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o Stress

distribution of force acting over the sectioned area which holds each

segment of the body in equilibrium

intensity of the internal force at a point in the body

o Normal stress

Assumptions

a prismatic bar is made from homogeneous and isotropic material

subjected to an axial force acting through the centroid of the cross-

sectional area (then the center region of the bar will deform

uniformly)

o Shear Stress

If two parts are thin or small when joined together, the applied loads may

cause shearing of the material with negligible bending. If this is the case, it

is generally assumed that an average shear stress acts over the cross-

sectional area.

When shear stress acts on a plane, then equilibrium of a volume element

of material at a point on the plane requires associated shear stress of the

same magnitude act on three adjacent sides of the element.

o Strain Concepts

Loads will cause all material bodies to deform and, as a result, points in a

body will undergo displacements or changes in position.

Normal Strain

o measure per unit length of the elongation or contraction of

a small line segment in the body

Shear Strain

o measure of the change in angle that occurs between two

small line segments that are originally perpendicular to one

another

The state of strain at a point is characterized by six strain components:

three normal strains and three shear strains. These components depend

upon the original orientation of the line segments and their location in the

body.

o Material Properties

A ductile material, such as mild steel, has four distinct behaviors as it is

loaded. They are elastic behavior, yielding, strain hardening, and necking.

A material is linear elastic if the stress is proportional to the strain within

the elastic region. This behavior is described by Hooke’s law, where the

modulus of elasticity E is the slope of the line.

Important points on the stress–strain diagram are the proportional limit,

elastic limit, yield stress, ultimate stress, and fracture stress.

The ductility of a material can be specified by the specimen’s percent

elongation or the percent reduction in area.

If a material does not have a distinct yield point, a yield strength can be

specified using a graphical procedure such as the offset method.

Brittle materials, such as gray cast iron, have very little or no yielding and

so they can fracture suddenly.

Strain hardening is used to establish a higher yield point for a material. This

is done by straining the material beyond the elastic limit, then releasing

the load. The modulus of elasticity remains the same; however, the

material’s ductility decreases.

Strain energy is energy stored in a material due to its deformation. This

energy per unit volume is called strain-energy density. If it is measured up

to the proportional limit, it is referred to as the modulus of resilience, and

if it is measured up to the point of fracture, it is called the modulus of

toughness. It can be determined from the area under the s-P diagram.

o Poisson’s Ratio

Poisson’s ratio, is a ratio of the lateral strain of a homogeneous and

isotropic material to its longitudinal strain. Generally these strains are of

opposite signs, that is, if one is an elongation, the other will be a

contraction.

The shear stress–strain diagram is a plot of the shear stress versus the

shear strain. If the material is homogeneous and isotropic, and is also linear

elastic, the slope of the straight line within the elastic region is called the

modulus of rigidity or the shear modulus, G.

II. TORQUE

III. I. Torsion

IV. - A moment that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis

V. - Note that twisting causes the circles to remain circles, and each longitudinal grid

line deforms into a helix that intersects the circles at equal angles.

VI. - Also, the cross sections from the ends along the shaft will remain flat—that is,

they do not warp or bulge in or out—and radial lines remain straight during the

deformation

VII. - If the angle of twist is small, the length of the shaft and its radius will remain

unchanged.

VIII. - Not only does the internal torque T develop a linear distribution of shear

stress along each radial line in the plane of the cross-sectional area, but also an

associated shear-stress distribution is developed along an axial plane

IX. Important Points:

X. • When a shaft having a circular cross section is subjected to a torque, the cross

section remains plane while radial lines rotate. This causes a shear strain within

the material that varies linearly along any radial line, from zero at the axis of the

shaft to a maximum at its outer boundary.

XI. • For linear elastic homogeneous material the shear stress along any radial line of

the shaft also varies linearly, from zero at its axis to a maximum at its outer

boundary. This maximum shear stress must not exceed the proportional limit.

XII. • Due to the complementary property of shear, the linear shear stress

distribution within the plane of the cross section is also distributed along an

adjacent axial plane of the shaft.

XIII. • The torsion formula is based on the requirement that the resultant

torque on the cross section is equal to the torque produced by the shear stress

distribution about the longitudinal axis of the shaft. It is required that the shaft or

tube have a circular cross section and that it is made of homogeneous material

which has linear-elastic behavior.

XIV. II. Power Transmission

XV. - subjected to a torque that depends on the power generated by the machine

and the angular speed of the shaft

XVI. - the work transmitted by a rotating shaft equals the torque applied times

the angle of rotation

XVII. III. Angle of Twist

XVIII. - The shaft is assumed to have a circular cross section that can gradually

vary along its length

XIX. - The material is assumed to be homogeneous and to behave in a linear-

elastic manner when the torque is applied

XX. - Neglect the localized deformations that occur at points of application of the

torques and where the cross section changes abruptly

XXI. - these effects occur within small regions of the shaft’s length and

generally they will have only a slight effect on the final result

XXII. FLEXURAL FIBER STRESS

XXIII. - Used to determine the normal stress in a straight member, having a cross

section that is symmetrical with respect to an axis, and the moment is applied

perpendicular to this axis

XXIV. Important Notes:

XXV. • The cross section of a straight beam remains plane when the beam

deforms due to bending. This causes tensile stress on one portion of the cross

section and compressive stress on the other portion. In between these portions,

there exists the neutral axis which is subjected to zero stress.

XXVI. • Due to the deformation, the longitudinal strain varies linearly from zero

at the neutral axis to a maximum at the outer fibers of the beam. Provided the

material is homogeneous and linear elastic, then the stress also varies in a linear

fashion over the cross section.

XXVII. • The neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross-sectional

area.This result is based on the fact that the resultant normal force acting on the

cross section must be zero.

XXVIII. • The flexure formula is based on the requirement that the resultant

internal moment on the cross section is equal to the moment produced by the

normal stress distribution about the neutral axis.

XXIX. TRANSVERSE SHEAR STRESS

XXX. - it is necessary that the material behave in a linear elastic manner and

have a modulus of elasticity that is the same in tension as it is in compression

XXXI. Important Notes:

XXXII. • Shear forces in beams cause nonlinear shear-strain distributions over the

cross section, causing it to warp.

XXXIII. • Due to the complementary property of shear stress, the shear stress

developed in a beam acts over the cross section of the beam and along its

longitudinal planes.

XXXIV. • The shear formula was derived by considering horizontal force

equilibrium of the longitudinal shear-stress and bending-stress distributions

acting on a portion of a differential segment of the beam.

XXXV. • The shear formula is to be used on straight prismatic members made of

homogeneous material that has linear elastic behavior. Also, the internal

resultant shear force must be directed along an axis of symmetry for the cross-

sectional area.

XXXVI. • The shear formula should not be used to determine the shear stress on

cross sections that are short or flat, at points of sudden cross sectional changes,

or at a point on an inclined boundary.

XXXVII. THIN WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS

XXXVIII. - “thin wall”: r/t > 10

XXXIX. - the stress distribution throughout its thickness will not vary significantly,

and so we will assume that it is uniform or constant

XL. - the pressure in the vessel is understood to be the gauge pressure

XLI. - subjected to biaxial stress, i.e., normal stress existing in only two

directions.

XLII. I. Cylindrical Vessels

XLIII. - circumferential or hoop stress

XLIV. - longitudinal or axial stress

XLV. - the normal stress in the hoop and longitudinal directions is assumed to

be constant throughout the wall of the cylinder, and each subjects the material to

tension.

XLVI. II. Spherical Vessels

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