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DON HONORIO VENTURA TECHNOLOGICAL STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Related Theories

The laboratory and field test protocols were found to be easily applied for

the efficacy evaluations of ultrasonic rodent repellent devices. Repellency effects

on existing rodent infestations were evaluated with six official EPA sample

devices. Rodent activity (packet damage, food consumption, rodent tracks) was

measured twice per week during three successive 3-week intervals with devices

operating only during the second interval. Devices were assessed in wood, brick,

and metal structures ranging in floor space from 6.5 to 197 sq m. In all cases,

rodents under test could either leave the buildings or move to alternate non-

ultrasonically treated areas. Separate evaluations were conducted to assure that

adequate food, water, and harborage were available at these alternate locations.

Tabulated data from these efficacy tests can also be used to evaluate ultrasound

repellency threshold levels and potential habituation effects (Shumake, Lavoie &

Crane 1984).

Most behavioral and research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are

used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as

a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor

and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four

different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female


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bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by

ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice

trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test

(sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed

bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials

compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that

commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed

bugs (Yturralde & Hofstetter, 2012).

2.2 Related Literature

Nur (2012) found that human, animal or anything can produce sound. This

sound is creating by the insect during their movement or anything. Insect can be

defined as any of numerous small invertebrate (without a backbone) animals (as

centipedes or spiders) that are more or less obviously segmented. Insects can be a

nuisance to humans and, under certain conditions, can be a hazard to the health and

lives of people. There are many approaches to controlling insects’ populations,

including chemical pesticide control, insect-repelling plants and insect traps.

Electronic pest control devices also provide a convenient means for controlling

insects in or near your home.


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Ultrasonic is a term for the audio frequency range that is too high--more than

20,000 hertz--to be perceived by the human ear, but it can be perceived by insects

and animals. Devices that emit ultrasonic sounds have long been used as a way to

control misbehaving dogs, repel deer and to discourage insect proliferation. The

efficacy of these devices at repelling insects is doubtful at best(Nasir, 2012).The

Federal Trade Commission and the American Mosquito Control Association have

both warned consumers that scientific inquiries into the effectiveness of ultrasonic

insect control devices have, at best, a temporary and fleeting effect on insect

populations (Najiah, 2012).

Gardeners and anyone who spends a lot of time outdoors in the spring and

summer commonly fight insect on slaughts. Drawn by perspiration and scents,

insects swarm during warmer weather. Sprays can stink, and long clothing isn't

always a viable option, so some people seek to repel insects through machines that

emit high frequencies. The idea is that the ultrasonic sounds bother insects and they

will fly away from it. However, scientific studies repeatedly have questioned

whether such devices are effective (Binti, 2012).

Mohd (2012) found machines that emit ultrasonic sounds produce noises so

high-pitched that they are undetectable to the human ear. Proponents of machines

claim that the devices do several things to repel insects. First, the machines mimic

predators, which scare away insects. A mosquito, for example, may think a

predatory dragonfly is nearby. Moths may believe a bat is swooping down to feed.
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Some products also claim that the sound mimics male mosquitoes, and that the

biting females will flee, having already mated during the season. High-frequency

sound machine manufacturers claim that the frequencies prompt insects to leave

the area immediately without harming or inconveniencing humans in the process.

2.3 Related Studies

All around the world, domestic birds are a major threat in the field of

agriculture causing damage to economic field crops, storage houses and also

dirtying human life areas. Such most common pest birds in many countries are

House crows (Corvus), Common myna, Jungle myna, Brahminy starling, White-

cheeked bulbul, Acridotterestritis etc. In order to distract these birds away, many

traditional methods such as Scarecrow models, Hawk kites, Coloured lights,

Lasers, Flashes, Chemicals are used which nowadays do not seem very effective.

In this paper an effective bird deterrent technique i.e. Solar Powered Audible Bird

Scarer has been developed. Different sounds due to which different species of birds

get deterred were also noticed and studied. Unlike other projects, this project

includes a variety of techniques playing sounds (Muminov, Jeon, Lee & Heung,

1995). The project propose is almost the same as the study. The difference is that

pests including rats, black bugs etc. are the subject unlike the study, birds are the

primary objective to be repelled as stated.


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Rodrigues, Dimuro, Franco & Fachinello, (2013) found this work proposes

to apply environmental sensing technologies to assist farmers to detect the

probability of occurrence of pests in their culture. For that, the Arduino platform, in

combination with adequate sensors to capture climatic conditions in a given region,

is used. It applies an approach based on Interval Fuzzy Logic for the assessment of

the sensing data to report if the weather conditions are favorable for the emergence

of pests, especially fungi, which depend on factors such as temperature, humidity

and leaf wetness. A discussion about an experiment performed to test the

developed system is presented. The experiment is based on a common disease

encountered, mainly, in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in

Brazil. The disease, called Brown Rot, is caused by a fungus known as

Moniliniafructicola. The proposed project is an upgrade to existing pest repellants

that uses Arduinoandt will produce continuous frequency that repels the pest away

from the rice fields.

Arnau, Probus & Kokou. (2017) argued that a lot of products and devices

which we use in our daily lives are already smart. Furthermore, our living spaces

are becoming smarter like Smart houses, and pervasive environments are nowadays

no longer science fiction but rather more and more realistic. In this work, propose a

smart sensor in wireless network architecture which is able to detect the ultrasound

of farm pests. This smart sensor is based on an ultrasonic transducer and four

stages amplifier circuit built around the op-amp LM324. This assembly allow to
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have a signal shape very close to the signal supplied by the transducer. This sensor

will help many in the early detection of insect pests and to anticipate their attacks

by setting up a protocol to exterminate them. The main contribution of this work is

to limit the risk of environmental diseases resulting from agricultural practices for

healthy health. Based on the cited journals and articles, the project will be using

Arduino that produce ultrasonic frequency that will repel the pest. It is particularly

made to be implemented on farmlands, although, it could also be used on barn

house and houses. Developing this technology is beneficial not only to the owner

of the farm land but also to his/her fellow farmers.


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REFERRENCES:

Design Manufacture and Test of a Solar Powered Audible Bird Scarerby

Vikrant Rajesh Suryawanshi (October 2015)

International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and

Instrumentation Engineering

Website: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org

DOI: 10.1109/BIOSMART.2017.8095319

Smart Environment Monitoring System by Employing Wireless Sensor

Networks on Vehicles for Pollution Free Smart Cities in Procedia Engineering

Elsevier vol. 107

Website: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org

DOI: 10.1109/ICISCT.2017.8188587

The effect of scarers on the presence of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in cherry

orchards Crop Protectionvol. 4 no. 4