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Chapter 8 Internal Flow

8-50

Solution

Oil is being discharged by a horizontal pipe from a storage tank open to the atmosphere. The flow rate of oil

through the pipe is to be determined.

Assumptions

developed. 3 The entrance and exit loses are negligible. 4 The flow is laminar (to be verified). 5 The pipe involves no components such as bends, valves, and connectors. 6 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines.

Properties

The dynamic viscosity is calculated to be

The density and kinematic viscosity of oil are given to be = 850 kg/m 3 and = 0.00062 m 2 /s, respectively.

1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 2 The entrance effects are negligible, and thus the flow is fully

3

(850 kg/m )(0.00062 m

2

/

)

s

0.527 kg/m s

Analysis We solve the problem two ways for comparison.

Method 1 – First, the more rigorous way, using the energy equation: We take a control volume with the surface of the oil tank as the inlet (1), and the pipe discharge as the outlet (2), as sketched. The energy equation in head form from 1 to 2 (see Chapter 5) is

2

PV

11

gg 2

1

zh

1

pump, u

P

2

g

2

V

2

2

2

g

zh

2

turbine, e

h

L

1 Oil 4 m tank 8 mm 2
1
Oil
4 m
tank
8 mm
2

but for our control volume, P 1 = P 2 =P atm , so the pressure terms cancel. Also, V 1 is negligibly small compared to V 2 since the tank is so large compared to the pipe. Also, there are no turbines or pumps in the flow. Thus, the energy equation reduces to

zz

12

2

V

2

2

2 g

h

L

(1)

The kinetic energy correction factor and the equation for the head loss term both depend on whether the flow in the pipe is laminar or turbulent. We assume one or the other, and then verify at the end whether our assumption was correct. Since the fluid is very viscous and the diameter is small, we assume laminar flow, for which 2 = 2 if the flow is fully developed at the end of the pipe. Also, for fully developed laminar pipe flow, the Darcy friction factor is 64/Re, and therefore the irreversible head loss is

h

L

LL V

avg

2

V

2

64

2

f

D

2

g

Re

D

2

g

64

L V

2

32

LV

22

DV

2

D

2

g

gD

2

(2)

where we have also used the fact that V 2 = V avg . Combining Eqs. 1 and 2, we get

2

2

2

V

2 g

32

LV

gD

2

2

z z

12

0

(3)

Equation 3 is in standard form for a quadratic equation for V 2 , which we can easily solve, yielding

V

2

2 32 L 32 L 2 4 z z 2 2 1 2 gD gD
2
32
L
32
L
2
4
z
z
2
2
1
2
gD
gD
2 g
2
g

(4)

The negative root of Eq. 4 makes no physical sense, since the velocity cannot be
The negative root of Eq. 4 makes no physical sense, since the velocity cannot be negative at the outlet, so we take the
positive root to calculate V 2 ,
2
32(0.527 kg/m s)(40 m)
32(0.527 kg/m s)(40 m)
2
4
(4 m)
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
(850 kg/m )(9.807 m/s )(0.008 m)
(850 kg/m )(9.807 m/s )(0.008 m)
2(9.807 m/s )
V
2
2
2
9.807 m/s

0.0031632 m/s

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from which we calculate the volume flow rate,

V

A V

c

2

(

D

2

/ 4)

V

2

(0.008 m)

2

/ 4 (0.0031632 m/s)

1.590

10

7

m/s

Chapter 8 Internal Flow

Finally, we verify that the flow is indeed laminar by calculating the Reynolds number,

Re

V D

2

3

(850 kg/m )(0.0031632 m/s)(0.008 m)

0.527 kg/m s

0.0408

Since this Reynolds number is much lower than 2300, we are confident that the flow is laminar, and thus the analysis is correct.

Method 2 – We re-solve the problem making the assumption that since the velocity through the pipe is so small, the pressure at the pipe entrance is nearly the same as the hydrostatic pressure at that location. The pressure at the bottom of the tank is

P 1,gage

gh

(850 kg/m )(9.81 m/s )(4 m)

3

2

33.35 kN/m

2

1 kN

1000 kg m/s

2

Disregarding inlet and outlet losses, the pressure drop across the pipe is

P P

1

P

2

P

1

P

atm

P

1,gage

33.35 kN/m

2

33.35 kPa

The flow rate through a horizontal pipe in laminar flow is determined from

V horiz

P D

4

128

L

2

(33.35 kN/m )

(0.008 m)

4

128(0.527 kg/m s)(40 m)

1000 kg m/s

2

1 kN

1.590 10

7

3

m /s

The average fluid velocity and the Reynolds number in this case are

V

V

V

1.590

10

7

m

3

/s

A

c

D

2

/ 4

(0.008 m)

2

/ 4

3.164

10

3

Re

VD

3

(850 kg/m )(3.164

10

3

m/s)(0.008 m)

0.527 kg/m

s

m/s

0.0408

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the analysis above is valid.

Discussion The flow rate will be somewhat less when the inlet and outlet losses are considered, especially when the inlet is not well-rounded. The two methods give the same answer to four significant digits. This justifies the assumption made in the second method.

This justifies the assumption made in the second method. 8 - 29 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL . ©
This justifies the assumption made in the second method. 8 - 29 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL . ©

8-29

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.