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STRENGHT OF MATERIALS

Mehhanosüsteemide komponentide õppetool

1. Strength of Materials – Subject and


Basic Concepts
1.1 1.2 1.3
Strength of Structure and its Structure and its
Materials’ Subject Components Loads

1.4 1.5
Structure and its Structure and its
Materials Safety

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 1

STRENGHT OF MATERIALS

1.1. Strength of Materials’ Subject

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 2


Basic Problems of Strength Analysis

Is the structure strong enough?

Is the structure stiff enough?

Is the structure safe enough?

? ?
?
Designer’s
responsibility: Structures (incl. devices, machines,
instruments, etc.) must operate and
perform without failures and safely!!!
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 3

Three Aspects of Structure’s Ability

Are the components’ shapes


and dimensions optimal?

Geometry

Loads Materials

Which loads the structure is


able to bear safely? Are the structure’ materials
strong and rigid enough?

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The Essence of Strength Analysis

Strength Analysis provides an answer:


How the shape geometry and material properties
influence on the component beahviour in work
conditions

Four tasks of strength analysis:

• Dimension calculation
• Check of adequate strength
• Check of stiffness
• Allowed load calculation
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 5

Four Tasks of Strength Analysis


Dimension calculation
How thick must be the
branch?

Check of stiffness
How much the branch bends?

Check of adequate strength


Allowed load calculation Does the branch safely hold?
Who could hang safely?

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 6


There are Many Different Combinations
Crankshaft Thread
Rocker
Steels
Valve Pushrod Steel
spring

Housing
Bending
Valves Torsion
Comp- Shear
Piston Cam Tension Shear
ression
Connecting
rod Pushrod Coil Spring
Camshaft Gear
Cam Steel
Cast
Compression Bronze
iron
Steel
Bearing
Shear
Crankshaft Comp-
Bending
ression
Torsion Bending
Gear
Bearing

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

1.2. Structure and its Components

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 8


Types of Structure Components
Types of Components Coil Spring
Bar
Massive Body Valve Pushrod
Bar Bar
Cylinder
Shell
Cam
Camshaft Massive Body
Plate (Shell) Bar

Gear Crankshaft
Plate Bar

Bar

Object of
Strength of Materials: Stright uniform bar
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Stright and Uniform Bar

The axis is a stright line One dimension is substantially


The shape and bigger than others
dimensions of its cross
section do not change
F x
F1 f1 Võll

y z

f2
D1

z
D2

Vedav rihmaratas
F
F2
Veetav rihmaratas
y
Radiaal-tugilaager Radiaal-laager

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 10


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

1.3. Structure and its Loads

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 11

Active Load and Reactive Load


Pressure Active Load
(Static)

Pressure
element
(piston)
Connecting
rod
Reaction of
crankshaft

Condition of Statics:

 (Active Loads) =  (Reactions) Reaction


(Reactive Load)
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Nature and Origins of Loads

Static Load Dynamic Load


(Unchanging or slowly changing load) (Rapidly changing or inertia load)

Reci-
procation

Loads from interacting bodies


Weight

Rotation
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Four Types of Load Application


Volume (Body) Load Area Distributed Load Line Distributed Concentrated
mg or ma Load
Load application area Load

Load application line Load application point

Complexity of analysis
Most Simplest
complex

Real loads are always volume (body) or area distributed loads

PROBLEM: How could we simplify the load system?

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 14


Simplification of Loads
Saint-Venant’ principle:
Sufficiently distant from the load application site, the consequences of that load are
independent of its application

Saint-Venant’ principle in this case:


The area distributed load can be replaced by the concentrated laod, if the
load application area is small compared with component main dimensions

Area Distributed Load Concentrated Load


Important
parameters of
mg
F = mg the system
should not be
lost when
simplifiyng loads
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 15

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

1.4. Structure and its Materials

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 16


Strength and Rigidity of a Material
Strength = ability to whithstand loads without breaking

Stronger material
(Stronger component)
F

Weaker material
F (Weaker component)

Stiffness = ability to keep shape and dimensions under the load action
Stiff material
(Stiff component)
F
Elastic material
(Elastic detail)
F

Material strength and stiffness parameters are determined by testing


Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 17

Principle of Initial Dimensions


Tensioned Elastic Bar
L Hooke’s Law

L 
1 FL


A or 
E A E
F
L
(L << L)

Relative defformation L
The length increases due to the load (strain) is usually:   0.2%
L

The real dimensions of a loaded (and defformed) component shall be


replaced by the initial ones (assuming that the difference is negligible)
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 18
Tensile Test of a Steel
L Specimen F Ultimate Tensile F/A’ E’
A Strength
D E
Fracture
A Yield Stength B C
Proportsional A F2 F3
Limit

A F1 L
L1 L
Necking
0
Yielding
Necking
A A’ F2
L 2 Linear part
Stress hardening
Fracture
F1  F2  F3
F3
L3  L 1  L 2  L3
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Materials Behave Differently under Load


Rubber Stress-Strain Diagram Stress-Strain Diagram
Aluminum Stress-Strain Diagram Copper (compression)
 alloys  D 
Hard rubber E
B
Offset
Soft rubber Yield Strength 0.2%

 

Steels Stress-Strain Diagram Cast iron


E’ Compression
= F
F/A’

A Ultimate
Strength D E

B C
Yield Strength
A
Tension

 = l 
l

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 20


Limit State for Materials
F Stress-Strain Diagram

Stress = distributed Steels
F/A’ E’
(internal) force = F Ultimate
A A
Strength D E

B C
Yield Strength
For engineering problems: A

Limit state for brittle material: (Cast iron, concete, ...)


 = l
l
Ultimate Strength = highest value of stress, the material can bear

Limit state for ductile material (no yielding): (Aluminum, Copper, ...)
Offset Yield Strength = value of stress, that The material limit
corresponds to 0,2 % of plastic strain state must not
occur in any
Limit state for steel (significant yielding): point of the
structure!!!
Yield Strength = value of stess, that corresponds to yielding
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 21

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

1.5. Structure and its Safety

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 22


Safety Margin of a Structure
In practice:
Geometry … is changing due to manufacturing
tolerances or is simplified in order to
simplify the calculations

Loads Materials
… properties are known only
approximately and/or with certain
uncertainty

… values and/or interaction phenomena are known only


approximately or eliminated in order to simplify the calculations

The reliability and safety


A structure must be designed with a
of a structure must be
SAFETY MARGIN
ensured in all cases

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 23

Safety Margin and Safety Factor


Strength SAFETY FACTOR = numerical indicator of the safety margin

In order to avoid failures


Real Strength and ensure the required
Strength Safety Factor = >1 reliability
Limit State

Safety Factor S  shows, how many


Design Factor [S]  shows, how many times
times the real strength (of a component)
the real strength (of a component) must differ
differs from the material critical state
from the material critical state
(shows the criticality of the real situation)

PROBLEM:
Too SMALL value of Safety Factor Too LARGE value of Safety Factor
 large material and energy consumption
 reliability of a structure is low
and high price of a structure
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 24
The Value of Design Factor
Design Factor for strength:
shows, how many times the highest value of stress must be less, than the
value of material limit state stress

Design Factor value is influenced by:

• criticality of the structure – for an airpalne higher than for a car, for a car higher
than for a garden cart

• reliabilty of loads assessment – for dynamic wind load higher than for static load
from gravity

• complexity of calculation scheme – for an approximate scheme higher than for a


precise one

• homogeneity of material – for „grainy“ concrete higher than for „uniform“ metals

• danger due to limit state – for „more dangerous“ fracture higher than for „less
dangerous“ yielding

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 25

Value of Design Factor for Strength


Design Factor Some recommendations for use

Very well known and predictable materials, controlled and stable work
1.25 … 1.5 conditions. Loads and stresses are calclated with high precision –
usually in cases where low mass is an important requirement
Well known materials, little changing work conditions. Loads and stresses
1.5 … 2 can easily be calculated

Known materials, usual average work conditions. Loads and


2 … 2.5
stresses can be calculated
Rarely used or brittle materials, usual average work conditions. Loads
2.5 … 3 and stresses can be calculated

Previously not used materials usual average work conditions. Loads and
3…4 stresses can be calculated
Known materials and changing or little known work conditions. Loads
and stresses can be evaluated only approximately

>4 Use of these values on the basis of specific analysis of all relevant aspects
Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 26
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

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Questions, please?

Priit Põdra 1. Strength of Materials -- Subject and Basic Concepts 27