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Experiment Instructions

WL 373 Heat Conduction in Gases


and Liquids
02/2012

WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS


All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 02/2012

WL 373
123.4 °C
123.4 °C Wärmeleitung von Gasen
und Flüssigkeiten
Thermal Conductivity of
Gases and Fluids

Temperatur 1/ Temperature 1 °C Temperatur 2/ Temperature 2 °C


Ein / On

Aus / Off
123
Heizer / Heater Leistung / Power
Leistung / Power Watt

Experiment Instructions

This manual must be kept by the unit.

Before operating the unit:


- Read this manual.
- All participants must be instructed on
handling of the unit and, where appropriate,
on the necessary safety precautions.

Version 0.3 Subject to technical alterations

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02/2012

WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

Table of Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Intended Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1 Structure of the Safety Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Safety Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Unit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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3.1 Unit Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


3.2 Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3 Operating the Measurement and Control Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4 Connecting the Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

4 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1 Calibrating the Heat Exchanger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1.1 Preparing for the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.2 Performing the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.3 Evaluating the Experiment: Calibration Curve . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2 Determination of Coefficients of Thermal Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.1 Preparing for the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.2 Performing the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.3 Evaluating the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.1 Working Sheet: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.2 Symbols and Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.3 Table with Coefficients of Thermal Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6.4 Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


6.5 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
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iii
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

1 Introduction

Using the WL 373 Heat Conduction of Gases


and Liquids unit, basic aspects of steady state
thermal conduction in liquid and gaseous materi-
als can be investigated.
The unit is particularly suited to the determination
of the coefficients of thermal conduction of liquid
and gaseous materials.
The unit comprises a double walled cylinder with
an integrated heater acting as the heat source,
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and the surrounding cylinder acting as the heat


sink. The medium to be investigated is placed in
between in a measurement slot.
The temperatures of the heat source and sink are
measured using thermocouples and transmitted
to a measurement and control unit where the elec-
trical power consumption of the heater is also dis-
played.
The unit is very easy to set up and operate, it is
thus also suitable for student use.
Working sheets included in the appendix to these
instructions ease the evaluation of experiments.
The following topics are covered by the unit:
• Steady-state thermal conduction in gases and
liquids
• Determination of coefficients of thermal con-
duction 

1.1 Intended Use

The unit is to be used only for teaching purposes.

1 Introduction 1
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

2 Safety

2.1 Structure of the Safety Instructions

The signal words DANGER, WARNING or CAU-


TION indicate the probability and potential sever-
ity of injury.
An additional symbol indicates the nature of the
hazard or a required action.
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Signal word Explanation

DANGER Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, will result in death


or serious injury.

WARNING Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in death


or serious injury.

CAUTION Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor


or moderately serious injury.

NOTICE Indicates a situation which may result in damage to equip-


ment, or provides instructions on operation of the equipment.

Symbol Explanation

Electrical Voltage

Hot Surfaces

Notice

2 Safety 2
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

2.2 Safety Instructions

WARNING
Reaching into the open measurement and
control unit can result in electric shocks.
• Disconnect from the mains supply before open-
ing.
• Work should only be performed by qualified
electricians.
• Protect the measurement and control unit
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against moisture.

WARNING
Risk of burns.
The knurled bolt and the heat exchanger are very
hot.
• Leave the unit cool down.

2 Safety 3
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

3 Unit Description

3.1 Unit Construction


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1 2 3 4

WL 373
123.4 °C
123.4 °C W ärmeleitung von Gasen
und Flüssigkeiten
Thermal Conductivity of
Gases and Fluids

Temperatur 1/ Temperature 1 °C Temperatur 2/ Temperature 2 °C


Ein / On

Aus / Off
123
Heizer / Heater Leistung / Power
Leistung / Power Watt

1 Heat exchanger (1) with internal heater and cooling facility

2 Base

3 Shut-off valves for the cooling flow and the medium to be


investigated

4 Measurement and control unit with temperature and heater


power displays

Mains cable (not shown)

Fig. 3.1 Unit Construction

3 Unit Description 4
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

3.2 Function

The heat exchanger contains an electrical heater


that acts as the heat source (1), and an annular
cooling slot through which cooling water flows,
this acts as the heat sink (2). This construction
results in the flow of heat from the inside to the
outside.

Cooling water
2 4 1 3 connection
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Cooling water
connection

Fig. 3.2 Section through the heat exchanger

Between the heat source and the heat sink is an


annular measurement slot (3) of constant width,
the medium to be investigated is contained here.
The medium is inserted in the slot via a connector
(see arrow).
The temperature of the heat source is measured
using a thermocouple (4), the temperature of the
cooling water is measured (viewed in the direction
of the flow of heat) immediately behind the mea-
surement slot, also using a thermocouple, and fed
to the measurement and control unit.

3 Unit Description 5
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

To make it easier to clean the slot, the inner cylin-


7 6 5 der can be removed together with the heater. To
do this undo the knurled bolt (5), remove the lid
(6) and the sealing ring, and take out the cylinder
(7). Refit in the reverse order of removal.

NOTICE
Ensure that the sealing ring is correctly seated!
Fig. 3.3 Dismantling the
Heat exchanger
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3.3 Operating the Measurement and Control Unit

The displays for the temperature of the heat


1 2
source (1) and the heat sink (2), and the heater
power (power consumption) display (3) are fitted
WL 373
123.4 °C
123.4 °C Wärmeleitung von Gasen
und Flüssigkeiten
Thermal Conductivity of
Gases and Fluids
to the front of the measurement and control unit.
Temperatur 1/ Temperature 1 °C Temperatur 2/ Temperature 2 °C The heater power can be regulated up to
Ein / On

Aus / Off
123 max. 140...150W using the potentiator (4).
Heizer / Heater Leistung / Power
Leistung / Power Watt
The heater can be switched on and off using the
power switch (5).
5 4 3

Fig. 3.4 Front of the measurement and NOTICE


control unit In order to avoid the heater burning out, it
switches off automatically above a temperature of
95°C.

The two thermocouples fitted to the heat


exchanger and the cable for the heater are con-
nected to the rear of the measurement and control
unit. The main switch is also to be found here.

3 Unit Description 6
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

3.4 Connecting the Heat Exchanger

• Connect the heat exchanger to the shut off


E valves in accordance with Fig. 3.5
F
The hoses are fitted with rapid action hose cou-
A B C D G plings, to release simply pull back the sleeve.
• Make the electrical connections in accordance
with Fig. 3.5
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NOTICE
Do not reverse the cables for the thermocouples!

A/B Unions for the medium to be investi-


gated
Hose size: 6mm
C Cooling water inlet union
Hose size: 13mm
D Cooling water outlet union
Hose size: 6mm
E To the „thermocouple/ heater”
connector
F To the „test unit” input
G To the „thermocouple/ cooler”
connector

Fig. 3.5 Connection of the heat


exchanger on the base and
measurement and control unit

3 Unit Description 7
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

4 Principles

The medium to be investigated fills the cylindrical


slot completely. The slot is narrow enough to per-
vent the occurrence of convection, the transfer of
heat in the slot is therefore more or less com-
pletely due to thermal conduction.
Due to the constant width of the slot, thermal con-
duction occurs as in a plane wall. Here the
Fourier law is applicable for the amount of heat
transferred Q:
 T = T1 – T2
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Q =  A
T1 ----------- (4.1)
· 
Q
T2 ·
This yields the relationship for the heat flow Q :
·
Q

Q = 
·  A   T-
----------------------- (4.2)

with

·
Q Head flow through the wall under
investigation
Fig. 4.1 Thermal conduction in a plane A Wall surface area
wall
 T Temperature gradient in the wall
 Wall thickness
 Coefficient of the thermal conduction
 is temperature dependant; in general the mean
temperature in the wall is used.
 (in W/Km) can be thought of as the energy that
is conducted every second through a 1m thick
wall over an area of 1m2 when there is a temper-
ature difference of 1K between the opposite sides
of the wall.

4 Principles 8
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

5 Experiments

The selection of experiments makes no claims of


completeness but is intended to be used as a
stimulus for your own experiments.
The results shown are intended as a guide only.
Depending on the construction of the individual
components, experimental skills and environmen-
tal conditions, deviations may occur in the experi-
ments. Nevertheless, the laws can be clearly
demonstrated.
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5.1 Calibrating the Heat Exchanger

In order to determine the heat losses in the unit,


calibration is necessary.
Air is used as the medium to be investigated
during the calibration process; air is used
because its coefficients of thermal conduction are
well documented (values are given in the Appen-
dix).

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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

5.1.1 Preparing for the Experiment

• Clean the measurement slot to remove any


water or remnants of other media from the slot
· (refer to Fig. 3.3, Page 6).
V
• Connect the heat exchanger to the measure-
ment and control unit in accordance with
Fig. 3.1, Page 4 and Fig. 3.5, Page 7 and
switch on the unit.
• Open the shut off valves (1) and (2) for the
1
measurement slot
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2 • Make the cooling water connections and set


the flow rate for example to 1ltr/min at shut off
3
valve (3)
·
• The flow rate V for cooling water to be deter-
mined by the help of a stop watch and a meas-
uring tank in accordance to the following
equation (5.1)

·
V = V
---- (5.1)
Fig. 5.1 Shut off valves t
V Capacity water [ltr]
t Time [s]

5.1.2 Performing the Experiment

• Set the heat power P = 100W


• Wait until the temperature values are constant
• Read and record the temperatures for heater
T1 und cooling water T2, as well as the actual
heater power P
• Repeat the experiment with heater powers of
P = 80W, 60W, 40W, 20W, 10W

5 Experiments 10
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

5.1.3 Evaluating the Experiment: Calibration Curve

If the slot is viewed as a wall, then the Fourier for-


mula can be applied.
With an average slot diameter of dm = 39,6 mm
and an effective slot length of l = 126 mm, the
heat exchanger surface area A is

2
A =   0,0396m  0,126m = 0,0157m (5.2)

The slot width is  = 0,4mm.


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With the aid of equation Formula (4.1), Page 8 the


heat loss can be determined and the calibration
curve drawn (refer to Fig. 5.2, Page 13):
The coefficient of thermal conduction of air is tem-
perature dependant and is found to be


Calibration values are marked with .


 = 0,0242   1 + 0,003  T  (5.3)

where
T - Mean air temperature in °C

T1 + T2
T = ------------------
- (5.4)
2

T1 Temperature heater
T2 Temperature cooling water

5 Experiments 11
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

For the actual heat flow transferred the equation


is:


QA =   A   T-
·
------------------------ (5.5)

where
Temperature difference
 T = T1 – T2 (5.6)
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The heat flow loss can be calculated:

· ·
QB = P–QA (5.7)

 ·
P T1 T2 T  Air Q B
in W in °C in °C in °C in W/Km in W

100 90,9 24,4 66,5 0,0284 74,09

90 84,4 23,9 60,5 0,0281 66,8

80 76,1 23,2 52,9 0,0278 57,73

70 69,7 22,8 46,9 0,0276 50,73

60 55,7 21,8 33,9 0,0270 35,94

50 47,5 21,1 26,4 0,0267 27,66

40 40,4 20,4 20,0 0,0264 20,73

30 33,8 19,8 14,0 0,0261 14,37

20 28,2 19,7 8,5 0,0259 8,65

10 22,6 19,3 3,3 0,0257 3,33

0 19,5 19,1 0,4 0,0256 0,40

Tab. 5.1 Calibrating the heat exchanger

5 Experiments 12
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

·
Q B in W
70

60

50

40
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30

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

 T in °C

Fig. 5.2 Calibration curve

The values measured in this experiment are to be


used only for this special unit.

Every unit has its own calibration values.

5 Experiments 13
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

5.2 Determination of Coefficients of Thermal Conduction

The experimental sequence is the same as for the


experiment to record the calibration curve, how-
ever water or oil is now used as the medium to be
investigated.

5.2.1 Preparing for the Experiment

• It is very important that the measurement slot is


perfectly clean since even small quantities of
· impurities can seriously affect the results. The
V
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measurement slot must therefore be well


A B
cleansed (refer to Fig. 3.3, Page 6)
• Connect the heat exchanger to the measure-
ment and control unit in accordance with
Fig. 3.1, Page 4 and Fig. 3.5, Page 7 and
1 switch on the unit
2 • Make the cooling water connections and set
the flow rate for example to 1ltr/min at shut off
3 valve (3) (refer to Formula (5.1), Page 10)
• Open the shut off valves (1) and (2) for the
measurement slot
• Inject the medium to be investigated for exam-
ple with a syringe into socket A until the
medium runs out of socket B and until no air
bubbles to be seen inside transparent connec-
Fig. 5.3 Shut off valves und sockets tion hoses
• Close the shut off valves (1) and (2)
• Lift up the heat exchanger and rotate it to
remove possible air bubbles out of heat
exchanger into transparent connection hoses,
if necessary bleed the system again by open-
ing the shut off valves (1, 2) and refill the sys-
tem with the medium to be investigated

5 Experiments 14
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

5.2.2 Performing the Experiment

• Set the heat power P for example 90W and


50W for water, 100W and 70W for oil
• Wait until the temperature values are constant
• Read and record the temperatures T1 und T2,
as well as the actual heater power P
• Repeat the experiment with different heater
powers

5.2.3 Evaluating the Experiment


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The Fourier formula is rearranged for the coeffi-


cient of thermal conduction:
·
QA  
 = ---------------
- (5.8)
A  T
·
The actual heat flow transferred Q A is given by
·
Q B from the calibration curve (refer to
Formula Fig. 5.2, Page 13):

· ·
QA = P – QB (5.9)

Two example experiments were performed using


water and oil:

· ·
P T1 T2 T QB QA  Water  Literature Var.
in W in °C in °C in °C in W in W in W/Km in W/Km in %

90 28,5 23,5 5,0 4,51 85,49 0,436 0,598 27

50 24,3 21,5 2,8 2,06 47,94 0,433 0,598 27

Tab. 5.2 Example measurement results when using water as the measured medium

5 Experiments 15
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

· ·
P T1 T2 T QB QA  Air  Literature Var.
in W in °C in °C in °C in W in W in W/Km in W/Km in %

100 45,8 24,5 21,3 22,78 77,22 0,092 0,13 29

70 38,4 24,0 14,4 15,04 54,96 0,097 0,13 25

Tab. 5.3 Example measurement results when using oil as the measured medium

The cause of the variations is predominantly small


remnants of air and other measured media in the
measurement slot.
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5 Experiments 16
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6 Appendix

6.1 Working Sheet:

Calibration Curve/ Coefficient of Thermal Conduction

Experiment Medium: Flow rate cooling water in ltr/min:


No.:
Remarks:
Date:

· ·
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P T1 T2 T QB QA  Medium  Literature
in W in °C in °C in °C in W in W in W/Km in W/Km

Experiment Medium: Flow rate cooling water in ltr/min:


No.:
Remarks:
Date:

· ·
P T1 T2 T QB QA  Medium  Literature
in W in °C in °C in °C in W in W in W/Km in W/Km

6 Appendix 17
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

·
Q B in W
70

60

50

40
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30

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
 T in °C

Fig. 6.1 Calibration curve

6 Appendix 18
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6.2 Symbols and Units

A Heat transfer surface area m2


dm Mean effective diameter
of the heat exchanger mm
P Heater power consumption W
Q Heat transferred W
·
Q Heat transfer flow rate W/s
·
QB Heat flow loss W/s
·
QA Actual heat flow transferred W/s
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T Mean air temperature °C


T2 Temperature cooling water °C
T1 Temperature Heater °C
T Temperature difference between
heat source and heat sink °C
·
V Flow rate ltr/min
 Slot width mm
 Coefficient of thermal
conduction W/Km

6 Appendix 19
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6.3 Table with Coefficients of Thermal Conduction

Substance Temperature in °C  in ---------


W
-
Km
Water 0 0,555
Water 20 0,598
Water 60 0,651
Water 100 0,681
Oil 40 0,123
Oil 80 0,120
Tab. 6.1 Coefficients of Thermal Conduction for Some Liquids
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Substance Temperature in °C  in ---------


W-
Km
Air T 0,0242(1+0,003T)
Carbon dioxide CO2 0 0,0178
Oxygen O2 20 0,026
Steam 100 0,0242
Steam 200 0,0328
Steam 400 0,0551
Tab. 6.2 Coefficients of Thermal Conduction for Some Gases

6 Appendix 20
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6.4 Technical Data

Dimensions:
Base plate:
(L x W x H) 250 x 400 x 150 mm

Measurement amplifier:
(W x H x D) 350 x 130 x 250 mm

Power Supply: 230VAC 50 Hz


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Alternatives optional, see type plate

Weight: approx. 8 kg

Heat exchanger:
Effec. transfer area 0,0157 m2
Mean Effec. Diameter 39,6 mm
Slot width 0,4 mm

Heater
Max. Power Consumption 160 W

Thermocouples 2 x Type K

Measurement and control unit


Shut down of the heater supply T=95 °C

6 Appendix 21
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WL 373 HEAT CONDUCTION IN GASES AND LIQUIDS

6.5 Index

C
Calibration curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Coefficient of thermal conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, 9, 20
Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

F
Fourier law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

H
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Heat sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Heat source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Heater power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

I
Impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

M
Measurement and control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

P
Plane wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Power consumption, heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

R
Rapid action hose coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

S
Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

T
Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Thermal conduction in a plane wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Thermocouple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

22