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ENVIRONMENTAL

STUDIES
SPECIAL PROJECT

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND METHODS in


tourist destinations of calicut
SUBMITTED TO: UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:
MR.PRABHAKAR MR.ROHIT
JOSE
(Ad-hoc faculty, MED NITC) (Ad-hoc faculty, MED NITC)

Group members:

MURSHID P K(B150423PE)
ANAND JOSE(B150959PE)
VISAKH R(B150359PE)

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LIJO MATHEW GEORGE(B150118PE)
M VISHNU GOPINATH(B150333PE)

Certificate of Approval

This is to certify that the work entitled “Waste management And methods in tourist
destinations of Calicut” submitted by Visakh R (B150359PE) , M Vishnu Gopinath
(B150333PE), Murshid P K(B150423PE), Anand Jose(B150959PE) and Lijo Mathew
George(B150118PE) has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) at National Institute Of
Technology Calicut and this work has not been submitted elsewhere for any other academic
degree to the best of my knowledge.

Mr. Rohit jose

Adhoc faculty

Department of Mechanical Engineering.

National Institute of Technology

Calicut-673601, Kerala

Date :

Place : NIT Calicut

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CONTENTS

PAGE
SL NO. TITLE NO.

1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 4

2 ABSTRACT 5

3 OBJECTIVE 6

4 INTRODUCTION 8

4.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT 10

5 METHODOLOGY 15

5.1 METHOD OF EXECUTION 21

5.2 POSTERS USED 22


6 SCOPE OF FUTURE OF THE WORK 25

6.1 ENGINEERING METHODS OF WASTE DISPOSAL 29

6.1.1 METAL WASTE PRESS 29

6.1.2 KITCHEN WASTE SHREDDER 30


7 CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES 31

7.1 SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE 34

8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 37

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all thanks to God, for giving me and my friends the strength and will to complete this
task just in time. Even though we faced a lot of difficulties while trying to complete this task,
the group still managed to complete it and we are glad about it.

A special thanks to Mr Rohit Jose, for being such a good guidance to us while we were doing
this task. He had given us an appropriate example and knowledge in order to make us
understand more about this topic. He spends his time to explain the execution of this idea in
all the way.

I also appreciate Mr Prabhakar, for he supported us to do this project in all the way and made
it possible. We also want to thank other groups who were willing to share their information
about this topic. They gave us a lot of new ideas about the task.

Also a great thanks to my family and friends who tried their best to give their support either
by giving me a lot of encouragement to keep up with this task or by supporting us financially
and pay all the cost required to complete this task.

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ABSTRACT
BRIEF DESCRIPTION

A beauty spot or tourism destination is a great source of picnic and enjoyment if they are
maintained properly and people take care of them. Unfortunately visiting folks don’t think
about it and in fun and enjoyment they litter them without any care for it. Therefore it is of
grave importance to implement proper waste management measures and spread awareness
about the same at primary tourist destinations of Calicut.

IMPORTANCE

It’s important to take steps to maintain clean tourism spots and protect them to ensure they’re
healthy, not just for us, but for the wildlife that exists in these habitats. It is of utmost
importance to preserve these places for the future generations and this can only be done by
spreading awareness among people on various steps to do the same.

PLAN OF ACTION

1. Visiting Calicut Beach, Mananchira square, Beypore beach and inspect the present
waste disposal measures taken up by the respective authorities.

2. Spreading awareness through pamphlets, posters on proper waste disposal systems.

3. Conducting a questionnaire about the way in which people dispose waste at beach and
how they behave in a beach.

4. Based on the questionnaire arrive at our conclusions and include suggestions to


improve the situation.

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OBJECTIVE

A) Identify and project for the planning period the volume and types of waste generated in
the tourist place.

B) Identify the solid waste management system components that will handle all non-
hazardous solid waste generated.

C) Maintain a comprehensive, integrated solid waste management approach that addresses


collection, transportation, and disposal. The approach will address the Solid Waste Hierarchy
elements of source reduction, reuse, recycling, resource recovery, incineration, and
landfilling, in proportions appropriate for the District's needs.

D) Establish a single point of contact for provision and management of technical solid waste
information to support future planning decisions.

E) Provide a framework that will allow for a periodic review and evaluation of the
recommendations and guidelines set forth in the waste management plan to ensure that the
plan remains responsive.

F) Foster the participation and involvement of the general public in solid waste management
planning and implementation.

G) Create a google form to know the response of public and involvement of authority in the
proper waste management.

 Identify and foster mechanisms to ensure that adequate waste collection services
are available throughout the District.

A) Identify collection system components that currently meet the District’s needs.

B) Identify a schedule for action to sustain the current collection system components that
meet the place’s needs.

C) Identify approaches to address collection and transportation system deficits.

 Identify and provide for the availability of facilities to ensure that adequate
options for waste disposal are available throughout the tourist place.

A) Identify disposal system components that meet the District’s current needs.

B) Identify a schedule for action to sustain collection system components that currently meet
the District’s needs.

 Identify, implement, and/or maintain programs for ensuring that solid wastes
are managed in accordance with Federal and State laws and regulations in a
manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment.

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A) Distribute the pamphlets to the people visiting the tourist area about the laws and effect of
waste disposal in public place.

B) Regulate the burning of solid and/or vegetative waste and the processing and/or disposal
of waste dirt to protect the environment.

C) Protect the environment by fulfilling the laws, regulations, ordinances and other
requirements as set forth by the Country.

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INTRODUCTION

Knowledge about solid waste sources and types as well as information on its composition and
rates of production and disposal is essential for the design and operational facets of the
functional elements concomitant to solid waste management.

Tourism plays a substantial role in the development of a small island like Langkawi. Yet, it
results in creation of additional wastes which have indirect and direct impacts on the
somewhat unique and quite vulnerable environmental resources. In light of this, an
identification of the negative and positive effects of the growing tourism industry in
Langkawi Island as well as evaluation of the net balance between these is an objective that is
necessary for development of a sustainable tourism industry in the area. It is well established
that development of the global tourism industry in islands in the recent years has led to
increased production of wastes and to altering the composition of these wastes as well.
Securing sustainable tourism industry in islands should set reducing resource consumption
and waste generation as a basic principle and priority. Reducing overconsumption and the
amounts of waste produced has two dimensions: conserving the resources utilized by the
tourists to be employed in production of different goods and releasing pressure on
environmental resources that result from treatment and disposal of wastes. As far as waste
production and management are concerned, what is really important is confirming dominance
of sustainable waste management patterns rather than the amounts of waste which are
produced.

Waste management is the process of treating solid wastes and offers variety of solutions for
recycling items that don’t belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be used as a valuable
resource. Waste management is something that each and every household and business owner
in the world needs. Waste management disposes of the products and substances that you have
use in a safe and efficient manner.

Americans alone are responsible for producing a hopping 220 million tons of waste a year.
This number is far more than any other nation in the world. Because of this fact both the

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government and environmental associations have developed numerous methods of dealing
with the problem. Waste management is that solution, a rather complex issue that
encompasses more than 20 different industries. Waste management is collection,
transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products

According to Wikipedia,

“Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage
waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection,
transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also
encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management
encompassing guidance on recycling etc.”

You will find there are eight major groups of waste management methods, each of them
divided into numerous categories. Those groups include source reduction and reuse, animal
feeding, recycling, composting, fermentation, landfills, incineration and land application.
You can start using many techniques right at home, like reduction and reuse, which works to
reduce the amount of disposable material used.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

Planning the waste management and recycling for all of the rubbish produced in this country

is an enormous task which involves both logistical planning and scientific knowledge and

understanding in order to balance the impact on the environment and the cost effectiveness of
the process.

Waste management and recycling companies are also feeling an extra pressure to perform

their role in the greenest ways possible. It is important to remember that the UK’s resources

and landfill sites are limited and this has a major bearing on the kind of activities that are
carried out.

Waste collection and rubbish disposal play an extremely important role in the global

cleanliness and sustainability drive, with people’s health and the conservation of resources

being the responsibility of every government. To ease the pressure on government agencies,

numerous privately-managed organisations also play a part in these waste management and

recycling programs. In many cities it means that local government agencies have been left
with the responsibility of overseeing the work done by these privately held organisations.

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[1]

Thousands of years ago humans simply dug a hole and buried their refuse and waste. This

was an effective technique for these early people because their population was relatively

small and they did not produce waste on the same scale or with the levels of complexity that

modern humans do. Burying the rubbish helped to prevent bugs and rodents from becoming a
nuisance and spreading diseases.

In the modern world burying all of our rubbish is not a sustainable solution. While primitive

humans produced very little waste, and that which was produced would biodegrade quickly,

modern humans produce much larger amounts of waste, much of which is not biodegradable.

Additionally, many types of waste may be damaging to the soil, ground water and
surrounding habitat.

The most important reason for waste collection is the protection of the environment and the
health of the population.

Rubbish and waste can cause air and water pollution. Rotting garbage is also known to

produce harmful gases that mix with the air and can cause breathing problems in people. By
inspecting the vegetation around landfill sites carefully you can determine the damage that

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can be caused by garbage and waste if left untreated in the open. To address this problem

modern waste management professionals place garbage in lined holes and use bacteria to help

facilitate its rapid decomposition. Rotting garbage and waste emanates a foul smell that can

cause nausea among people who come into contact with it. It can also be a source for

waterborne diseases such as cholera and abdominal conditions and discomfort. Since water

sources need to be protected the role of waste disposal companies is very important. These

organisations should make it a priority to secure their landfill sites so that water bodies are
not affected by the garbage and waste collected from homes and commercial establishments.

Waste collection companies also sort the garbage into recyclable columns, as recycling the

products that leave our homes is of utmost importance. Recycling not only helps in

conserving our natural resources but also reduces the cost of production of many products.

Products such as glass, oil, plastic, paper can all be recycled which will ultimately put less
pressure on the natural resources used to manufacture these products.

[2]

Lastly, waste management and recycling collection can help conserve our planet’s natural
beauty which can be flawed by thoughtless disposal of waste, fly-tipping and senseless

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littering. Landscapes can be ruined through littering and places of tourist interest can lose

their attraction; it is also a blight for those who live in areas where waste collection and

recycling is not managed effectively and responsibly. Natural beauty is a legacy and a right

for future generations and conserving it, as well as our natural resources, for their benefit is
our responsibility today.

There are many challenges facing the waste management and recycling industry but there is

also a lot of excellent work going on to ensure that this is an industry to be proud of and one

that will continue to secure effective, sustainable and ecologically sound waste management
and recycling for many years to come.

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Reasons why proper waste management is important

 Protects the environment. When waste is disposed of properly, you can prevent
hazardous materials from contaminating the environment.

 Recycling helps you make extra money. Sort all your recyclables and make some
money out of it! Waste disposal can be pricey at times and you should do all that you
can to recycle first and then dispose of all waste materials.

 Reduce waste. Recycle! Recycle! Recycle! The beauty about recycling is you can
reduce waste and reuse your materials.

[3]

 Safety. You need to make sure you are properly storing and disposing your trash
because it can be harmful to others. Whether it’s disposing your trash in the right type
of trash liner or container, it can be critical to yours and other people’s safety.

We operate with a fleet of trucks and empty more than 5,000 dumpsters a month. We can
handle any job and we hope you do business with you in the near future.

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METHODOLOGY

The first step in our project was to visit various tourist spots in Calicut like Mananchira
Square Park, Sarovaram Bio Park, Beypore beach, Kozhikode beach and Kappad beach and
to categorise those places based on cleanliness and waste management. The next step was to
analyse the data obtained about different places. As a next step we conducted a survey about
the different tourist places in Calicut and obtained different opinions and suggestions.
Awareness was spread among the common people based on the analysis by distributing
posters about the poor waste management systems.

MANANCHIRA SQUARE PARK

[4]

Mananchira is a man-made freshwater pond situated in the centre of Calicut. The pond is
3.49 acres in area, is rectangular in shape and is fed by a natural spring. Mananchira Square, a
park complex surrounding the lake was opened in 1994. Mananchira Square is named after
the man-made lake Mananchira around which it is situated in the centre of the city. It is
named after Manadevan Samoothiri, the erstwhile ruler of the Kozhikode Kingdom, known
as Mana-vedan Chira (pond) and later transformed to Mana-an-Chira. The historic ground,
adjacent to Mananchira has been converted into an arcadia with trees and plants, an artificial
hill, shrubs, sculpture, an open-air theatre, and a musical fountain. The Mananchira square is
being maintained by the city Corporation. Tourist visits this serene location to spend a
relaxing evening amidst the meticulous landscapes of the park, surrounded by trees and
plants. The working hour of the park is from 3:30pm to 8:00pm.
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The pond is indeed an important source of drinking water for Kozhikode, but is vulnerable to
pollution from municipal sewage, domestic waste, and pollutants from nearby small-scale
factories. An analysis of the water in 2000 by scientists from the Central Water Analysis
Laboratory and Pondicherry Central University found that the pond was particularly
bacteriologically contaminated during the monsoon season, and was highly alkaline
afterwards. Overgrown lawns invaded by wild shrubs, fallen trees across the paved pathways
and feral creepers growing across the steel railings, besides Koi fish ponds turned into
mosquito breeding ponds are what welcome the visitors to the Square now.

Even though the grass on the ground is not maintained on a regular basis, the waste
management system is pretty well setup. More than 20 waste bins are setup in the 3 acres
area. The corporation has assigned cleaning staff for the park. The cleaning is done every
morning when the park is closed. The waste bins are also emptied and given to waste
collecting trucks. The corporation has also done a good job in keeping punctuality in opening
and closing the park. The staffs are very strict in making everyone leave the park just before
8pm.

SAROVARAM BIO PARK

[5]

Sarovaram is an eco-friendly development near Kottooly in Kozhikode city in India. The park
is situated adjacent to Canoly Canal. The project has been developed with an eco-friendly
theme and is located in an ecosystem consisting of wetlands and mangrove forests containing
bird habitats. A fully government-owned project, the Sarovaram Park is meant for the
conservation of wetlands by sustainable methods. This park also aims to boost tourism in the
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Malabar region. This park is a protected place to conserve mangrove species and other flora.
This park is identified as one of the 27 wetlands of India. There are 7 mangrove species and
29 associated species. This park is the habitat for 34 types of birds. The canal is eleven
kilometres long and connects the Korapuzha and Kallayi rivers. The park contains boating
facilities, musical fountain and an open-air theatre. Of late the park has gained a reputation as
a popular hangout of college couples. The construction has been done in traditional Kerala
style. The working hour of the park is from 10:00AM to 7:30PM.

Surroundings of the Sarovaram Bio Park, which currently has an area of over five acres of
land, is the worst-hit in the reckless dumping of trash, both industrial and domestic. Areas
rich with mangroves and plants inside the park are on the verge of ruin in the practice, where
the situation is becoming worse with the monsoon gaining strength. Though cleaning drives
are occasionally conducted in the area to ensure a clean ambience inside the park, the
surroundings are surprisingly left out from such drives. ‘Kalipoika,’ a small pond inside the
park for promoting water tourism, is also facing the threat with delayed measures to ensure
proper protection from such pollution attempts. Recently, the boating service here has been
stopped after it was found that slaughterhouse waste had been dumped inside the pond.

District tourism promotion council (DTPC) here is planning to prohibit the use of plastic
carry bags and bottles inside the Sarovaram bio park.

BEYPORE BEACH

Beypore beach is located 15 km away from Kadavu, at the jaws of Chaliyar River. The
charming beach is just like a treasure of peace and tranquillity with its picturesque
atmosphere, wide stretches of golden sands and fascinating coconut trees; swaying tenderly
in the cool breeze. This beach is pristine and perfect for a quiet escapade.

[6]

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Beypore beach is the one of the prominent beach of Calicut. The beach gave an cooling
environment to the mind and body. Here we can also see the magnificent beauty of Arabian
sea. The beautification work of Beypore beach is done fantastically. But the carrying capacity
of seat is comparatively lesser than the mob. During festival season tourist flock to the area
will increase. People can enjoy swimming in the area, there is coast guards who will guide
and assist in swimming. We can swim according to their direction. Beypore beach is safest
beach in Kerala we can have all adventurous tourism activities except Kayaking in the beach.
Kayaking is only suitable for higher depth beach were sea will be higher than the land.
Beypore is also a perfect place for Ayurveda tourism. Recently a German tourist coordinator
Ms Mary Theresa came to beach and also she submitted a report to the tourism authorities. In
that report , says that Beypore is the perfect place to develop beach tourism .She said that
normally tourist likes to engage with health related activities like:- Solar d activities like:-
Solar Yoga, Fish massage, Flower Bath, Fish bath, Sun bed, Sun bath and Kalari treatment.
Actually these Ocean spa treatments are helpful to promote tourism. This can attract both
domestic and international tourist. Another attraction of Beypore beach is here we can enjoy
the real taste of typical Malabar Cuisine. Food stalls near to the beach offering Malabar
Cuisines - Famous for traditional Muslim food items, mainly sea food items (crab, prawns,
lobster and shell creature called – kallummukkaya.

The Beypore Assembly constituency has launched a comprehensive waste management


project to cover the three panchayats that come under its purview. The project, inaugurated
by Minister for Urban Affairs Manjalamkuzhi Ali on December 28, envisages to effectively
follow a zero-budget waste-management scheme that was successfully implemented by a
city-based residential forum called Niravu Vengeri in different parts of the State.

Beypore beach is clean and the waste in the beach side are seldom thanks to the waste
management projects undertaken by the Beypore assembly constitution.

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KOZHIKODE BEACH

Kozhikode Beach is a beach on the western side of Kozhikode, situated on the Malabar Coast
of India. The beach is accessible through four road overbridges in the city. The beach has
paved stones and illumination. There is one Lions Park for the children and an aquarium.
Kozhikode beach has always been a prominent place for conducting public meetings. The
beach road was renamed 'Gandhi Road' in 1934 after Gandhi visited Calicut in 1934.

It is situated at 1.5 Km away from the city. Calicut beach is a perfect place to spend your
evening. The sea piers almost 125 years old extending well inside the sea are specialty, The
piers are builded during the Europeans time. The Lions Club Children’s Park along with the
nearby ice-cream parlors make evenings pleasant for visiting families. Sun set and sun rice
are worth to see here. People can take a long walk and get refresh, the beach calmness will
surely rejuvenate the body and mind. Fishermen with their small rowing boats entering the
sea, fighting the waves and returning with varieties of fish is worth watching. Many people
from different place come and gathered at this place.

With night surveillance of the coastline on the decline, beaches in the city are fast turning
into a waste dump. Festivals make the situation worse, with waste safely dumped under the
cover of darkness. Plastic and food waste were found dumped on the beach adjacent to the
Gandhi Road junction. The cleaning staff of the city Corporation also seemed to give the
beach a miss. Street vendors along the main beach say waste is mostly brought here from
venues of private parties and social gatherings. Food and other waste from wedding
celebrations too are dumped in the sea. Night vigil on the beach is insufficient to dissuade
anti-social elements. Only two or three security personnel are posted to guard several
kilometres of the coastline.

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KAPPAD BEACH

Kappad or Kappakadavu locally, is a famous beach near Kozhikode, India, where the
Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama landed on 20 May 1498. His voyage established the sea
route from Europe to India. This established a permanent route from Europe to India. This
heralded the arrival and permanent presence of various European merchant companies,
leading to eventual domination and rule by the East India Company and later the period of
British colonial rule.

[7]

Kappad finds mention in history and geography texts as the gateway to the Malabar Coast.
Here, more than 500 years ago on 27th May 1498, 170 men led by the Portuguese navigator
Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) sailed in and stepped into Kerala to create a new chapter in
history; the story of a long and tumultuous socio-political relationship between India and
Europe.

Today only a little stone monument is left at the Kappad beach to speak of its great historic
importance. On the rocks nearby is a temple believed to be 800 years old. To the tourist, this
little seafaring town is a haven. The best route to Kappad is along the backwaters. Unspoilt
and uncrowded, the picturesque backwaters of Kozhikode offer a bewitching experience. A
ride down the backwaters through the Korappuzha River brings you to the beach. In 2007 a

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R.s. 1.5-crore program to beautify the beach was launched by Tourism Minister Kodiyeri
Balakrishnan. It is now completed and Kappad beach has a beautiful corniche and park. The
park includes a restroom, restaurant and seating.

Local authorities make great efforts to keep the beach cleaned every day. It is one of the
cleanest beaches in Kerala.

METHOD OF EXECUTION

As a first step we visited the most common tourist places in Calicut district such as
Mananchira square, Sarovaram Bio Park, Kappad Beach, Kozhikode Beach, Beypore Beach
to understand the waste management systems implemented in these areas and how effectively
they are being carried out.

The current scenarios of the waste management systems were understood and the present
states of these tourist places were noted. Upon inspection we could notice a few things about
the present condition of these places. Mananchira square, Sarovaram Bio Park and Kappad
beach were found to be extremely clean compared to the other places especially Kozhikode
beach which was seen to be in a dilapidated state. More than 20 waste bins are setup in the 3
acres area. The corporation has assigned cleaning staff for these places. The cleaning is done
every morning when the place is closed. The waste bins are also emptied and given to waste
collecting trucks. The corporation has also done a good job in keeping punctuality in the
maintenance of these places.

Certain posters and pamphlets were prepared and print outs were taken to distribute it to the
tourists and local folk present in these places in order to make them understand the current
need of an effective waste management system and the various steps to be adopted to do the
same. The poster distribution method was met with a genial response from the people who
appreciated us for the cause we were working on.

As a final step we conducted a survey in Google forms to understand the current situation of
these tourist places as we may have missed out any owing to our time constraint. The data
consisted of different tourist places and the polluted areas and the suggestions offered by
them, which can be taken up by the authorities to reduce waste.

The data was compiled and based on that some points were evident about the waste
management in tourist spots.

Some of the posters and pamphlets we distributed are attached below.

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SCOPE OF FUTURE OF WORK

The idea of zero waste communities operating closed-loop systems that emulate a circular
economy is currently a popular movement across the globe. Though without fundamental
changes in the way waste is handled, these phrases are destined to remain buzzwords rather
than become reality.

While the business of collecting, processing and disposing of material has gotten far more
efficient in recent decades, many essential concepts have remained: burying waste in landfills
is still an inexpensive option, many people are resistant to living near waste-related facilities
and large amounts of debris still enter the ocean. Changing these dynamics in a significant
way will not be easy, but in recent years multiple architects and designers have taken on the
challenge.

Bans on Plastic

It’s not a secret that most plastics take hundreds, if not thousands of years to photodegrade
(which is still bad for the environment anyway), or that they’re wildly hazardous to local
ecosystems and wildlife. That’s why many cities are starting to address the plastic waste
generated within their borders. Styrofoam in particular has been discussed widely throughout
the years, and cities and towns across the country have increasingly been resorting to bans on
food packaging made out of polystyrene foam. While it’s cost-effective and durable enough
for packaging, its light weight makes it prone to being easily spread by the wind, and it can
seep compounds like styrene into the earth and groundwater. Between prohibitions on
Styrofoam, plastic shopping bag bans, and even bans on plastic bottles, hopefully the push to
phase-out unsustainable and pervasive plastics like these will continue.

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[10]

From Paper to Digital

In 2012, President Obama signed legislation requiring the EPA to move to a completely
digital system of records by 2015. This would allow retailers and commercial businesses to
report their hazardous waste data directly to the EPA via an “e-manifest,” making industrial
and commercial waste tracking a much more streamlined, efficient process. The need for
digital record keeping has never been needed more across industries and government
institutions, especially in a time where even the Department of Veterans Affairs has seen
such a backlog of physical paperwork that disability claims can be delayed for years.
Considering the efficiency benefits and that digital record systems generate considerably less
waste, it's likely that more businesses and institutions will be pressured into jumping on the
digital train as well.

“Biodegradable” Plastics

The market for biodegradable plastic resins has been increasing steadily for years and is
currently expected to increase by 19% a year into 2017. Plant-derived resins like polylactic
acid – a #7 plastic labelled “PLA”– continue to be at the forefront of a campaign to introduce
bio-based resins into a variety of markets and industries. While some possible applications
include car parts, clothing, and even electrical components, there is still the issue of labeling
certain plastics “biodegradable.” Without proper municipal recycling and composting

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systems in place to break down the plant-based material, these plastics won’t degrade. When
polylactic acid packaging in particular is mixed with other types of plastics during
processing, it can even contaminate the entire batch of recycled plastic, rendering it all
useless. This risky push for resins from feedstock can only be properly managed if we start
adopting widespread systems capable of truly composting the material. Otherwise, we risk
simply mitigating consumer guilt without actually providing any real solutions. Skepticism
abounds as the market for these plastics continues to grow…

Mandatory Composting

Only 5% of the 26 million tons of food waste in 2012 avoided a landfill. This means there are
still millions of tons of food sitting at the bottom of a landfill that could have otherwise been
turned into a healthy compost material for personal or municipal use. That’s why more
municipalities across the country are starting to institute programs for organic material
composting, and some are even making it mandatory. It’s not just the urban eco-titan San
Francisco playing with this type of legislation: Rhode Island has started the discussion, and
even New York City did when Michael Bloomberg was the active mayor. We can only hope
this increased interest in composting continues to grow.

Sustainable Innovation

A Swedish student at the Umeá Institute of Design developed back in 2013 a conceptual
design for the ERO – a robot that can actually recycle buildings made out of concrete and
rebar. The amazing concept even won the designer, Omer Haciomeroglu, a 2013
International Design Excellence Award from the Industrial Designers Society of America.
While only a conceptual project at this point – and an incredibly ambitious one at that – the
fact that an entire concrete building can be theoretically recycled is a groundbreaking
achievement of design. The possibilities of sustainability are constantly being redefined by
innovations like this, and we can expect to see similar revelations continually evolving at a
faster rate.

3-D Printing

3-D printing has opened up doors to manufacturing that were never before thought to be
opened: from commercial use and mass-production, even down to more private, personal use
at home. 3-D printing technology might even be able to build a house in a day. Of course, this
technology risks increasing our dependence on plastic even further. Thankfully, some are
finding grinded-up plastics from around your home – even used Legos and other plastic waste
– can be a viable option for printing. Just imagine if a whole new market was opened up for
plastic waste to be used in 3-D printing? Certain recycled plastics are often cheaper per
pound than virgin plastics anyway. 3-D printing has innumerable positive applications, but
we should ensure that the materials used are as sustainably-sourced as possible.

Energy from Organic Waste

California is often a place were budding eco-technology is piloted, and anaerobic digestion
technology is no exception. Sacramento County’s “Sacramento BioDigester” can take food

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and other biodegradable waste and turn it into sustainable bioenergy. This benchmark in
anaerobic digestion may be an indication of things to come, especially when the Sacramento
digester is so efficient it can process about 100 tons of organic material a day. Imagine if
there were one of these in every major city across the U.S.

Recycling… Cigarettes?

Whether or not you believe cigarette smoking is a gross habit, the fact remains that 38% of
litter on the road is cigarette and tobacco product waste. It’s a ubiquitous and nasty issue that,
until now, we’ve had to just deal with. Now, through TerraCycle's Cigarette Waste Brigade
recycling program, an person, organization or business over the age of 21 can actually collect
and send cigarette waste directly to TerraCycle. The tobacco and paper gets composted and
the cellulose acetate filters are recycled into industrial plastic products like shipping pallets.
A similar city-wide program was even launched by the city of Vancouver last November with
the help of TerraCycle. As more people begin to realize that there actually is a solution to this
enormous waste stream, we hope to see more people and municipalities following suit.

Increased Corporate Responsibility

It’s easy to make hollow promises lauding “corporate social responsibility,” but more and
more companies and businesses are seeing that actions do indeed speak louder than words.
The age of the conscious consumer and conscious public is upon us, and firms will naturally
be increasing their self-generated waste recycling efforts, as well as being more vocal about
sustainability in general. Greenwashing is getting increasingly difficult to manage, as people
are more vigilant and ready to pounce on illegitimate sustainability efforts. Besides, there are
upsides to businesses becoming more sustainable, like increased supply line efficiency and
reductions in industrial waste. We can expect to see more of this as well-informed consumers
continue to demand that the companies they buy their products from be more socially
responsible and environmentally-conscious.

Growing Issues With E-Waste

48.9 million tons of E-Waste were generated in 2012, according to the Solving the E-Waste
Problem (STEP) Initiative. The U.S. generated more than 258 million units of E-Waste in
2010 alone, and that was four years ago. Much of this extremely toxic waste stream gets sent
to third-world countries where it sits unrecycled in giant, electronic mass-graves. Both the
United Nations’ Global Partnership on Waste Management and the EPA have continually
tracked international E-Waste generation, but the E-Waste problem is as pervasive as ever.
As the struggle to manage this dangerous waste stream continues and becomes increasingly
difficult to ignore, we can expect to see a larger international discussion developing.

Also various mechanical machinery such as the waste press indicated below use the
knowledge of mechanical engineering to properly dispose of waste in various places and they
can be remotely installed.

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ENGINEERING METHODS OF WASTE DISPOSAL

METAL WASTE PRESS

[8]

A metallic waste press can be fabricated from mild steel and aluminium by simple joining
processes such as welding, riveting etc to crush out the metallic waste generated in homes
and since it requires very minimal amount of energy input it is a highly efficient machine.

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KITCHEN WASTE SHREDDER

The waste from kitchen can be easily decomposed by a kitchen waste shredder which can be
run by a motor and can thereby produce compost which in turn is used for the production of
biogas.

[8]

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Conclusions

Our survey on waste management at tourist places of Calicut had a mixed response. As many
were unsure about the hygiene of these places, rest of them had a clear cut idea about these
localities. Their suggestions were quite useful and informative in helping us set up a report on
the cleanliness of these localities. These are some of the responses and conclusions from our
survey :

This pie chart dealt with the basic question of how clean our tourist places are .Their
responses were well enough to show that our major tourist spots are not well maintained and
looked after. A majority of 49.4 percent of the people reported these places to be unclean.
Surprisingly, 26 percent of the people found them to be clean which is quite contrary to the
situation in which we find them. The blue chart is a clear indication of how much unaware we
are about our localities and environment. It is both necessary and essential to keep everything
around us clean. This should not be restricted only to tourist spots. However, it is much more
important to keep tourist attractions clean because they're a source of revenue generation for
the country. The problem of unclean tourist places plagues the whole of India.

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There are a lot of beautiful places to see in Calicut but they're generally maintained shabbily.
People who blame only the Municipality of not maintaining these spots are misinformed
about the whole idea of cleanliness. The onus is on every citizen to maintain cleanliness
wherever he/she goes.

The next question that we asked in the survey was an interesting one. It demanded the survey
takers to ponder a little and give in suggestions.

Interestingly, this question was a consequence of the previous one. Waste disposal systems,
like any other public space, are important in a tourist spot. Lack of dustbins in the Calicut
beach is a huge demerit in an otherwise beautiful city. The beach is an important part of the
city’s tourism and lack of dustbins make the beach a dirty one. The report gave us a fair idea
that in most of the tourist places, the waste disposal systems are not properly implemented. A
whopping 60 percent of the survey takers too believe in this. It is quite clear from the pie
chart that a serious action need to be taken by the municipality and the corporation together
so that these beaches remain clean. An interesting trend that can be noted at most of the

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tourist hubs is that although the premises are clean, as you move further away towards the
parking lots and the shops outside the gates, it gets filthier.

A SWEEPER GAVE US AN ANSWER LIKE THIS:

“WHEN YOU SEE SOMETHING SO BEAUTIFUL, HOW CAN YOU LITTER IT? IT IS SAD TO SEE
CHILDREN COMING FOR PICNICS AND LITTERING THE PLACE. THEIR TEACHERS SAY NOTHING,
WHICH IS SAD AS YOU HAVE TO TEACH YOUNGSTERS TO INCULCATE THE RIGHT HABITS.
TEACHERS SOMETIMES TIP US TO CLEAN THE MESS BUT THAT DOES NOT SERVE THE PURPOSE.”

This alone is enough to say that contribution should be from each and every individual and
not by a single person.

The next question that we asked also raised some eyebrows. The answers were quite helpful.
The question was as follows:

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This survey report suggest that about 69 percent about the people inform the concerned
authorities about the poor state. Similarly, small inputs from every individual could
contribute a lot in cleaning the city. Meanwhile, 17.5 percent of the individuals never even
mind about the hygiene of the place. They visit and leave the spot littering it more and
causing a nuisance to the spot. Tourism is an agent of development and an engine for
economic growth and employment generation. Inconsistent sanitation standards would,
similarly, have a negative impact. This would be unfortunate especially at a time when our
tourism industry is projecting the unique beauty of our cultural sites.

The next question that we asked formed the crux of the discussion. Many people brought in a
a lot of ideas and suggestions for the betterment of the Calicut city. We were quite
overwhelmed by the number of suggestions that we received. Many of them are good enough
to be implemented.

Suggestions to improve

The city of Calicut has always been a dream destination for all the nature loving and the
foodies of Kerala. Hence, it is important that a city of such historical and cultural
magnificence be preserved to its best. Our survey gave us a lot of ideas and ways to improve
the hygiene and waste management of the tourist spots of the city.

Some of the better ways of improving the facilities discussed from the survey are as follows:

 The first and the most common suggestion is to place dustbins in all the important
locations of the city including these places of interest like beaches, Mananchira square
etc.

This will help in cleaning these destinations to a greater extent.

 Reduce use of plastics is a common method being repeated every time.


This is to be implemented individually with the help of the municipality and
implementation of this will be a serious merit in the disposal of wastes in tourist spots.

 A highly organised waste disposal method is to be introduced.

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Scrap recycling and processing is yet another element of waste management. After
segregating the garbage, after organic and inert waste has been removed, what
remains is recyclable material, mostly PET bottles, cold drink cans, metal scrap, paper
cartons and certain types of plastic products. These could be sold to companies who
recycle such products.

 Another method of solid organic waste management currently gaining popularity is


composting. Organic waste such as food materials can be used for preparing compost.

[9]

 Spreading awareness by distributing pamphlets and posters was a useful way in


supporting the cause. As the citizens read through these posters, some awareness is
spread which results in an individual wise monitoring of these places. A fine can be
imposed for littering the beach premises. All these methods collectively can result in a
better Calicut city.

 Outsourcing the work with an outward agency by paying them a small amount is also
an acceptable and formidable way of cleaning the spots.
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 Throwing daily waste/garbage in the landfills is the most popularly used method of
waste disposal used today. This process of waste disposal focuses attention on
burying the waste in the land. There is a process used that eliminates the odours and
dangers of waste before it is placed into the ground. While it is true this is the most
popular form of waste disposal, it is certainly far from the only procedure and one that
may also bring with it an assortment of space.

 Composting is a easy and natural bio-degradation process that takes organic wastes
i.e. remains of plants and garden and kitchen waste and turns into nutrient rich food
for your plants. Composting, normally used for organic farming, occurs by allowing
organic materials to sit in one place for months until microbes decompose it.
Composting is one of the best method of waste disposal as it can turn unsafe organic
products into safe compost. On the other side, it is slow process and takes lot of space.

[10]

Overall, the report and the project gave us the opportunity to dig deep into the functioning of
the tourist spots of Calicut. It also gave us a clear cut idea of as to how much the individuals
care about their tourism spots and how willing they are to work for the cause. The survey
gave us a number of suggestions and methods which were quite impeccable and practical
enough to be implemented. The awareness drive conducted would certainly bring about
change in the way individuals perceive their city.

Let the tourists flow in.

Keep the city clean.

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Bibliography
 www.wm.com

 www.inderscience.com

 www.thehindu.com

 www.universalecoservices.com

 www.images.google.com

[1]-Image courtesy of https://www.abc-training.co.uk/Driver-CPC-First-Aid-JAUPT-p-


72.html
[2]-Image courtesy of https://www.news.mn/r/185758
[3]-Image courtesy of http://www.tigersanitationutah.com/wp-
content/uploads/2014/12/trash_cans-550x214px.jpg
[4]-Image courtesy of http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/kozhikode/in-communion-with-
nature/article4917143.ece
[5]- Image courtesy of http://www.kozhikodeonline.in/city-guide/sarovaram-biopark-in-
kozhikode
[6]- Image courtesy of http://www.touristplacesnear.com/india/kerala/kozhikkode/beypore-
beach
[7]- Image courtesy of https://www.tourmyindia.com/beaches/kappad-beach.html
[8]- Image courtesy of www.grabcad.com
[9]- Image courtesy of https://www.epa.gov/recycle
[10]- Image courtesy of www.thehindu.com/articles/waste17

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