefecture (Tohoku region, Honshu island). The tsunami was
produced by a magnitude 8.9 earthquake that at 14.46 (local time) struck 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai,
the capital of Miyagi. At least 40 strong aftershocks measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in
the area. The JMA's tsunami warning applies to several prefectures, including Iwate, Miyagi, Hokkaido,
Fukushima and Wakayama, where the authorities have evacuated more than 20,000 people. The
authorities have stated that at least 350 people have been killed, around 500 are missing and more than
500 others have been injured. The authorities have deployed army personnel for rescue and relief
operations.

The authorities have ordered the evacuation of local residents within a two-mile (3km) radius of the
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and residents within a two- to six-mile (3 to 10km) radius have
been told to remain indoors. The International Atomic Energy Agency's Incident and Emergency Centre
had earlier received a directive from Japan's Nuclear Industrial Safety Agency stating that a heightened
state of alert had been declared at the power plant.

The capital Tokyo

Compared to the damage in the north-east of the country, local sources confirm that Tokyo is relatively
unscathed. However, the tremor shook buildings and prompted the suspension of airport, overland and
metro train services in the city, after a four-metre (13 foot) tsunami struck its coast. Train and underground
metro services have since partially resumed, as have some bus services. In addition, significant traffic
disruption continues on major roads, and authorities have closed several highways. Chief Cabinet
Secretary Yukio Edano urged commuters in the capital to spend the night in their offices to avoid further
congestion. Despite this, local reports suggest that the city is choked with pedestrians making their way
home from the city centre.

Elsewhere

Fires have been reported in Sendai, which is believed to be the worst-hit area, while power supply has
been disrupted in all parts of Miyagi, Iwate, and Akita prefectures, most of Yamagata prefecture, and part
of Fujushima prefecture. Meanwhile, around 3.4m homes are without power in Kanto region (Gunma,
Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures). Fires have also been reported in
Iwate, Ibaraki, Miyagi, Akita, Fukushima, Tochigi, Chiba, Tokyo and Kanagawa, while landslides have
destroyed homes in Miyagi, where all expressways have been closed to traffic. A passenger train is
missing in Miyagi, while a dam burst in Fukushima, washing away several residences.

Communication

The country's three main mobile telephone operators have reported disruption to their services in many
areas, and landlines have also been affected; however, local sources indicate that internet services are
normal.

Flights

Some outbound flights have reportedly resumed at Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT), while the
city's Haneda Airport (HND) is accepting only arrivals. Operations have also been disrupted at Hanamaki
Airport ( HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai Airport (SDJ) is closed due to inundation; airports serving Yamagata
(GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) prefecture are closed. Most international arrivals are being diverted to other
airports; All Nippon Airways has cancelled more than 130 flights and diverted 24 others, while UK carriers
British Airways and Virgin Atlantic have cancelled their flights to Tokyo for the day. The US-based United,
Delta and American Airlines have announced that they will waive rebooking fees for their Japan services
for at least one week.
Comment and Analysis

A clearer picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster will take several hours to emerge.
However, air and overland travel, as well as essential services, such as telecommunications and
electricity, are likely to remain subject to considerable disruption in the affected areas, as the authorities
first undertake rescue work before directing resources towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In
addition, further aftershocks are likely, and these have the potential to cause additional damage, thereby
exacerbating the situation. Waves generated by further strong tremors could potentially spread and strike
other islands in the region, inundating low-lying coastal areas and posing a serious threat to life and
property. The move by the authorities to evacuate the area around the Fukushima Daiichi plant is a
precautionary measure after the facility's power supply was cut, causing concern over its ability to cool its
nuclear material.

Japan is prone to earthquakes and is situated on one of the world's most seismically active areas; nearly
20% of the world's temblors with a magnitude of six or above occur in the country. The JMA on 9 March
issued brief tsunami advisories for Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures in the north-east of
Honshu after an offshore earthquake measuring 7.2 on the moment magnitude scale occurred at around
11.45 on the same day in eastern Honshu and around 105 miles (169km) east of Sendai. This was
followed by a 6.3-magnitude aftershock; though no casualties were reported, minor disruption to rail
services was experienced in the four prefectures after the authorities temporarily halted trains as a
precautionary measure. A 23-inch (60cm) tsunami on the day was reported in the port town of Ofunato
(Iwate), while tremors shook buildings in Tokyo.

12 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Travel can continue as major tsunami warning downscaled; maintain
flexible itineraries to minimise inconvenience from post-earthquake disruption (Revised 08.09
GMT)

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) on 12 March downscaled a ‘major tsunami warning', which it
had earlier issued for several prefectures, following destructive waves caused by a magnitude 8.9
earthquake that struck 81 miles (130km) east of Sendai, the capital of Miyagi (Tohoku region, Honshu
island) on the previous day. The advisory now applies only to Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and the coastal
part of Aomori prefectures. At least 125 strong aftershocks measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been
reported in the area. A ‘tsunami warning' also remains in effect for Wakayama prefecture, where more
than 20,000 people have been evacuated. Similarly, around 30,000 people in Sendai and more than
15,000 people in Aomori prefecture have also been evacuated. The authorities have stated that at least
420 people have been killed, around 780 are missing and more than 500 others have been injured; these
figures are expected to rise further. Around 50,000 personnel, including soldiers, have been deployed for
rescue and relief operations.

Around 45,000 residents within a six-mile (10km) radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant,
located 160 miles (260km) north of the capital Tokyo, have been ordered to evacuate; a similar
evacuation zone has been imposed for the nearby Fukushima Daini plant. The measure was prompted by
the government declaring a state of emergency at the two facilities. Although the authorities stated that
radiation levels around the plant had risen to above normal, they were confident that these were still
within a safe level and unlikely to have any adverse impact on nearby residents.

Tokyo

Compared to the damage in the north-east of the country, local sources confirm that Tokyo is relatively
unscathed. However, the tremor shook buildings and prompted the temporary suspension of airport,
overland and metro train services in the city. Train and metro services have since partially resumed, with
between 30 to 50% of normal services operating, as have some bus services; a significant demand for
taxis has been reported. In addition, significant traffic disruption is continuing on major roads, and the
authorities have closed several highways.

Elsewhere

Fires have been reported in Sendai, which is believed to be the worst-hit area, while power supply has
been disrupted in all parts of Miyagi, Iwate, and Akita prefectures, most of Yamagata prefecture, and part
of Fujushima prefecture. The authorities have warned of possible blackouts in wider parts of the country
on 12 March, and not just in quake-affected areas, due to damaged power facilities; the Tokyo Electric
Power Co (TEPCO) has stated that three-hour rotating power outages may be imposed on a regional
basis from 13 March. Meanwhile, around 3.4m homes remain without electricity in Kanto region (Gunma,
Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures).

Fires have also been reported in Iwate, Ibaraki, Miyagi, Akita, Fukushima, Tochigi, Chiba, Tokyo and
Kanagawa, while landslides have destroyed homes in Miyagi, where all expressways have been closed to
traffic. A passenger train is missing in Miyagi, while a dam burst in Fukushima, washing away several
residences. Water supply was reportedly disrupted in parts of Kitaibaraki (Ibaraki), Inagi (Tokyo
prefecture) and Fukushima prefecture.

Communication

The country's three main mobile telephone operators have reported disruption to their services in many
areas, and landlines have also been affected; however, internet services are believed to be normal.
Several mobile service providers have reportedly placed partial restrictions on voice calls, mostly to the
Greater Tokyo area and the north-eastern part of the country, in an attempt to ease congestion.

Flights

Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT) and Haneda Airport (HND) have reopened, though they were
operating to a restricted schedule. Both these facilities are expected to resume full operations in the
coming hours. Operations have also been disrupted at Hanamaki Airport ( HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai
Airport (SDJ) is closed due to inundation; airports serving Yamagata (GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) prefecture
were also closed, though latest reports indicate that the latter has resumed partial services. A number of
international arrivals destined to Tokyo are being diverted to other airports; All Nippon Airways and Japan
Airlines have cancelled 70 and 131 flights respectively on 12 March. The US-based United, Delta and
American Airlines have announced that they will waive rebooking fees for their Japan services for at least
one week. Several international airlines including Cathay Pacific expect to resume at least limited flights
to Japan on 12 March.

Comment and Analysis

A clearer picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster is likely to emerge in the coming
days as emergency services carry out rescue operations across the country. However, air and overland
travel, as well as essential services such as telecommunications and electricity, are likely to remain
subject to considerable disruption in the affected areas, as the authorities first undertake rescue work
before directing resources towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In addition, further aftershocks are
likely, and these have the potential to cause additional damage, thereby exacerbating the situation.
Waves generated by further strong tremors could potentially spread and strike other islands in the region,
inundating low-lying coastal areas and posing a serious threat to life and property. The move by the
authorities to evacuate the area around the Fukushima Daiichi plant is a precautionary measure after the
facility's power supply was cut, causing concern over its ability to cool its nuclear material. The US navy
has delivered coolants to the power plant; however, plant workers are still struggling control the
overheating, even resorting to releasing radioactive vapour to relieve the built-up steam.

Travel Security Online


12 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Public transport, airport operations in Tokyo gradually


normalising; post-earthquake recovery efforts continue in north-east

An ‘orange' tsunami warning issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) on 12 March
remains in effect for Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and the coastal part of Aomori prefectures.
According to the authorities, at least 420 people have been killed, some 780 are missing and more
than 500 others have been injured following a magnitude 8.9 earthquake that struck east of Sendai,
the capital of Miyagi (Tohoku region, Honshu island) on the previous day. At least 125 strong
aftershocks measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in the area.

More than 20,000 people in Wakayama prefecture, 30,000 in Sendai and 15,000 in Aomori have
been evacuated, while 215,000 people have been relocated to temporary living shelters in five
prefectures. Rescue and relief operations are continuing with the aid of at least 50,000 personnel,
300 planes and 40 ships. The demand for basic commodities and fuel is reported to be high, with
long queues observed at supermarkets and petrol stations. The British Foreign & Commonwealth
Office has advised its citizens against all non-essential travel to Tokyo and the north-eastern
regions of the country.

Fukushima nuclear power plants

The authorities on 12 March extended a previously-enforced exclusion zone around the Fukushima
Daiichi (No. 1 Fukushima) nuclear power plant, located 160 miles (260km) north of the capital
Tokyo, to a 12-mile (20km) radius, and ordered residents within this area to evacuate. The measure
was prompted by an explosion at the facility on the same day in which two workers were injured. A
similar evacuation zone extending up to six mile (10km) remains in place for the nearby Fukushima
Daini (No.2 Fukushima) plant. A state of emergency declared by the government remains in place
at the two plants. Meanwhile, the Chief Cabinet Secretary at around 21.00 stated that the incident
at No.1 Fukushima had occurred outside the ‘containment' area, and that there were no indications
of a radiation leak as yet.

Tokyo

Metro services have resumed nearly on all lines except one on which partial schedules are
operating. Limited train services have restarted, with between 30% to 50% of normal services
operating, as have some bus services; a significant demand for taxis has been reported. The East
Japan Railway, which operates commuter lines in the city, has restarted full services on the Chuo
and partial schedules on the Yamanote lines. In addition, significant traffic disruption is continuing
on major roads, particularly those leading out of the city; several highways remain closed.

Elsewhere

Sendai is believed to be the worst-hit area, while power supply has been disrupted across Miyagi,
Iwate and Akita prefectures, most of Yamagata prefecture, and parts of Fujushima prefecture. The
Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) has suspended plans to enforce three-hour rotating power
outages on a regional basis on 13 March, but the company has stated that it may do so from the
following day. Around 5.1m homes remain without electricity in Tohoku and Kanto regions (Gunma,
Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures), while electricity supply
remains disrupted to 1.4m residences in Miyagi. However, power supply to Tokyo, Gunma,
Saitama, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures has been restored. All expressways in Miyagi
remain closed. Water supply is reportedly disrupted in parts of Kitaibaraki (Ibaraki), Inagi (Tokyo
prefecture) and Fukushima prefecture.

Communication

Mobile and landline services have been considerably disrupted in the affected areas, particularly in
Sendai. Several mobile service providers have placed partial restrictions on voice calls, mostly to
the Greater Tokyo area and the north-eastern region, in an attempt to ease congestion.

Flights

Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT) and Haneda Airport ( HND) have reopened, with the
former resuming full operations and the latter expected to follow suit in the coming hours. Flights
remain disrupted at Hanamaki Airport (HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai Airport (SDJ) is closed due to
inundation. Airports serving Yamagata (GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) prefecture were closed, though
latest reports indicated that the latter had resumed partial services. Several international airlines
resumed limited flights to Japan on 12 March. The US-based United, Delta and American Airlines
have announced that they will waive rebooking fees for their Japan services for at least one week.

Comment and Analysis

A clearer picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster is likely to emerge in the
coming days as emergency services carry out rescue operations across the country. However, air
and overland travel, as well as essential services such as telecommunications and electricity, are
likely to remain subject to considerable disruption in the affected areas, as the authorities first
undertake rescue work before directing resources towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In
addition, further aftershocks are likely, and these have the potential to cause additional damage,
thereby exacerbating the situation.

12 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Foreign countries send teams to aid earthquake rescue effort as
death toll continues to rise (Revised 21.13 GMT)

An ‘orange' tsunami warning issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency ( JMA) on 12 March
remains in effect for Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and the coastal part of Aomori prefectures. Officials
indicated that more than 1,000 people are believed to have been killed, 10,000 others are missing
and in excess of 1,120 people have been injured following the magnitude 8.9 earthquake that
struck east of Sendai, the capital of Miyagi (Tohoku region, Honshu island) early on 11 March. In
addition, around 300,000 people have abandoned their homes, while more than 220 strong
aftershocks measuring between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in the area. The government
announced that it had deployed 50,000 military and rescue personnel to the affected areas as part
of the relief effort, while rescue teams from the US, Australia and New Zealand are also en route to
Japan to support the initiative.
Fukushima nuclear power plants

The authorities on 12 March extended a previously-enforced exclusion zone around the Fukushima
Daiichi (No 1 Fukushima) nuclear power plant, located 160 miles (260km) north of the capital
Tokyo, to a 12-mile (20km) radius, and ordered residents within this area to evacuate. The measure
was prompted by an explosion at the facility on the same day in which two workers were injured. A
similar evacuation zone extending up to six mile (10km) remains in place for the nearby Fukushima
Daini (No 2 Fukushima) plant. A state of emergency declared by the government remains in place
at the two plants. Meanwhile, the Chief Cabinet Secretary at around 21.00 (local time) stated that
the incident at No.1 Fukushima had occurred outside the ‘containment' area, and that there were no
indications of a radiation leak as yet.

Early reports noted the failure of cooling systems due to power loss which led to an increase in
pressure within the reactor. Attempts were made to reduce this pressure by the controlled venting
of steam. Levels of radioactivity did increase in the immediate area as a result of the controlled
venting, but remained within expected limits. The explosion is not thought to have breached the
containment of nuclear material within the reactor and levels of radiation are being closely
monitored. Meanwhile, the authorities have begun to fill the reactor with sea water in an attempt to
cool the structure and release pressure.

Tokyo

Metro services have resumed full operations on all lines. However, overland train services to the
Kanto and Shinetsu areas, as well as long-distance services, remain suspended. Services to the
Tohoku area and bullet trains are operating at 30% to 50% capacity. The East Japan Railway,
which operates commuter lines in the city, has restarted full services on the Chuo and partial
schedules on the Yamanote lines. In addition, significant traffic disruption is continuing on major
roads, particularly those leading out of the city; all highways from the capital to earthquake-affected
areas remain closed.

Elsewhere

Sendai is believed to be the worst-hit area, while power supply has been disrupted across Miyagi,
Iwate and Akita prefectures, most of Yamagata prefecture, and parts of Fujushima prefecture. The
Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) has suspended plans to enforce three-hour rotating power
outages on a regional basis on 13 March, but the company has stated that it may do so from the
following day. Around 5.1m homes remain without electricity in Tohoku and Kanto regions (Gunma,
Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures), while electricity supply
remains disrupted to 1.4m residences in Miyagi. However, power supply to Tokyo, Gunma,
Saitama, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures has been restored. All expressways in Miyagi
remain closed. Water supply is reportedly disrupted in parts of Kitaibaraki (Ibaraki), Inagi (Tokyo
prefecture) and Fukushima prefecture.

Communication

Mobile and landline services have been considerably disrupted in the affected areas, particularly in
Sendai. Several mobile service providers have placed partial restrictions on voice calls, mostly to
the Greater Tokyo area and the north-eastern region, in an attempt to ease congestion.

Flights

Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT) and Haneda Airport ( HND) have reopened, with the
former resuming full operations and the latter expected to follow suit in the coming hours. Flights
remain disrupted at Hanamaki Airport ( HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai Airport (SDJ) is closed due to
inundation. Airports serving Yamagata (GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) prefecture were closed, though
latest reports indicated that the latter had resumed partial services. Several international airlines
resumed limited flights to Japan on 12 March. The US-based United, Delta and American Airlines
have announced that they will waive rebooking fees for their Japan services for at least one week.
There is limited availability of tickets out of Tokyo; an alternative is to travel via bullet train to Osaka
where hotel availability is good and there are better options on international flights from the country.

Comment and Analysis

A clearer picture of the damage and disruption caused by the disaster is likely to emerge in the
coming days as emergency services carry out rescue operations across the country. However, air
and overland travel, as well as essential services such as telecommunications and electricity, are
likely to remain subject to considerable disruption in the affected areas, as the authorities first
undertake rescue work before directing resources towards repairing damaged infrastructure. In
addition, further aftershocks are likely, and these have the potential to cause additional damage,
thereby exacerbating the situation.

13 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Emergency cooling systems fail at another nuclear reactor

The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) on 12 March stated that the emergency cooling
function of a second Fukushima Daiichi (No 3 Fukushima) nuclear power plant, located around 160
miles (260km) north of the capital Tokyo, failed at 05.10 (local time) on the same day; the incident
comes after a magnitude 8.9 earthquake struck east of Sendai, the capital of Miyagi (Tohoku
region, Honshu island) early on 11 March. The authorities subsequently initiated a series of
contingency measures, including a controlled release of radioactive steam from the affected
reactor. An evacuation zone of up to 12 miles (20 km) and a state of emergency remain in place for
the plant.

Travel Advice

 Travel to Japan can continue.


 Clients should avoid all travel to areas affected by the tsunami and the exclusion zones
around the Fukushima nuclear reactor site.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.
 Members can contact the International SOS Alarm Centre for additional health information.
 See the International SOS Medical Alerts for health related information.

13 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Recent localised incidents at nuclear plants do not suggest
increased risks to personnel but prudent to avoid travel to affected areas (Revised 04.00
GMT)

Fukushima nuclear power plants

The Tokyo Electric Power Company ( TEPCO) on 13 March stated that the emergency cooling
function of a second Fukushima Daiichi (No 3 Fukushima) nuclear power plant, located around 160
miles (260km) north of the capital Tokyo, had failed at 05.10 (local time) on the same day. The
authorities subsequently initiated a series of contingency measures, including a controlled release
of radioactive steam from the affected reactor; the same process was successfully used on the
previous day to ease the build-up of pressure within and reduce the core temperature of another
reactor at the site (No 1 Fukushima). Media reports incorrectly speculated about a radioactive leak
at No 3 Fukushima or that the facility had gone into a major meltdown; the affected reactor is
located within the same controlled zone and as such poses no additional risks to personnel in the
area.

The country's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency ( NISA) has classified the incident at No 1
Fukushima as a ‘Level 4 – Accident with Local Consequences', on the International Nuclear and
Radiological Event Scale (INES), which categories such incidents on a 0 (deviation) to 7 (major
accident) scale. Exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around No 1 Fukushima and six miles (10km)
around Fukushima Daini (No 2 Fukushima) and a state of emergency at the site remain in place.
The authorities have evacuated more than 170,000 people from the area. The evacuees were
scanned for signs of exposure to radiation; reports indicated that nine workers at the site had been
affected. However, officials stated that they had not observed any radiation impact on the ‘ external
environment', and that they were closely monitoring the situation.

Post-earthquake situation

The Japan Meteorological Agency ( JMA) on 13 March downscaled its previous ‘orange' tsunami
warning to a ‘yellow' tsunami advisory for the Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and the coastal parts of
Aomori prefectures. Officials indicated that more than 1,000 people are believed to have been
killed, 10,000 others are missing and in excess of 1,120 people have been injured after a
magnitude 8.9 offshore earthquake struck east of Sendai (Miyagi) on 11 March. In addition, around
300,000 people have abandoned their homes, while more than 220 strong aftershocks measuring
between 7.1 and 6.3 have been reported in the area. The authorities have deployed 50,000 military
and rescue personnel to the affected areas, while additional rescue teams have been provided by
the US, Australia and New Zealand.

Tokyo

Metro services have resumed full operations on all lines. However, overland train services to the
Kanto and Shinetsu areas, as well as long-distance services, remain suspended. Services to the
Tohoku area and bullet trains are operating at 30% to 50% capacity. The East Japan Railway,
which operates commuter lines in the city, has restarted full services on the Chuo and partial
schedules on the Yamanote lines. In addition, significant traffic disruption is continuing on major
roads, particularly those leading out of the city; all highways from the capital to earthquake-affected
areas remain closed.

Elsewhere

Sendai is believed to be the worst-hit area, while power supply has been disrupted across Miyagi,
Iwate and Akita prefectures, most of Yamagata prefecture, and parts of Fujushima prefecture.
Around 5.1m homes remain without electricity in Tohoku and Kanto regions (Gunma, Tochigi,
Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures), while electricity supply remains
disrupted to 1.4m residences in Miyagi. However, power supply to Tokyo, Gunma, Saitama,
Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures has been restored. All expressways in Miyagi remain closed.

Communication
Mobile and landline services have been considerably disrupted in the affected areas, particularly in
Sendai. Several mobile service providers have placed partial restrictions on voice calls, mostly to
the Greater Tokyo area and the north-eastern region, in an attempt to ease congestion.

Flights

Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT) and Haneda Airport (HND) have reopened, though a
major backlog of passengers has been reported. Flights remain disrupted at Hanamaki Airport (
HNA) in Iwate, while Sendai Airport (SDJ) is closed due to inundation. There is limited availability of
tickets out of Tokyo; an alternative is to travel via bullet train to Osaka where hotel availability is
good and there are better options on international flights from the country. Airports serving
Yamagata (GAJ) and Aomori (AOJ) prefecture have also reopened, though flights are subject to
delays and cancellations.

Comment and Analysis

A clearer picture of the damage and fatalities caused by the disaster is likely to emerge in the
coming days as emergency services carry out rescue operations across the country. However, air
and overland travel, as well as essential services such as telecommunications and electricity, are
likely to remain subject to considerable disruption in the affected areas, as the authorities attempt to
repair damaged infrastructure. In addition, further aftershocks are likely, and these have the
potential to cause additional damage, thereby exacerbating the situation.

Japan

Nuclear incidents, earthquake, tsunami, and air quality

Created: March 11, 2011 08:08 GMT

Updated: March 13, 2011 12:32 GMT

On March 11, an 8.9-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami struck the northeast coast of
the main Japanese island of Honshu. International SOS will update this alert as more information
becomes available.

The earthquake epicenter was 81 miles east of Sendai (see map), the capital of Miyagi prefecture.
The tsunami swamped areas around Sendai. Extensive damage to infrastructure occurred with
disruption to transport, water and electricity supply. Officials estimate that more than 1,300 have
died, at least 1,200 are injured and around 10,000 are assumed missing. More than 240
aftershocks have occurred.

A number of foreign affairs departments, including those of Canada and the United Kingdom, are
advising against non-essential travel to affected areas. The United States advises avoidance of
non-essential travel to Japan.

Nuclear incidents

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported on the nearby Fukushima Daiichi and
Daini nuclear power plants, Futaba district (see map) which were affected by the earthquake.

March 13, 0600 GMT: Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano told reporters that officials
still do not know if there have been meltdowns in the No. 1 and No. 3 reactors at the Fukushima
Daiichi's nuclear facility. But as technicians try to cool the reactor core and release pressure inside
the reactors, he said authorities were working under the presumption that meltdowns have
occurred.

Mr Edano said of reactor No 1, "We do believe that there is a possibility that meltdown has
occurred. It is inside the reactor. We can't see. However, we are assuming that a meltdown has
occurred." He also said, "And with reactor No. 3, we are also assuming that the possibility of a
meltdown as we carry out measures." Mr. Edano then went on to say that he believed that the
situation is under control for the time being.

Mr. Edano's comments are aligned with an earlier report from an official with Japan's Nuclear and
Industrial Safety Agency, who had told a news agency, "we see the possibility of a meltdown."

A meltdown is severe overheating of the core of a nuclear reactor causing the core to melt and
radiation to escape.

Please see the International SOS recommendations below.

March 13, 0500 GMT: The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) advises that at the Daiichi
plant "the radiation dose measured at site boundary exceeded the limiting value again". TEPCO
advised that measurements show rising levels of radioactive materials at monitoring posts around
the plants. Cooling mechanisms had failed and as a result, venting was required to reduce
pressure, which resulted in "partial release of air containing radioactive materials". At the Daini
plant "we have decided to prepare implementing measures to reduce the pressure of the reactor
containment vessel (partial discharge of air containing radioactive materials) in order to fully secure
safety.

March 12, 2100 GMT: News reports indicate that officials have evacuated over 170,000 people in a
20km radius from the plant. Evacuees are being scanned for signs of radiation and those with
higher levels are being separated from others seeking shelter. Reports also indicate that nine
workers have been confirmed to have radiation exposure with the final number expected to climb to
between 70 and 160. A second evacuation zone surrounding the nearby Daini nuclear plant was
extended to a 10 kilometer radius. Over 30,000 people have been evacuated.

March 12, 0500 GMT: The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) advises it has measured
radioactivity within the outdoor area of the Daiichi nuclear plant and "confirmed that radioactive
materials level is higher than ordinary level. Also, the level at monitoring post is higher than ordinary
level. We will continue to monitor in detail the possibility of radioactive material being discharged
from exhaust stack or discharge canal." At the Daini reactor TEPCO states that radioactivity
measurements "at the site boundary did not show any difference from ordinary level. No radiation
impact to the external environment has been confirmed."

According to the IAEA:

"The Japanese authorities have classified the event at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 as a level 4
‘Accident with Local Consequences’ on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event
Scale (INES). The INES scale is used to promptly and consistently communicate to the
public the safety significance of events associated with sources of radiation. The scale runs
from 0 (deviation) to 7 (major accident).

Potential health risks


In the event of a radiation leak, there is a potential risk of contamination. The effects on health vary
depending on the dose of radiation, and the length and route of exposure. Contamination may be
external, when the material contacts skin, or internal if it is inhaled or ingested, or absorbed through
the skin.

With minimal exposure, the health effect may be minor, such as redness of the skin. Greater
exposure may lead to an increased risk of cancer, such as thyroid cancers. Extreme exposure over
a brief period of time can lead to acute radiation sickness. Symptoms of acute radiation sickness
include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, skin redness. Damage to the bone marrow results in failure
to regenerate blood cells, eventually causing bleeding and the inability to fight infection. This can
lead to death.

Use of stable iodine


News reports indicate that authorities are considering the distribution of "stable" iodine tablets to
residents in areas surrounding both Daiichi and Daini plants. At present, there has been no official
guidance on the need to take this precautionary step.

In the event of a radiation leak, radioactive iodine can be absorbed by the thyroid gland; radiation
is then emitted from the thyroid over a long period and can cause thyroid cancer. Use of stable
iodine -- potassium iodide or potassium iodate -- reduces the absorption of radioactive iodine by the
thyroid and hence reduces the chances of developing thyroid cancer. The use of stable iodine is
more important in the younger population (<18 years) as their expected longer life-span brings with
it an increased chance of developing thyroid cancer. International SOS understands that stable
iodine must be given within four hours of exposure to be effective.

Stockpiling and distribution of stable iodine normally forms part of pre-determined emergency plans.

Air Quality

Additional environmental contamination from oil fires is reported in Ichihara, Chiba prefecture, south
of Fukushima, where oil refineries have been damaged. Air quality is likely reduced with partly
burned oil particles suspended in the air. Residents are recommended to reduce outdoor exposure
as much as possible.

Earthquake and tsunami

Aftershocks can cause tsunami waves and Japanese authorities continue to monitor and alert for
possible tsunami following region-wide tremors. Aftershocks continue to be reported. Others may
occur, which can cause additional damage and raise the risk of injuries and fatalities.

International SOS Comment

International SOS is unable to predict the outcome of this nuclear crisis and cannot quantify
the medical risk to employees. Companies can expect several days of confusion and
employee anxiety. In addition, transport systems in the affected areas are still not
functioning normally following the earthquake and tsunami.

International SOS recommends that companies consider identifying non-essential


employees and dependents for possible relocation significantly beyond the currently
recommended 20km evacuation zone from the affected Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility. In
addition, companies should consider sending international assignees to a practical and
suitable location, possibly for some time to come.

While the 20km evacuation zone is based on current scientific evidence, planning to move
employees further from the affected areas will provide some peace-of-mind to both employees and
company management.

In addition:

Avoid travel to the region of the nuclear incidents. In addition to the recommendations above, if in
an affected area:

 Heed warnings and evacuation notices from official sources


 If advised to seek shelter, remain indoors, close all windows and switch off forced air-
conditioning systems
 Clothing may be contaminated. Remove and place in a sealed bag. Shower thoroughly.

Avoid travel to areas affected by the earthquake or tsunami. If in an affected area:

 Monitor developments and heed all warnings.


 Avoid low lying and coastal areas
 Drink only boiled or bottled water, or canned or carbonated beverages. The local water
supply may be contaminated.
 Avoid contact with contaminated water / sewer spills.
 Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands with soap and safe water, or use a hand
sanitiser. This is especially important before preparing food or eating.
 Clean skin cuts and abrasions thoroughly. Treat skin infections early.

If air quality is poor as a result of fires:

 Limit your exposure to polluted air


 Stay indoors, close all windows and place air-conditioning systems in recirculation mode
 Avoid strenuous activity if required to go outside
 Consider wearing a mask

13 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Continue to avoid exclusion zones around Fukushima nuclear
power plants

Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO) on 13 March stated that all units of the Daiichi and Daini nuclear
power plants in Fukushima prefecture had been shut down and inspections were being carried out.
At 05.10 (local time) on the same day, the emergency cooling function of a reactor at the Daiichi
plant failed. The authorities subsequently initiated a series of contingency measures, including a
controlled release of radioactive steam from the affected reactor; the same process was
successfully used on the previous day to ease a build-up of pressure within and reduce the core
temperature of another reactor at the site following an explosion at the building where it is located.
Exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi plant and six miles (10km) around the Daini
plant and a state of emergency at the two sites remain in place. The authorities have evacuated
more than 200,000 people from the area. The evacuees were scanned for signs of exposure to
radiation; reports indicated that nine power plant workers had been confirmed to have been
affected.

The authorities on 13 March stated that TEPCO and Tohoku Electric Power could begin
implementing planned electricity outages in their respective service areas from 14 March, which
can be expected to last for several weeks, due to power shortages resulting from the impact of a
major offshore earthquake that on 11 March struck east of Sendai (Miyagi prefecture), triggering a
tsunami. The Japan Meteorological Agency on 13 March cancelled all tsunami advisories and
warnings, while revising the magnitude of the earthquake from 8.9 to 9.0.

Comment and Analysis

The country's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency has classified the 12 March explosion as ‘Level
4 – Accident with Local Consequences' on the seven-point International Nuclear and Radiological
Event Scale. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has indicated that it has been
informed by the Japanese authorities that although there was initially an increase in radioactivity in
the vicinity of the Daiichi plant following the blast, the level of radioactivity on 13 March had
reduced. In addition, TEPCO has reportedly confirmed to the IAEA that the explosion occurred
outside the reactor's primary containment vessel, leaving the vessel intact, which is positive. The
authorities have said that a widespread leak can be avoided. Officials have stated that they have
not observed any radiation impact on the ‘external environment' and that they are closely
monitoring the situation. In addition, weather predictions suggest that winds will move north-east,
away from Japan's coast, on 13-16 March, indicating that any radioactive leakage is likely to be
carried away from the country's landmass. The issue is ongoing and there is some uncertainty
regarding the timing and ultimate success of Japan's containment and recovery efforts.

Travel Advice

 Travel can continue.


 Personnel in country should comply with instructions from the local authorities. They should
evacuate the designated exclusion zones around the Fukushima nuclear power plant.
Personnel elsewhere should avoid travel to these exclusion zones. Also avoid areas
affected by the tsunami, as well as low-lying and coastal areas, until the situation stabilises.
 Personnel scheduled to travel to, from or within the country are advised, before setting out,
to contact their airline to reconfirm the status of flights and to confirm the availability of
onward travel and the status of their accommodation.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts and could pose a risk to
life and property.
 Anticipate disruption to travel and essential services in earthquake-affected areas.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.
 Members can contact the International SOS Alarm Centre for additional health information.
 See the International SOS Medical Alerts for health-related information.

14 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Nuclear plants remain under close scrutiny as containment
operations continue following earthquake

The situation at four nuclear power plants continues to be closely monitored following the major
offshore earthquake that struck east of Sendai (Miyagi prefecture) on 11 March, triggering a
tsunami. The Japan Atomic Power Company on 13 March stated that a cooling pump at one of the
reactors of the Tokai nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture, which is located 75 miles (120km)
north of the capital Tokyo, had stopped functioning. However, according to the company, additional
pumps at the facility are working properly and providing adequate support to the affected reactor's
cooling system.

Earlier the same day, the authorities declared a first (lowest) state of emergency at the Onagawa
nuclear power plant in Miyagi prefecture, following the detection of radiation exceeding permissible
levels in the area surrounding the facility. The country's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency
(NISA) subsequently confirmed that the cooling systems for all three reactors at the Onagawa plant
were functioning properly and the increased radiation levels were believed to be the result of a
previous leakage at the Daiichi nuclear power plant in neighbouring Fukushima prefecture, which
was caused by damage resulting from the earthquake. Radiation levels in the area around the
Onagawa plant have since returned to normal.

The authorities also on 13 March admitted that radiation levels near the Daiichi plant had at one
point exceeded normal safety levels. At least 22 people have so far been treated for exposure to
radiation; NISA has stated that up to 160 people may have been exposed. The government earlier
confirmed that venting of the containment of reactor three at the Daiichi plant had commenced at
09.20 (local time) on 13 March through a controlled release of vapour. The measure followed the
failure of the reactor's emergency cooling function about four hours previously. The same process
was successfully used on the previous day to ease a build-up of pressure within and reduce the
core temperature of another reactor at the site following a hydrogen explosion at the building in
which it is located. Seawater and boric acid has been pumped into both reactors as part of the
containment process.

The Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO) earlier in the day stated that all units of the Daiichi and Daini
nuclear power plants in Fukushima prefecture had been shut down and inspections were being
carried out. Exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi plant and six miles (10km)
around the Daini plant and a state of emergency at the two sites remain in place. The authorities
have evacuated more than 200,000 people from the area. The Japan Meteorological Agency on 13
March cancelled all tsunami advisories and warnings, while revising the magnitude of the
earthquake from 8.9 to 9.0.

Comment and Analysis

The next three to four days will be critical in assessing the success of the containment operation at
the Daiichi plant, as well as the situation at the four other affected plants. The authorities have
informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that a build-up of hydrogen remains
possible at the reactor three of the Daiichi plant; however, Chief Cabinet Minister Yukio Edano said
that the reactor could withstand any explosion and that such an occurrence would have no
significant impact on health. NISA has classified the 12 March explosion as 'Level 4 – Accident with
Local Consequences' on the seven-point International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale. The
IAEA has indicated that it has been informed by the Japanese authorities that while there was
initially an increase in radioactivity in the vicinity of the Daiichi plant following the blast, the level of
radioactivity on 13 March had reduced. In addition, TEPCO has reportedly confirmed to the IAEA
that the explosion occurred outside the reactor's primary containment vessel, leaving the vessel
intact, which is positive. The authorities have said that a widespread leak can be avoided. Officials
have stated that they have not observed any radiation impact on the ‘external environment' and that
they are closely monitoring the situation. In addition, weather predictions suggest that winds will
move north-east, away from Japan's coast, on 13-16 March, indicating that any radioactive leakage
is likely to be carried away from the country's landmass. However, the issue is ongoing and there is
some uncertainty regarding the timing and ultimate success of Japan's containment and recovery
efforts.
14 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Conflicting reports of tsunami heading towards north-eastern coast;
hydrogen explosion occurs at reactor in Daiichi nuclear plant

Media reports on 14 March indicated that a ten-feet (3 metres) high tsunami wave was heading towards
the north-eastern coast; however, the Japan's Meteorological Agency (JMA) has not yet issued a relevant
warning, and has supposedly dismissed the reports as speculation. Meanwhile, a hydrogen explosion
was reported near the third reactor of the Daiichi nuclear power complex (Fukushima prefecture), though
officials have not confirmed the cause yet; however, the blast has not damaged the reactor vessel.

Travel Advice

 Account for all personnel.


 Personnel in the affected region should avoid low-lying and coastal areas until the situation
becomes clear or the tsunami warning is rescinded.
 Personnel in low-lying and coastal areas , where possible to do so safely, should move to higher
ground.
 Expect disruption to travel and essential services in the affected areas.
 Monitor the local media, the JMA and our website for further updates.

14 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Defer non-essential travel to Tokyo, northern Honshu due to ongoing
situation at nuclear power plants, post-earthquake disruption

At least six people on 14 March were injured in an explosion at the Unit 3 reactor building of the Daiichi
nuclear power plant in Fukushima prefecture; however, the reactor containment vessel was not damaged.
Meanwhile, the Tokyo Electric Power ( TEPCO) announced that it had completed a pressure-reduction
treatment at the facility's Unit 2 reactor, following earlier reports that its cooling functions had ceased.
Exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi facility and six miles (10km) around the nearby
Daini nuclear plant remain in place; a state of emergency has also been imposed at the two sites and the
authorities have evacuated more than 210,000 people from the area. TEPCO on the previous day stated
that all units of the Daiichi and Daini plants had been shut down and inspections were being carried out.

The Japan Atomic Power Company on 13 March stated that a cooling pump at one of the reactors of the
Tokai nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture, located 75 miles (120km) north of the capital Tokyo, had
stopped functioning but a back-up pump at the facility was providing adequate support to the affected
reactor's cooling system. Earlier the same day, the authorities declared a first (lowest) state of emergency
at the Onagawa nuclear power plant in Miyagi, following the detection of radiation exceeding permissible
levels in its vicinity. The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency ( NISA) subsequently confirmed that the
cooling systems for all three reactors at the plant were functioning properly. Radiation levels around the
Onagawa plant have since returned to normal.

At least 22 people have so far been treated for exposure to radiation, while NISA officials have stated that
up to 160 people may have been exposed. The government earlier confirmed that venting of the
containment of reactor three at the Daiichi plant had been undertaken through a controlled release of
vapour following the failure of its emergency cooling function. The same process was successfully used
on 12 March to ease a build-up of pressure within and reduce the core temperature of another reactor at
the site following a hydrogen explosion at the building in which it is located. Seawater and boric acid has
been pumped into both reactors as part of the containment process.

Post-earthquake situation in the capital, elsewhere

Strong aftershocks have continued in the aftermath of the 11 March temblor east of Sendai (Miyagi); the
latest reported on 14 March was of 6.2 magnitude, which prompted the temporary suspension of services
on nearly all lines operated by Japan rail in Tokyo and surrounding areas. Train services to the capital's
Narita International Airport (NRT) were also briefly suspended. Meanwhile, disruption to overland travel
continues in Tokyo following the resumption of partial metro and rail services. A shortage of packaged
food has been reported at stores in the city. In addition, TEPCO on 14 March commenced three-hour
rolling blackouts in Ibragi and Shizuoka prefectures, while it has indicated that similar scheduled outages
will be enforced elsewhere, including in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Metro and rail officials have
indicated that their services will be impacted by the power outages, with the former planning to operate
only 50% of its schedules on 14 March. Sendai Airport (SDJ) is closed due to inundation, while overland
travel and the provision of essential goods remains considerably disrupted in the tsunami-affected areas.

Comment and Analysis

There is nothing to indicate that a meltdown at any of the affected nuclear power plants is either likely or
imminent. However, a swift solution to the crisis is unlikely and the coming few days will be critical in
containing overheating at the affected facilities. The authorities had earlier stated that they had not
observed any radiation impact on the ‘external environment' in the wider area around the nuclear power
plants and are satisfied that the designated exclusion areas around the reactor sites are conservatively
sufficient.

Travel to, from and within the affected areas is expected to remain problematic until the authorities
restore damaged infrastructure, such as roads and power lines. In addition, further aftershocks are likely
and any resultant damage will compound existing difficulties. Although earthquakes cannot be accurately
predicted, the JMA on 14 March stated that there was a 40% probability of a magnitude 7 tremor
occurring in the next three days somewhere around Iwate and Ibaraki prefectures.

14 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Containment operation extended to third nuclear reactor at plant in
Fukushima prefecture following earthquake (Revised 20.50 GMT)

The Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO) on 14 March stated that fuel rods inside Unit 2 reactor at the Daiichi
nuclear power plant in Fukushima prefecture had been fully exposed on two occasions earlier the same
day. Seawater has been poured into the reactor in an attempt to prevent the rods from overheating and
plant workers are working to control rising pressure levels by opening vents within the reactor's
containment vessel. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano on the same day claimed it was ‘highly likely'
that fuel roads were melting in all the three reactors at the Fukushima plant; however, the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) subsequently said there were no indications that a partial meltdown had
occurred. The government has requested IAEA assistance with the containment operation.

Earlier on 14 March, at least eleven people were injured in an explosion in the plant's Unit 3 reactor.
TEPCO said the reactor's containment vessel had not been damaged and that radiation levels around the
plant remained acceptable. The explosion was the second at the Daiichi plant since a magnitude 9.0
earthquake struck off the coast east of Sendai (Miyagi prefecture) on 11 March. A hydrogen explosion at
the Unit 1 reactor on 12 March resulted in radiation levels around the plant briefly exceeding legal limits.
At least 22 people have been treated for exposure to radiation so far, while NISA officials have stated that
up to 160 people may have been exposed. The government on 14 March distributed more than 200,000
units of stable iodine to evacuation centres around Fukushima as a precaution; iodine can help prevent
thyroid cancer in the event of radiation sickness.

Exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi facility and six miles (10km) around the nearby
Daini nuclear plant remain in place; a state of emergency has also been imposed at the two sites and the
authorities have evacuated more than 210,000 people from the area. Two other nuclear energy plants –
the Tokai nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture, located 75 miles (120km) north of the capital Tokyo,
and the Onagawa nuclear power plant in Miyagi prefecture – remain under close scrutiny.

Post-earthquake situation in the capital, elsewhere

Strong aftershocks have continued in the aftermath of the 11 March temblor. The latest reported on 14
March had a magnitude of 6.2; the aftershock prompted the temporary suspension of services on nearly
all lines operated by Japan rail in Tokyo and its surrounding areas. Train services to the capital's Narita
International Airport (NRT) were also briefly suspended. Meanwhile, disruption to overland travel
continues in Tokyo despite the partial resumption of metro and rail services. A shortage of packaged food
has been reported at stores in the city. In addition, TEPCO on 14 March commenced three-hour rolling
blackouts in Ibragi and Shizuoka prefectures, and has indicated that similar scheduled outages will be
enforced elsewhere, including in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Metro and rail officials have indicated that
their services will be impacted by the power outages, with the former planning to operate only 50% of its
schedules on 14 March. Sendai Airport (SDJ) remains closed due to inundation, while overland travel and
the provision of essential goods remains considerably disrupted in the tsunami-affected areas.

Comment and Analysis

Despite the latest developments, there is no evidence indicating that a meltdown at any of the affected
nuclear power plants is either likely or imminent. However, a swift solution to the crisis is not expected
and the coming few days will be critical in containing overheating at the affected facilities. The authorities
have also stated that they have not observed any radiation impact on the ‘external environment' in the
wider area around the nuclear power plants and are satisfied that the designated exclusion areas around
the reactor sites are conservatively sufficient.

Travel to, from and within the affected areas is expected to remain problematic until the authorities
restore damaged infrastructure, such as roads and power lines. In addition, further strong aftershocks are
expected in the coming days and any resultant damage will compound existing difficulties.

Travel Advice

 Travel to Japan can continue.


 Defer non-essential travel to Tokyo and northern Honshu at this time due to the continuing
disruption to transport and essential services in the aftermath of the earthquake and the ongoing
situation at the nuclear power plants in the north.
 Avoid all travel to designated exclusion zones around the Fukushima nuclear power plants.
 Travel to areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami or the nuclear power stations should be for
official aid and rescue purposes only. Personnel should comply with instructions from the local
authorities in these areas.
 Personnel scheduled to travel to, from or within the country are advised, before setting out, to
contact their airline to reconfirm the status of flights and to confirm the availability of onward travel
and the status of their accommodation.
 Be aware that aftershocks may prompt further warnings and alerts and could pose a risk to life
and property.
 Anticipate disruption to travel and essential services in earthquake and tsunami affected areas.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.
 Members can contact International SOS Alarm Centres or visit International SOS Medical Alerts
for health-related information.

15 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Explosion reported at Unit 2 reactor of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
power plant

An explosion reportedly occurred at around 06.10 (local time) on 15 March at Unit 2 reactor of the Daiichi
nuclear power plant in Fukushima prefecture. Reports indicate that non-essential staff have been
evacuated from the plant. However, details are still emerging and there is no information to suggest the
container vessel of the reactor has sustained any damage.

Travel Advice

 Avoid all travel to designated exclusion zones around the Fukushima nuclear power plants.
 Defer non-essential travel to Tokyo and northern Honshu at this time due to the continuing
disruption to transport and essential services in the aftermath of the earthquake and the ongoing
situation at the nuclear power plants in the north.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further updates.
 Members can contact International SOS Alarm Centres or visit International SOS Medical Alerts
for health and medical-related information.

15 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Radiation levels increase near Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant
following explosion at Unit 2 reactor

An explosion occurred at around 06.10 (local time) on 15 March at Unit 2 reactor of the Daiichi nuclear
power plant in Fukushima prefecture; reports indicate that non-essential staff have been evacuated from
the plant. Meanwhile, a fire that occurred at the plant's Unit 4 reactor on the same day has been
extinguished. Seawater is being poured into Unit 1, Unit 2 and Unit 3 reactors to maintain stable pressure
levels and temperature. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano in a press conference on the same day
stated that radiation levels had increased significantly around the plant. In addition, following the
explosion at Unit 2, Prime Minister Naoto Kan urged residents within a 19-mile (30km) radius of the
complex to stay indoors. Meanwhile, exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi facility and
six miles (10km) around the nearby Daini nuclear plant remain in place; a state of emergency has also
been imposed at the two sites and the authorities have evacuated more than 210,000 people from the
area. Two other nuclear energy plants – the Tokai nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture, located 75
miles (120km) north of the capital Tokyo, and the Onagawa nuclear power plant in Miyagi prefecture –
remain under close scrutiny. The latest explosion was the third at the Daiichi facility since a magnitude
9.0 earthquake struck off the coast east of Sendai (Miyagi) on 11 March; at least eleven people on 14
March were injured in an explosion in the plant's Unit 3 reactor.

Edano on 14 March claimed it was ‘highly likely' that fuel rods were melting in all the three reactors at the
Fukushima plant; however, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) subsequently said there were
no indications that a partial meltdown had occurred. The government has requested IAEA assistance with
the containment operation. At least 22 people have been treated for exposure to radiation so far, while
the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has stated that up to 160 people may have been
exposed. The government on 14 March distributed more than 200,000 units of stable iodine to evacuation
centres around Fukushima as a precaution; iodine can help prevent thyroid cancer in the event of
radiation sickness.

Post-earthquake situation in the capital, elsewhere

Strong aftershocks have continued in the aftermath of the 11 March temblor. The latest reported on 15
March had a magnitude of 5.1. Meanwhile, disruption to overland travel continues in Tokyo despite the
partial resumption of metro and rail services. A shortage of packaged food has been reported at stores in
the city. In addition, TEPCO on 14 March commenced three-hour rolling blackouts in Ibragi and Shizuoka
prefectures, and has indicated that similar scheduled outages will be enforced elsewhere, including in the
Tokyo metropolitan area. Officials have stated that the outages will impact metro and rail services. Sendai
Airport (SDJ) remains closed due to inundation, while overland travel and the provision of essential goods
remain considerably disrupted in the tsunami-affected areas.

Comment and Analysis

Despite the latest developments, there is no evidence yet indicating that a meltdown at any of the
affected nuclear power plants is imminent. A swift solution to the crisis is not expected and the next few
days will be critical in containing overheating at the affected facilities. However, the prime minister's
warning indicates that radiation levels are reasonably higher in a wider area around the Daiichi plant and
could pose health risks in the affected area.

Travel to, from and within the affected areas is expected to remain problematic until the authorities
restore damaged infrastructure, such as roads and power lines. In addition, further strong aftershocks are
expected in the coming days and any resultant damage will compound existing difficulties.

15 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Fresh fire breaks out at Fukushima nuclear power plant following
reported fall in radiation levels; strong aftershock rocks Tokyo (Revised 23.10 GMT)

A fresh fire early on 16 March was reported at Unit 4 reactor at the Daiichi nuclear power plant in
Fukushima prefecture. The development comes after a strong aftershock late on 15 March rocked the
capital Tokyo and caused renewed travel disruption amid continuing fears over damage to a number of
the country's nuclear plants. The government earlier in the day stated that radiation levels at the Daiichi
plant had fallen, despite a previous explosion and fire at Unit 4 that resulted in the imposition of a 19-mile
(30km) no-fly zone over the facility. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) stated that the
incident had resulted in the release of dose rates of up to 400 millisieverts of radioactivity into the air;
however, prevailing winds are blowing most of the radioactive plume away from populated areas towards
the Pacific Ocean. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano on 15 March also stated that Unit 5 and Unit 6
reactors at the plant had begun to overheat and were being closely monitored. Plant workers are
continuing to pour seawater into Unit 1, Unit 2 and Unit 3 reactors; Unit 1 and Unit 2 were reported to be
returning to normal, while Unit 3 remains unstable.

An explosion at Unit 2 early on 15 March saw Prime Minister Naoto Kan urge residents within a 19-mile
(30km) radius of the complex to stay indoors. In addition, exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the
Daiichi facility and six miles (10km) around the Daini nuclear plant in Naraha (Fukushima) remain in
place. Two other nuclear energy plants – the Tokai nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture and the
Onagawa nuclear power plant in Miyagi prefecture – are in a stable condition but remain under close
scrutiny.
Aftershocks, post-earthquake situation in the capital, elsewhere

A magnitude 6.4 aftershock struck at 10.31 (local time) on 15 March in the eastern prefecture of
Shizuoka, 62 miles (120km) south-west of the capital. The earthquake resulted in the temporary
suspension of the Shinkansen bullet train service on the Tokyo-Osaka line; the service has since been
fully restored. In addition, traffic on the Tomei and Chuo expressways have now resumed after sections
were temporarily closed. However, the Shutoko Metropolitan Expressway remains closed between Kasai
and Shin-Kiba, which are located in the vicinity of Tokyo's Haneda Airport (HND).

Tokyo Electric Power on 15 March stated that it would commence three-hour rolling blackouts in Tochigi,
Gunma, Saitama and Kanagawa prefectures and indicated that similar scheduled outages would be
enforced elsewhere, including in Tokyo. The power cuts are scheduled to run through April and will affect
people in Tokyo, Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Saitama, Tochigi, Yamanashi and Shizuoka
prefectures. Officials have stated that the outages will impact metro and rail services.

Airport operations

Sendai Airport (SDJ) remains closed due to inundation, while overland travel and the provision of
essential goods remain considerably disrupted in tsunami-affected areas. Flights from Haneda Airport
and Osaka International Airport (ITM, Osaka prefecture) to the quake-affected cities of Yamagata and
Shonai (both Yamagata prefecture) have resumed. Local sources have reported that taxi services from
central Yamagata to Yamagata Airport (GAJ) are available; transport, including buses, is also available
on the roads from Yamagata to Tsuruoka and Sakata (both Yamagata) and Niigata (Niigata prefecture).
Meanwhile, some international airlines have announced curtailments of services to the country due to the
current situation; Taiwan's EVA Airways will suspend flights to Tokyo and Sapporo (Hokkaido prefecture)
until the end of March, while China's flag carrier Air China will reduce the number of scheduled daily
flights to Japan due to safety concerns.

Comment and Analysis

The fresh developments regarding the Daiichi plant underline the fact that no swift resolution should be
anticipated. The next few days remain critical. Although the level of radiation around the plant has fallen
in the past hours, partly as a result of favourable weather conditions, the potential exists for further
emissions of radioactive material. Levels of radiation in the vicinity of the plant will remain a concern while
the crisis is ongoing and could pose health risks. While the 12-mile (20km) evacuation zone is based on
current scientific evidence, planning to move employees further from the affected locations will provide
some peace of mind to both employees and company management.

Strong aftershocks have continued in the aftermath of the magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake that struck
on 11 March off Sendai (Miyagi) and triggered a tsunami. The 15 March tremblor serves as a reminder of
the continued likelihood such occurrences in the coming days, and the potential for resultant disruption to
travel and essential services. Travel to, from and within the areas worst affected by the 11 March
earthquake is expected to remain problematic until the authorities restore damaged infrastructure, such
as roads and power lines.

16 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: SPECIAL ADVISORY: Containment efforts continue at Fukushima


nuclear power plant

Workers at the Daiichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima prefecture on 16 March were evacuated after
smoke was seen rising from Unit 3 reactor and a sudden increase in radiation levels was observed at the
facility; they were subsequently allowed to return after radiation levels fell. The spike in radiation readings
was believed to be caused by a fire at Unit 4 reactor on the previous day, which prompted the imposition
of a 19-mile (30km) no-fly zone in the area. Residents within this zone have been advised to stay indoors.
In addition, exclusion zones of 12 miles (20km) around the Daiichi facility and six miles (10km) around the
Daini nuclear plant in Naraha (Fukushima) remain in place. Two other nuclear energy plants – the Tokai
nuclear power plant in Ibaraki prefecture and the Onagawa nuclear power plant in Miyagi prefecture – are
in a stable condition but remain under close scrutiny.

Although elevated radiation levels have been detected in the capital Tokyo, located 150 miles (240km)
south of Fukushima, the International Atomic Energy Agency stated that these did not pose an immediate
health threat. Furthermore, the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health is monitoring radiation levels
in the capital on an hourly basis and providing that information on its website (in Japanese).

Aftershocks, post-earthquake situation in the capital, elsewhere

According to the Japanese Meteorological Agency, an aftershock of magnitude 6 on 16 March struck at


12.52 (local time) at a depth of six miles (10km) approximately 60 miles (96km) east of Tokyo. Two
people were injured and power outages were reported in Shizuoka (Shizuoka prefecture). As of 16.00,
the official death toll following the 11 March magnitude 9 offshore earthquake and resultant tsunami stood
at 3,771 in 12 prefectures, while 8,181 remain missing in six prefectures; this figure is expected to rise
further.

Overland travel and the provision of essential goods remain considerably disrupted in tsunami-affected
areas. Reports indicate that traffic levels on many roads in Tokyo are low as people remain indoors as a
precaution. They also suggested that some residents have left the city due to concerns over radiation
readings and despite official assurances, while others have started to stock up on essential goods. Tokyo
Electric Power Company on 15 March commenced three-hour rolling blackouts in Tochigi, Gunma,
Saitama and Kanagawa prefectures and indicated that similar scheduled outages would be enforced
elsewhere, including in Tokyo. The power cuts are scheduled to run through April and will affect people in
Tokyo, Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Saitama, Tochigi, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures.
Officials have stated that the outages will impact metro and rail services.

Airport operations

Flights are operating at all major airports but remain vulnerable to delays and cancellations. However,
Sendai Airport (SDJ, Miyagi prefecture) remains closed due to inundation.

Comment and Analysis

While containment efforts are continuing at the Daiichi plant, recent developments underline the fact that
no swift resolution should be anticipated. Levels of radiation in the vicinity of the plant will remain a
concern while the crisis is ongoing and could pose health risks. While the 12-mile (20km) evacuation
zone is based on current scientific evidence, planning to move employees further from the affected
locations will provide some peace of mind to both employees and company management.

Strong aftershocks have continued in the aftermath of the 11 March temblor east of Sendai. These serve
as a reminder of the continued likelihood of such occurrences in the coming days, and the potential for
resultant disruption to travel and essential services. Travel to, from and within the areas worst affected by
the 11 March earthquake is expected to remain problematic until the authorities restore damaged
infrastructure, such as roads and power lines.
Nuclear incidents, earthquake, tsunami, and air quality

Created: March 11, 2011 08:08 GMT

Updated: March 17, 2011 03:14 GMT

The north-eastern part of Honshu, Japan has been severely affected by an earthquake and subsequent
tsunami.

On March 11, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami struck the northeast coast of the
main Japanese island of Honshu. The earthquake epicenter was 81 miles east of Sendai (see map), the
capital of Miyagi prefecture. The tsunami swamped areas around Sendai. Officials estimate that more
than 3,700 have died and around 10,000 are missing. Over 350,000 people have been evacuated. Over
200 aftershocks have occurred, and more are expected. These can cause additional damage and raise
the risk of injuries and fatalities. Power outages have affected several areas. Telecommunications and
transport systems are affected. Some areas are experiencing food and water shortages.

Nuclear power stations, particularly the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility, have been damaged. A
state of nuclear emergency has been declared. For the latest information and advice please see
the International SOS dedicated Japan Crisis website.

International SOS Comment

International SOS is unable to predict the outcome of this nuclear crisis and cannot quantify the medical
risk to employees.

There has been a small leak of radioactivity from the Fukushima nuclear power plant and this may be
ongoing. If so, there is no available estimate as to when this may reduce or stop. Alternatively, it may
increase. The amount of radioactivity that may be released from the plant is difficult for the experts
to predict exactly. The greater and the longer the radiation leak, the greater the distance the radiation
may travel. The radius in which harmful radioactivity levels occur may also increase, but will be modified
by prevailing wind and weather.

The closer someone is to the radiation source, the higher the potential exposure. If someone were to be
exposed to radiation, the higher the dose and the longer the exposure - the greater the impact to health.

Japanese authorities are recommending a 20 kilometer evacuation zone around the affected Fukushima
Daiichi nuclear facility and a 10 kilometer zone around Fukushima Daini. They have also established a 30
kilometer shelter-in-place zone. Other national authorities are advising their citizens in the affected area
to follow that advice or move significantly further away.

International SOS recommends that companies consider relocating non-essential employees and
dependents significantly beyond the 20 - 30 kilometer radius. In addition, organizations should consider
sending international assignees to a practical and suitable location, possibly for some time to come.
Planning to move employees further from the affected areas will provide some peace-of-mind to both
employees and company management.

In addition:

Defer non-essential travel to Tokyo and northern Honshu. Transport and essential services are disrupted
in the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami. There is an ongoing situation at nuclear power plants in
the north.

Avoid all travel to designated exclusion zones around the Fukushima nuclear power plants. In nuclear
affected areas:

 Monitor developments. Heed warnings and evacuation notices from official sources.
 If advised to seek shelter, remain indoors, close all windows and switch off forced air-conditioning
systems.
 Clothing may be contaminated. Remove and place in a sealed bag. Shower thoroughly.

Avoid travel to areas affected by the earthquake or tsunami. If in an affected area:

 Monitor developments. Heed warnings and evacuation notices from official sources.
 Avoid low lying and coastal areas.
 Drink only boiled or bottled water, or canned or carbonated beverages. The local water supply
may be contaminated.
 Avoid contact with contaminated water / sewer spills.
 Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands with soap and safe water, or use a hand sanitizer. This
is especially important before preparing food or eating.
 Clean skin cuts and abrasions thoroughly. Treat skin infections early.

If air quality is poor as a result of fires:

 Limit your exposure to polluted air.


 Stay indoors, close all windows and place air-conditioning systems in recirculation mode.
 If you must go outside, avoid strenuous activity.
 Consider wearing a mask.

For more information:

 For the latest information and advice please see the International SOS dedicated Japan Crisis
website.
 See the Travel Security Online situation updates.
 Contact any International SOS Alarm Center.

See the fact sheets on Japan Earthquake & Potential Health Hazards, Avoiding Illness, Food and Water
Safety During Disasters, and Avoiding Injuries

19 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Strong earthquake strikes south of Fukushima

A 6.1-magnitude earthquake struck at 18.56 (local time) on 19 March about 61 miles (98km) to the south
of Fukushima prefecture. No tsunami warning has been issued and there have been no immediate
reports of any casualties or damage. However, the temblor was felt in the capital Tokyo and led to a brief
suspension of flights from Narita International Airport (NRT). This tremor was followed by another 4.7-
magnitude earthquake that occurred 177 miles (285km) east-south-east of Fukushima.

Travel Advice
 Monitor the local media and our website for further related updates.
 Further aftershocks are possible and these could pose a risk to life and property.

22 Mar 2011

Special Advisory - Japan: Magnitude 6.6 earthquake strikes east of Fukushima

According to the US Geological Survey, an earthquake measuring 6.6 on the moment magnitude scale
occurred at 18.47 (GMT) on 22 March, approximately 194 miles (312km) east of Fukushima (Fukushima
prefecture). The earthquake occurred at an approximate depth of 16 miles (26km). No tsunami warning
has been issued. Also, there have been no reports of any casualties or damage.

Travel Advice

 Aftershocks are possible and these could pose a threat to life and property.
 Monitor the local media and our website for further related updates.