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Shah Walliullah

1. Who was Shah Walliullah?

He was an Islamic reformer who translated Quran into Persian and He wrote about 51 books of
Islamic Literature and among them famous were Izalat Akhfah and Hujjatul Al-Baligha.He also
invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to defeat Marathas in the Battle of Panipat in 1761.

2. Who was Ahmed Shah Abdali?

Ahmed Shah Abdali was an Afghani leader who defeated Marathas in the Battle of Panipat in 1761.
He left soon after the battle leaving Muhammad Shah’s son as the Emperor called Ahmed Shah. He
captured Peshawar, Lahore and Kabul in 1747.

3. Who were Marathas?


Marathas were a Hindu tribe who established a Hindu Marathan empire in the southern India.
Marathas fought the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for 25 years. In 1737 they captured Delhi and
plundered it. By the middle of 18th century they had replaced Mughals as the most powerful
force in the subcontinent.
4. What were the Beliefs of Shah Walliullah?

Shah walliullah believed that all Political behavior should be based on Islamic Principles. He also
supported the idea of armed jihad against the non-muslim forces. He also believed that Muslims
were declining in every aspect of life i.e. Social and Economic because they had moved away from
Islamic principles. He believed that Muslim’s revival could only take place if they began to follow
Islamic principles.

5. Describe the works of Shah Walliullah?

Shah Walliullah translated Quran from Arabic into Persian. He also wrote 51 books of Islamic Literature.
Among his famous books are Hujjatullah Al Baligha(Profound Evidence of Allah) in which he provides
arguments that Islam can be practiced in the time (shah Walliullah’s era) as it could be followed 1400
years ago i.e. in the time of Prophet ‫ﷺ‬. He also wrote Izzalat Akhfah which was an exegesis/Tfsir of
Quran in which he explained the meaning of the verses of Quran. He also wrote an account of 4 Caliphs
in a way that was acceptable to both shias and sunnis and thus was able to unify them.

6. Describe the achievements of Shah Walliullah?

Shah Walliullah’ Translation of Quran from Arabic in Persian was a great success as more people could
read, understand and follow Islam in their daily life and so Islamic revival took place. His letter to Ahmed
Shah Abdali of Persia to defeat Marathas was also successful as Ahmed shah Abdali came and defeated
Marathas in the Battle of Panipat 1761 and it saved Muslims from being wiped out by Hindu Marathas.
His account of Four Rightly Guided Caliphs was unanimously acceptable to both Shia and Sunnis and this
brought Unity between them and thus it united Muslims. He was also able to spread his ideas to far
away areas because of his students e.g. Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Rafi (both were his sons as well) and
his 51 books and so Islamic revival occurred in every part (nearly every part) of India.

7. What was Madrasah Rahimiyah?

Madrasah Rahimiyah was an Islamic religious school which was established by Abdur Rahim, father of
Shah Walliullah. In 1718 Shah Walliullah began to teach in this institution after his father died. Here
Shah Walliullah educated his students. Syed Ahmed Barailvi also enrolled into this institute in 1808 and
studied Hadis and Quran under the sons of ShahWalliullah.

8. How Shah Walliullah’s Influence continued after his death?

Shah Walliullah’s influence continued because of his students e.g. Shah Rafi and Shah Abdul Qadair who
taught others what they learned from Shah Walliullah and so helped to spread ShahWalliullah’s teaching
after his death, Both were, in fact, teachers of Syed Ahmed who studied Hadis and Fiqah from them.
Shah Walliullah’s literary works were translated into other languages e.g. his Persian Translation of
Quran was translated into Urdu and so more muslims could read and study Quran. Shah Walliullah was
an inspiration for future Islamic revivalist e.g. Syed Ahmed started his Jihad Movement because he was
influenced by teachings of Shah Walliullah who supported Jihad against non-muslim forces.

Syed Ahmed Barailvi

1. Who was Syed Ahmed Barailvi?

Syed Ahmed Barailvi was an Islamic revivalist who was born in 1786 in Rai Baraeli near Lucknow. He was
the founder of Jihad Movement. Prior to his Jihad movement he went to join forces of Amir khan ,a
Pathan military leader,during this time he was able to gain experience and training of how to use then
modern European Military Equiptment. He worked as a Sowar (Cavalary men) and he was given a group
of men to command. He left the forces of Amir khan when Amir’s State was taken over by British and
Shah Abdul Aziz, his teacher declared Tonk to be a Darul Harb (a palce ruled by non-muslims) so he
could not serve there any longer. In 1921 he went for Hajj and returned in 1923. In 1926 he started his
Jihad movement in order to free muslims from the cruel (e.g. Azan (Muslim call to Prayer was banned)
and Badshahi Mosque was turned into a place for horses) regime of Ranjit Singh.

2. Who was Ranjit Singh?

Ranjit Singh was a Sikh ruler of Punjab. He died in 1839 and then his successors were unable to decide
who should be the next ruler. He had signed a peace deal with British in 1809. He did not allow British to
pass through his territory( Punjab) and Britishers were forced to take the much longer and dangerous
route through Baluchistan , Passing through Bolan Pass, to lead an offensive/Expedition into
Afghanistan. This indicates his Power. He had the Support of French who gave him weapons and
commanders to fight against Syed Ahmed Baralvi’s Jihad Movement. He was able to defeat Syed Ahmed
in the Battle of Balakot in 1831 which virtually ended the Jihad Movement.

3. How Ranjit Singh persecuted Muslims in Punjab?


Muslim call to Prayer (Azan) was banned in many places and so Muslims could not gather together to
offer their prayers together in mosque. Many Mosques were treated with disrespect e.g. many mosques
were covered in cow dung. Badshahi Mosque in Lahore was turned in a astable (Place where horses are
kept) also harsh taxes were levied on the Muslim peasants and this made them live from hand to mouth.
Ranjit Singh did not allow Muslims religious freedom i.e. to freely and publically follow their religion.

4. Describe the achievements of Syed Ahmed Barailvi?

Syed Ahmed Barailvi was able to defeat Sikhs in Battles many times and he was able to establish a mini
Islamic state in the Modern-Day Province of KPK near Peshawar in this state muslims were free to follow
their religion and Islam was the law of the state which helped to spread Islam i.e. More Madrasahs
(Islamic Schools) were built where Islamic Education was given. He was also able to united the various
muslim tribes of KPK.

5. Describe Battle of Balakot?

Battle of Balakot was fought in 1831. In this battle local rulers (of Balakot) told Sikhs a secret Passage
through the mountains and Syed Ahmed’s forces were taken by surprise. Syed Ahmed’s forces fought
very ferociously but as Sikhs were greater in number Syed Ahmed’s Army was defeated and 600
Mujahideens were killed. Syed Ahmed Barailvi was caught and beheaded. Syed Ahmed’s most trusted
commander Shah Ismail was also killed,. Defeat at Battle of Balakot was a major setback for the Jihad
Movement.

6. Who was Sultan Muhammad khan?

Sultan Muhammad Khan was a Brother of Dost Muhammad Khan who had tried to firstly kill Syed
Ahmed by poisoning him and then he deserted Syed Ahmed along with his army and so Syed Ahmed lost
the battle. Sultan Muhammad Khan waged a war against Syed Ahmed because Syed Ahmed had killed
his brother Dost Muhammd khan (because he was a traitor). Due to constant fight against Sultan
Muhammad Khan Syed Ahmed was forced to move his forces to Balakot to prevent war against a
muslim, Sultan Muhammad khan was a muslim.

7. Describe the importance of Jihad Movement to revival of Islam?

Jihad Movement was very important for the revival of Islam. Due to this movement a mini Islamic State
was established in KPK and isince it was ruled by Islamic law so Islamic revival took place e.g. More
Madrasahs (Islamic Schools) were set up where Islamic Education was given. Also Muslim preachers
could freely preach Islam and Muslims could freely follow it and so Islamic revival occurred. In Jihad
movement muslims fought to defend their religion and so after the Jihad Movement had ended the
devotion to defending Islam still remained and people of these areas became more devoted to religio.

8. Describe the importance of jihad Movement to creation of Pakistan?

Due to Jihad Movement a mini Islamic state was established in the region of KPK and in this state
Muslims were free to follow their religion and in this state muslims were happy. Later on this sate
became an inspiration and motivation for muslims to seek to establish same type of state on larger scale
i.e. Paksitan. Also during Jihad Movement Muslims struggled to defend their religion and this was a
motivation to future mulims Politician who were working to defend Muslim’s rights and to defend
muslim’s rights eventually Pakistan was created.

Haji Shariatullah

1. Who was Haji Shariatullah?

Haji Shariatullah was an Islamic Reformer who was born in Bengal in 1781. He went to Arabia in 1799
and stayed there for 19 years where he became influenced by the teachings of Sheikh Muhammad Bin
Abdul Wahab. When he returned back to Bengal in 1819 he began his Faraizi Movement which was a
Movement designed to free Muslims from Hindu Practices and to make them follow Islamic obligatory
acts i.e. Faraiz. In this Movement anyone who chose to be a member of Faraizi Movement was required
to give up all sins and to promise to lead a virtuous life in accordance with Islamic Principles.

2. Describe the Faraizi Movement?

Faraizi Movement was a movement launched by Haji Sharitullah. In This movement anyone who joined
the Faraizi Movement was required to give up all sins and pray for the forgiveness of his sins. He was
alos required to adhere to Islamic Obligatory acts i.e. Faraiz Like Salah (Prayer) and he was also required
to give up all Hindu Practices since they were unislamic.Faraizi Movement also supported the Idea of
Jihad against Non-Muslim forces which were oppressing Muslims.

3. What is meant by Dar-ul-Harb?

Dar-ul-Harb is an Arabic word which means “Home/Place of War” and refers to a place which is ruled by
Non-Muslim Rulers and Muslims are at war with those rulers or have no peace deal with those rulers.
Haji Shariatullah declared that whole of Subcontinent was DarulHarb as it was not being ruled by
Muslims and so in such areas Eid prayers and Friday prayers should not be offered. In August 1920
Leaders of Khilafat Movement (Ali BrotherS) declared that India was a DarulHarb and so muslims should
migrate to Afghanistan which was ruled by Muslims and so about 15000 Muslims went to Afghanistan.

4. What are Faraiz?


5. Who were Zamindars?
6. Who was Mohsin-ud-Din?
7. What was the importance of Faraizi Movement?

Mughals

1. Who was Babur?

Babur was a Mughal emperor from central Asia (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan region) who invaded India in
1525 and defeated the Lodhi Dynasty’s Ruler , Ibrahim Lodhi and took over Delhi after defeating him in
Battle of Panipat. He was the founder of the Mughal Dynasty and he was Succeeded by his son
Humayun in 1530 after having have ruled his newly captured land for just 4 years. His real name was
Zahir ud Din Muhammad but he was called Babur (which means male Lion in Hindi) because he was very
brave.

2. Who was Akbar?

Akbar was the successor of Humayun whom he succeeded In 1556. In 1581 Akbar founded his own
religious creed called “Din-e-Illahi” which contained elements of both Hinduism and Islam. He ruled for
about 50 years till his death in 1605 when he was succeed by Jehangir. He was disliked by Muslims
because of his excessive support to Hindus in his court. He followed Din-e-Illahi for a very short time and
is reported to have left it near his death.

3. What was Din-e-Ilahi?

Din-e-Illahi was a religious creed founded by Akbar in 1581. This contained the elements of both
Hinduism and Islam and it was primarily created to appease Hindus and Muslims as by following this
religion Akbar wished to show that he was in favor of both Hindus and Muslims however he failed
terribly as both Hindus and Muslims hated him for having have disfigured their religion. Also, Ironically,
doctrines of Din-e-Illahi were written by Sheikh Mubark who himself never followed it and he was a
Shi’ite Muslim.

4. Who was Aurangzeb?


5. Describe how Aurangzeb seized power?
6. Describe the Achievements of Aurangzeb?
7. What was Jizya?

Jizya is an Islamic tax that is levied on Non-Muslims who are living under the protection of an Islamic
Empire. It is an alternative to them being required to join the forces of the empire to defend the empire.
Akbar abolished this tax during his reign in 1573 to win the support of Hindus and he was very successful
in doing so but Aurangzeb re-introduced it during his reign and this caused a lot of discontent among
Hindus that it led to rebellions like Marathas.

8. Describe the Invading forces who invaded Mughal Empire?


9. Who was Nadir Shah?
10. Who were Marathas?
11. Who was Ahmed Shah Durani?
12. Describe Battle of Buxar?
13. Describe reasons for the decline of Mughals?
14. Who was Titu Mir?