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1st Long Exam

I. Introduction to Concept of Stress

o Stress
 distribution of force acting over the sectioned area which holds each
segment of the body in equilibrium
 intensity of the internal force at a point in the body
o Normal stress
 Assumptions
 a prismatic bar is made from homogeneous and isotropic material
 subjected to an axial force acting through the centroid of the cross-
sectional area (then the center region of the bar will deform
o Shear Stress
 If two parts are thin or small when joined together, the applied loads may
cause shearing of the material with negligible bending. If this is the case, it
is generally assumed that an average shear stress acts over the cross-
sectional area.
 When shear stress acts on a plane, then equilibrium of a volume element
of material at a point on the plane requires associated shear stress of the
same magnitude act on three adjacent sides of the element.
o Strain Concepts
 Loads will cause all material bodies to deform and, as a result, points in a
body will undergo displacements or changes in position.
 Normal Strain
o measure per unit length of the elongation or contraction of
a small line segment in the body
 Shear Strain
o measure of the change in angle that occurs between two
small line segments that are originally perpendicular to one
 The state of strain at a point is characterized by six strain components:
three normal strains and three shear strains. These components depend
upon the original orientation of the line segments and their location in the
o Material Properties
 A ductile material, such as mild steel, has four distinct behaviors as it is
loaded. They are elastic behavior, yielding, strain hardening, and necking.
 A material is linear elastic if the stress is proportional to the strain within
the elastic region. This behavior is described by Hooke’s law, where the
modulus of elasticity E is the slope of the line.
 Important points on the stress–strain diagram are the proportional limit,
elastic limit, yield stress, ultimate stress, and fracture stress.
 The ductility of a material can be specified by the specimen’s percent
elongation or the percent reduction in area.
 If a material does not have a distinct yield point, a yield strength can be
specified using a graphical procedure such as the offset method.
 Brittle materials, such as gray cast iron, have very little or no yielding and
so they can fracture suddenly.
 Strain hardening is used to establish a higher yield point for a material. This
is done by straining the material beyond the elastic limit, then releasing
the load. The modulus of elasticity remains the same; however, the
material’s ductility decreases.
 Strain energy is energy stored in a material due to its deformation. This
energy per unit volume is called strain-energy density. If it is measured up
to the proportional limit, it is referred to as the modulus of resilience, and
if it is measured up to the point of fracture, it is called the modulus of
toughness. It can be determined from the area under the s-P diagram.
o Poisson’s Ratio
 Poisson’s ratio, is a ratio of the lateral strain of a homogeneous and
isotropic material to its longitudinal strain. Generally these strains are of
opposite signs, that is, if one is an elongation, the other will be a
 The shear stress–strain diagram is a plot of the shear stress versus the
shear strain. If the material is homogeneous and isotropic, and is also linear
elastic, the slope of the straight line within the elastic region is called the
modulus of rigidity or the shear modulus, G.
III. I. Torsion
IV. - A moment that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis
V. - Note that twisting causes the circles to remain circles, and each longitudinal grid
line deforms into a helix that intersects the circles at equal angles.
VI. - Also, the cross sections from the ends along the shaft will remain flat—that is,
they do not warp or bulge in or out—and radial lines remain straight during the
VII. - If the angle of twist is small, the length of the shaft and its radius will remain
VIII. - Not only does the internal torque T develop a linear distribution of shear
stress along each radial line in the plane of the cross-sectional area, but also an
associated shear-stress distribution is developed along an axial plane
IX. Important Points:
X. • When a shaft having a circular cross section is subjected to a torque, the cross
section remains plane while radial lines rotate. This causes a shear strain within
the material that varies linearly along any radial line, from zero at the axis of the
shaft to a maximum at its outer boundary.
XI. • For linear elastic homogeneous material the shear stress along any radial line of
the shaft also varies linearly, from zero at its axis to a maximum at its outer
boundary. This maximum shear stress must not exceed the proportional limit.
XII. • Due to the complementary property of shear, the linear shear stress
distribution within the plane of the cross section is also distributed along an
adjacent axial plane of the shaft.
XIII. • The torsion formula is based on the requirement that the resultant
torque on the cross section is equal to the torque produced by the shear stress
distribution about the longitudinal axis of the shaft. It is required that the shaft or
tube have a circular cross section and that it is made of homogeneous material
which has linear-elastic behavior.
XIV. II. Power Transmission
XV. - subjected to a torque that depends on the power generated by the machine
and the angular speed of the shaft
XVI. - the work transmitted by a rotating shaft equals the torque applied times
the angle of rotation
XVII. III. Angle of Twist
XVIII. - The shaft is assumed to have a circular cross section that can gradually
vary along its length
XIX. - The material is assumed to be homogeneous and to behave in a linear-
elastic manner when the torque is applied
XX. - Neglect the localized deformations that occur at points of application of the
torques and where the cross section changes abruptly
XXI. - these effects occur within small regions of the shaft’s length and
generally they will have only a slight effect on the final result
XXIII. - Used to determine the normal stress in a straight member, having a cross
section that is symmetrical with respect to an axis, and the moment is applied
perpendicular to this axis
XXIV. Important Notes:
XXV. • The cross section of a straight beam remains plane when the beam
deforms due to bending. This causes tensile stress on one portion of the cross
section and compressive stress on the other portion. In between these portions,
there exists the neutral axis which is subjected to zero stress.
XXVI. • Due to the deformation, the longitudinal strain varies linearly from zero
at the neutral axis to a maximum at the outer fibers of the beam. Provided the
material is homogeneous and linear elastic, then the stress also varies in a linear
fashion over the cross section.
XXVII. • The neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross-sectional
area.This result is based on the fact that the resultant normal force acting on the
cross section must be zero.
XXVIII. • The flexure formula is based on the requirement that the resultant
internal moment on the cross section is equal to the moment produced by the
normal stress distribution about the neutral axis.
XXX. - it is necessary that the material behave in a linear elastic manner and
have a modulus of elasticity that is the same in tension as it is in compression
XXXI. Important Notes:
XXXII. • Shear forces in beams cause nonlinear shear-strain distributions over the
cross section, causing it to warp.
XXXIII. • Due to the complementary property of shear stress, the shear stress
developed in a beam acts over the cross section of the beam and along its
longitudinal planes.
XXXIV. • The shear formula was derived by considering horizontal force
equilibrium of the longitudinal shear-stress and bending-stress distributions
acting on a portion of a differential segment of the beam.
XXXV. • The shear formula is to be used on straight prismatic members made of
homogeneous material that has linear elastic behavior. Also, the internal
resultant shear force must be directed along an axis of symmetry for the cross-
sectional area.
XXXVI. • The shear formula should not be used to determine the shear stress on
cross sections that are short or flat, at points of sudden cross sectional changes,
or at a point on an inclined boundary.
XXXVIII. - “thin wall”: r/t > 10
XXXIX. - the stress distribution throughout its thickness will not vary significantly,
and so we will assume that it is uniform or constant
XL. - the pressure in the vessel is understood to be the gauge pressure
XLI. - subjected to biaxial stress, i.e., normal stress existing in only two
XLII. I. Cylindrical Vessels
XLIII. - circumferential or hoop stress
XLIV. - longitudinal or axial stress
XLV. - the normal stress in the hoop and longitudinal directions is assumed to
be constant throughout the wall of the cylinder, and each subjects the material to
XLVI. II. Spherical Vessels