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IASE 11th Conference

Alicante, Spain, july 12 – 16 2009


Broadening the horizon:
recognizin, accepting, and embrazing
differences to make a better world for
individuals with special needs.

1
Paper:
Interactional problems in classrooms;
which are the right educational
values?

Salvador Peiró i Gregòri, Ph.D


University of Alicante (Spain)
salvador.peiro@ua.es
GITE-09036-UA: PEDAGOGÍA.
2
INTRODUCTION
Research team in site web:

http://violencia.dste.ua.es

3
THE PROBLEM
OF LEARNING CLIMATE

1. There are several research about the undisciplined


behavior of students in:
– primary education (Wheldall and Merrett, 1988)
– secondary education (Houghton, Wheldall and
Merrett, 1988).
2. The disciplinary problems within the educational
environment are common in each and every area
and subject that constitute the educational
curriculum (Ishee, 2004).
• Those converge with our researches since 2000.
• There are confirmed for ODEC, 2009
4
3. The Spanish ministerial report from
INCE indicates that the most conflicting
cases, which have multiplied in recent
years, are concentrated around 14-16-
year-old pupils, which corresponds to the
compulsory secondary level.
4. The fact that discrepancies and
disruptions very often hinder the
development of the educational actions.
5. So, this impede to cope with the
teaching-learning process successfully.
(Peiró, EERA, 2007) 5
STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES.
1. Then, teachers don’t explane lessons,
they become as careguivers, so students
can’t learn. OCDE, 2009: 16% of the cases.
2. Wast of time & energy: In Valencian
Autonomous Region, secondary education
headmasters dedicate part of their time :
– 50% to cases of vandalism (2004) and
– 66,66% to provide assistance in peaceful-
coexistence-related problems (2006).
6
CONSEQUENCES
RESPECT THE STAFF
1. Those undisciplined behaviors of students often
represent a source of professional stress, while
simultaneously questioning the work performed by the
teacher (Graham, 1992), generating distraction, concern
2. and even abandonment of the profession (Esteve, 2005;
Fernández-Balboa, 1991).
3. This situation mainly affects morest on beginner-
teachers (Borko, Lalik & Tomchin, 1987).
4. Bad behavior can destabilize students as much as
teachers (Fernández-Balboa, 1991; Esteve, 2006),
5. and can easily lead to the emergence of feelings of
disappointment among the teaching staff.

7
THAT CUTS EXPECTATIONS:
FROM THE SCHOOL TO THE CITY

Democratic societies need citizens who


not only look reflexively at the big topics
arising inside their societies and can
‘manufacture’ their own opinion but also
are aware, active members of those
societies who know their rights and duties
(Marco, 2002, 111-13). And they must be
able to implement these.
8
AN PARTIAL CONCLUSION.

1. Without a positive climate it is


impossible to achieve an effective
and efficient teaching.
2. In this sense, the most significant
indicator of success in teaching is
disciplined behavior in the
classroom.

9
2.

BUT,
WHAT’S DISCIPLINE?

10
More punishment for students, only?

11
WHAT’S DISCIPLINE?
1. The general public and the
collectivity of teachers have a
distorted vision about what
discipline really is,
2. along with a wrong conception of
the reasons for the lack of
discipline in the educational
context (Dreikurs et al., 1982).
12
PRINCIPLES TO BOUND DISCIPLINE IN
SECONDARY EDUCATION.

1. The climate must improve attitudes concerning


to accustom on the fulfilment democratic
citizenchip.
2. The problems spread to the overall promotion
of personality, which covers self-regulation,
interpersonal relationships based on social
skills, team work, decision-making, etc.
3. Here, self-awareness turns out to be basic for
making mature trials. This presupposes to put
in practice critical trial skills.
13
SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL COMPETENCES
OF GOOD CITIZENSHIP.
To promote growing levels of good citizenship, it’s
necessary same skills, which can be looked at from a
twofold perspective:
A) Mental skills: to be informed, to communicate, to
advance, to invent, to negotiate, to decide, to
imagine, to cooperate, to evaluate, to assume risks,
to face complexity, to analyze necessities, to carry
out projects, etc.; and
B) Axiological attitudes: courtesy, affability, cordiality
and the corresponding gratitude, indulgence: before
the defects of others; kindliness: to judge and treat
others and their acts with fineness; respect: to look
at others valuing the positive things, all of which
shapes a pro-social element called ‘tolerance’,
which is our main concern. 14
TO GET TWOFOLD VIEW, THE STUDENT’S
PERSONALITY MUST TO PERFORM ON…

With everyone’s help, we need to insert the


aspects that relate the formal developments with
the individual’s deepest personality and are
condensed in social and civic behavior. Those
that we can mention now allow sharing the
information, the axis being dialogue, which
implies: to give advice, to keep a constructive
attitude, to defend and justify one’s own point of
view, to make an effort to understand others, to
respect the truth, to ensure mutual respect, to
look for alternatives acceptable for both parties,
etc.
15
SOCIAL VALUES NEED HUMAN HABITS TO BE EFFECTIVE
The figure provides an intuitive outline of the interdependence of human
and democratic attitudes that exist in real life.

HUMAN HUMBLENESS
VALUES
UNDERSTANDING

PATIENCE GENEROSITY JUSTICE

AVAILABILITY

CALM FREEDOM DEMOCRACY

TOLERANCE SOCIAL
VALUES
Minimum ethic
PEACEFUL 16
COEXISTENCE
HOW VALUES
DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN
MISBEHAVIOUR
IN SCHOOLS?

A case study.

17
SUBJET MATTER: DELIMITATION.

1. The research I carried out between


2003 and 2005.
2. It compares the attitudes of normal
(non-conflicting) students with
those of students who show
behaviors that can be described as
conflicting, undisciplined, etc.
(undisciplined).
18
THE TOILS
(QUESTIONAIRES & WEB)
1. We used a questionnaire that integrates human
and social values and applied a Lickert-scale to
value the interviewees’ choices.
2. The questionnaires to induce data can be
analyzed entering the following website:
http://violencia.dste.ua.es; then, you can click
on one of the sections located at the top of the
main page: study of school violence, or in the
one about school peaceful coexistence.
3. To see each questionnaire, you must write as a
key p_estudio, but that is only useful to see but
not to operate with the instruments. 19
FINDS

20
4,5

2,50
3,50
4,50

1,5
2,5
2,5
3,5
Al

1,50
2,50
3,50
eg

3,5
Al
eg a
rí a

O
pt
O im
is
pt
im m
is o
m
o

Am
is
Am ta
is d
ta
d
G
en
G er
en
er o si
o da
si
da d
d

Re
Re sp
et
sp o

El indicador
Lickert scale 1…5

et
o

So
So ci
al
ci id
al ad
id
ad

To
To le
le ra
ra nc
nc i a
i a Ar
Ar m
on
m í a-
on
í a- Be
lle
Be
lle
za
The position’s za

Pu
Pu do
do r
r

CONFLICTIVOS - 2003
Au
NORMALES - 2003

Au da
da c ia
c ia

Pr
de las posiciones

Pr ud
ud en
en c ia
c ia
indicator is

C
C ui
NORMALES - 2004

ui da
da do

CONFLICTIVOS - 2004
do
está

Ef
Ef ic
ic ac
ac i a
i a

O
O be
related

be di
di e
e nc
i
nc a
NORMALES - 2005

i a
Pe
Pe rs
rs ev

CONFLICTIVOS - 2005
ev er
er an
an ci
ci a
a
UNDISCIPLINED STUDENTS

Fe Fe
con relación
NON-CONFLICTING STUDENTS

Fo Fo
r ta r ta
le le
za za

In In
tim tim
with average

id id
ad ad

Or
Or
d d en
en

Pu Pu
a la media

nt nt
ua ua
lid lid
ad ad
Re Re
sp sp
on on
sa sa
bi bi
lid lid
ad ad
= 3 (= 3).

21
IN RÉSUMÉ…

• Calculating differences for the


accumulated mean and adding up
the results of 2003, 2004 and 2005…
• The axiological attitudes difference
the needs on values among some
misbehaviour and good students.
• Results the next figure…

22
.
DIFFERENCE AMONG AVERAGES: 2003 TO 2005 ALICANTE

RESPONSIBILITY 2,13
PUNCTUALITY 2,17
ORDER 1,783
INTIMACY 1,45
STRENGTH 0,76
FAITH 0,88
PERSEVERANCE 1,47
OBEDIENCE 1,99
EFFICIENCY 1,54
CARE 2,02
PRUDENCE 1,25
AUDACITY 1,27
BEAUTY 1,02
TOLERANCE 1,15
SOCIALITY 1,4
RESPECT 1,85
GENEROSITY 1,89
FRIENDSHIP 1,48
OPTIMISM 1,33
CHEERS 1,03

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5


CONFLICTINGS NON-CONFLICTING STUDENTS
The cases of conflicting students would be on the 23
extreme left side of the coordinate axis, its value starts on 0.
RESULTS

The diferences between the two groups are:

a) Functionals, instrumentals, like tools:


Punctuality (2,17) Order (1,79) Cure (2,02)
b) Attiudes corresponding to the vertical relationship:
Obedience (1,99) Respect (1,85) Generosity (1,89)
c) And other as a linking between a) & b): responsebility
(2,13). This means students are able to do exercices,
rols, agreements, etc.

24
A MANNER OF
PARTIAL CONCLUSION.

It can be inferred from all the


above that the attitudes toward
the integration of human and
social values define the
peaceful climate of educational
centers.

25
INTERCULTURAL VALIDATION

• We have performed similar studies in


other places. The two graphs below
refer two case studies carried out in
the state of
– Zacatecas (Mexico), 2003
– the city of Buenos Aires
(Argentina), 2004/05.
26
Las actitudes compartidas son:
32: Salud 38: Participación 50: Pudor 61: Combatir para ser jefe.

5,00
4,50 3 5 16 18 48 52
12 12
13 17 8 21 23 25 29 30 33
37
41 43 46 51 53 56 64
11 14 18 20 22 24 26 28
6 9 10 35
383 9 49 54 57 60
4,00 4 7 15 40 42 44
45 47 50 55 59 62
58 6163
3,50 27 31 34 38 61
3132 36
50
3,00 32
2,50 5 9 1011 18 30
1 8 14 23 26 29 3435 37 40 48 51 62
2,00 2
6
7 13 15 17 20
21 25 39 42 444546 5657 5960 64
63
3 12 16 24 28 36 41 43 47 49 52 5455 58
1,50 4 18 22 33 53
27
1,00 NORMALES CONFLICTIVOS
0,50 ACTITUDES AXIOLOGICAS VIOLENCIA ESCOLAR. ZACATECAS, 2003.
0,00
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
18
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
ACTITUDES Y CONFLICTO ESCOLAR. BUENOS AIRES, 2004/05
COMPARACIÓN MEDIA TOTAL – FUENTE: DIRECTORES
5,50

4,50

3,50

ad
za
o

ad

ad

ad
d

a
a
ia

a
rí a

to
d

do

ia
r

za

en
ia
m

Fe
ci
da

do

i
ci
ta

nc

nc

ilid
le
pe

ac
lid

id

lid
c
is

le
an
da
eg

rd
en
el

da
Pu
is

ti m
2,50
ra
os
im

e
ia

rta
ic

ua

ab
es

O
Am

er
-B

ui
Al

ud

di
Au
le

Ef
c
er
pt

In
R

nt

ns
Fo
be

ev
So

ía
To

Pr
O

en

Pu
on

po
rs
O
G

Pe
m

es
Ar

R
1,50

0,50

Director - CONFLICTIVOS
Director - NORMALES Total - NORMALES Total - CONFLICTIVOS
27
3.
Discusion
and
conclusions.

28
THE COMON SIMPLE
EDUCATIONAL MODEL.
1) Punishment, rules…
Indiscipline &
Violence
2) Mediation, empathy…

There are REDUCTION:


a) On improvement of personality’ structure.
b) Carrying out all educational process.
29
IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO BREAK THE CYCLE
OF SCHOLARS VIOLENCE AND CONFLICT

4 5
Atack against Anger, rager…
the dignity irascible, vindictive...

Disruption,
3 6
indiscipline,
violence. New acts of agression:
bigger conflict

2 1
Imbalance of quality
factors of education. CRISIS OF VALUES

30
IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
• There is an urgent need to compensate
that by proposing a new, more responsive
approach (Unesco, 1999, a)
• that highlights the programs focused on
promoting a culture of peace (Unesco,
1999, b).
Values are the key to deal with macro and
micro crises1
[1] I am referring to my paper at EERA (Hamburg, 2003) entitled Values in the educational prevention of violence. 31
It is a case study (Yin, 1993).
1. NOMOLOGICAL NET OF
“EDUCATION”. One of the reasons for
failure in peaceful coexistence is the
confusion regarding the theoretical
notions of value and the actions which
are performed in accordance with those
values (knowing what tolerance is not the
same as being tolerant).
2. Experience and common sense tell us
that global values are hollow without
previous human values.
32
CONCLUSIONS
1. There is any bad student. So, it is not
necessary to be exclusively centered on
negative behaviors; this is a reactionary
measure. We should optimize the disciplinary
climate in classrooms because it is impossible
to achieve an effective and efficient teaching
without a positive climate.
2. This means appealing to peaceful coexistence
within the educational environment, for which it
becomes necessary to refer to the links
between discipline, value and peaceful
coexistence in schools.
33
3. If the educational institution does not
promote peaceful-coexistence attitudes
and values, it could fail both to improve the
pro-social climate at school and to prepare
students for their future civic life.
4. Exercising citizenship means acquiring
social skills, for which students need not
only formal processes but also axiological
habits which include human and
democratic attitudes. All this should be
integrated deep inside the student’s
personality.
34
5. From N = 1. These values can be studied with
the aim of verifying the ideas that have been put
forward above. Case studies can help to explain
the situation, pointing out marked differences
between the attitudes of ‘normal’ students and
those shown by ‘problematic’ students, which
reflect immaturity and lack of pro-social
behaviors.
6. MISBEHAVIOUR = LACK OF CRITICAL. One of the
reasons is the lack of the criticality which one
needs so badly before adopting a specific
behavior. This happens because undisciplined
students’ values are not clear yet, which makes
education for citizenship suffer.
35
4.

Recommendations.

36
FOR THE COM-ED.
1. Teaching only constitutional values is not
sufficient for to educate. This statement implies
to elaborate an educational project – PEC –
linked with all the educational community.
2. As these aspects concern the family and
informal educational institutions more directly.
3. So, we should try to involve parents more
deeply into the educational process.

37
TO IMPLEMENT THAT IDEA, STAFF MUS
TO CHANGE THEIR WORK’S ATTITUDES.

Focusing the development of the


curriculum on a culture of peace makes it
easier to integration of teaching: subjects
of syllabus, values and procedures and to
provide them for students and teachers as
reference groups in life, thus favoring
interdisciplinary teaching and flexible
learning for different groups of students.

38
THANKS YOU VERY MUCH
FOR YOUR ATENTION.

DIALOGUE.

39
5.
COMPLEMENT OF
EMPIRICAL
METHODOLOGY.

40
SCHOLAR CYCLES
% STUDIE’S KIND FOR YEAR

60,00%
Infantil
Primaria
40,00% ESO
Bachiller

20,00% COU
FP

0,00%
2003 2004 2005

41
% KIND OF CENTRES FOR YEAR

90,00%
83,11%
77,84%
70,00% 70,87%

50,00% Estatal
Concertado
30,00% 28,16% Privado

14,37% 16,89%
10,00% 7,78%
0,00% 0,97%
-10,00% 2003 2004 2005 42
TEACHERS INQUIRIED %
% Tipo de Usuario por Años

80,00%

60,00%

TEACHERS
STUDENTS
BOS OF STUDIES
40,00% Tutor
FATHER
MATHER
HEAD MASTER

20,00%

0,00% 43
2003 2004 2005
There’s used the virtual campus to
induce data.

C u e stio n a rio s C u e stio n a rio s


u su a rio 1 u su a rio N

P a g in a B a se d e
W EB d a to s

C re a c ió n • T a b la s
E x tra c ió n c u e st. fic h e ro s
EXCEL
• G rá fic a s
v ía S P L U S
44
REPRESENTATIVE
SAMPLES?
We did not use representative
samples, etc. but took advantage of
the opportunity to deal with these
topics, which provoke resistance on
the part of the interested parties and
administrations.
(Polit, Hungler, 1995).

45
% CONFIDENCE

• In general, the procedures and the


statistical techniques used are
considered reliable with an error of 5
per cent; or trustly level 95%.
• Student’s t-test indicates certain
variability; there is not homogenization
either.

46
t’ Student
NON-CONFLICTING UNDISCIPLINED

AVERAGE

200 200 T’ E STUDENT


AVERAGE

200 200 T ‘ STUDENT


Feithful of axiological
4 5 (P) 4 5 (P)

HAPPINESS 4,05 3,83 0,02 2,20 2,70 0,00

OPTIMISM 4,06 3,81 0,00 2,10 2,54 0,00 attituds


FRIENDSHIP 3,97 3,74 0,03 1,89 2,29 0,00

GENEROSITY 4,26 4,17 0,32 1,77 2,18 0,00

RESPECT

SOCIALITY
4,18

4,13
4,02

3,97
0,03

0,03
1,74

1,90
2,14

2,30
0,00

0,00 t means there are


TOLERANCE

HARMONY
4,12

4,00
3,96

3,90
0,11

0,32
1,96

2,78
2,64

3,04
0,00

0,04 a variability
emong
MODESTY 4,14 4,04 0,31 2,39 2,49 0,45

AUDACY 3,77 3,75 0,81 2,71 2,51 0,18

PRUDENCE 4,12 3,72 0,00 1,88 2,26 0,00

CARE

EFFECTIVENESS
4,33

3,70
4,14

3,81
0,05

0,37
1,73

2,16
2,15

2,27
0,00

0,40
educational
OBEDIENCE

PERSEVERANCE
4,38

4,10
4,23

3,93
0,12

0,02
1,84

2,04
2,33

2,17
0,00

0,13
centres.
FEITH 3,90 3,58 0,01 2,08 2,54 0,00

STRONGHOLD 3,86 3,80 0,40 2,39 2,54 0,11

INTIMACY 4,06 3,82 0,03 1,98 2,22 0,04 (This statements are according with
ORDER 4,07 4,07 0,96 1,87 2,26 0,00 Researches of
PUNCTUALITY 4,40 4,33 0,47 1,89 2,09 0,10
Olweus, 1993; Withney & Smith, 1994;
RESPONSIBILITY 4,33 4,18 0,11 1,77 1,92 0,15

MILDNESS 4,06 3,55 0,00 1,69 2,01 0,00


Debarbieux, 1999, y Blaya, 2001)
NATURALNESS 4,15 4,10 0,66 2,77 2,62 0,27

SINCERIDTY 3,83 3,89 0,59 2,98 2,96 0,89 47


6.

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7.
OTHER
ANEXS

52
Validations of VALUES INTEGRATION:
SOCIAL, HUMAN & DEMOCRATIC
This model was presented by the author at the following events:
A) I National Symposium of Education for Tolerance. Speaker: Concepto,
características y finalidades de la educación multicultural en el marco de la
tolerancia. University of Granada-UNESCO, March 13-15, 1996, later
published as: Educación multicultural para la tolerancia y la paz. 1996.
Granada. GEU (Grupo Editorial Universitario), pp. 45-71.
B) Antropología y educación. Paper: Tolerancia y educación en contextos
multiculturales. Madrid, December 10-14, 1996. ISBN: 84-362-4312-9
Proceeding of the III Congreso Internacional de Filosofía de la Educación.
Pp. 409-420.
C) XVIII SITE. Paper: Centros con multiculturalidad y sentido de algunas
competencias morales básicas que concretan la tolerancia en la formación
de los ciudadanos. University of Extremadura, November 21-24, 1999.
D) XII Congreso Nacional y I Iberoamericano de Pedagogía. Hacia el tercer
milenio: cambio educativo y educación para el cambio. Madrid, SEP,
September 26-30, 2000. Paper: Valores y educación en situaciones
multiculturales. Sentido globalizante de “educar en la tolerancia” a la sección
segunda: Educación social y cambio de valores. Educación en la tolerancia
para la paz. Enfoque transdisciplinar.
E) IV Congreso Internacional de Filosofía de la Educación: Educación, ética y
ciudadanía. Organized by UNED, Madrid, November 21-25, 2000 53
A CLIMATE REQUESTS
ABILITIES & VALUES
1. Criticality can be promoted within the
individual attitudes and capacities such as the
readiness to be interrogated, to question facts,
to value explanations and valuations, etc.,
2. when it comes to accept or to reject
alternatives related to participation in the
democratic process.
3. But this depends on the values around which
criticality has been built and on the person’s
ability to use the aforementioned attitudes and
capacities properly in order to become a good
citizen.
54
AXIOLOGICAL & DEMOCRATIC
CONCLUSSION
If the school must prepare students for citizenship,
The climate must be acording with this objective;
So, it will be necessary to integrate axiologicaly
both human & social dimensions into the
curricula [1].

[1] This model was presented by the author at the following events: A) I National Symposium of Education for Tolerance. Speaker:
Concepto, características y finalidades de la educación multicultural en el marco de la tolerancia. University of Granada-
UNESCO, March 13-15, 1996, later published as: Educación multicultural para la tolerancia y la paz. 1996. Granada. GEU
(Grupo Editorial Universitario), pp. 45-71. B) Antropología y educación. Paper: Tolerancia y educación en contextos
multiculturales. Madrid, December 10-14, 1996. ISBN: 84-362-4312-9 Proceeding of the III Congreso Internacional de Filosofía
de la Educación. Pp. 409-420. C) XVIII SITE. Paper: Centros con multiculturalidad y sentido de algunas competencias morales
básicas que concretan la tolerancia en la formación de los ciudadanos. University of Extremadura, November 21-24, 1999. D)
XII Congreso Nacional y I Iberoamericano de Pedagogía. Hacia el tercer milenio: cambio educativo y educación para el cambio.
Madrid, SEP, September 26-30, 2000. Paper: Valores y educación en situaciones multiculturales. Sentido globalizante de
“educar en la tolerancia” a la sección segunda: Educación social y cambio de valores. Educación en la tolerancia para la paz.
Enfoque transdisciplinar. E) IV Congreso Internacional de Filosofía de la Educación: Educación, ética y ciudadanía. Organized
by UNED, Madrid, November 21-25, 2000.

55
COMENTARIES ON THE FIGURE

1. The figure offers two sections:


– the upper one located above Likert’s average (more
than 3, on a scale between 1 and 5) and
– the lower one, where averages are situated below 3
2. What really matters is not the attitudes as
such but whether there is a real difference
regarding those attitudes between one group of
students and the other.
3. The absence of a certain level in the values
can also cause a negative climate.
56
THE HUMAN DIGNITY A KEY:
VALUES FOR TO COMPENSATE.

1. Human beings behave in accordance with their


beliefs and following their social group of
reference (Fishbeing & Ajsen, 1983).
2. If individuals see this beliefs as nothing but a
product, they will most probably ignore both
their own dignity and that of others.
3. The fundamental values, not only constitutes
human nature, but have also given consistency
to the communities inside which one lives.
57