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IADC/SPE 19923

E.M. Kocian and R.N. Mefford, Exxon Co. U.S.A., and L.B. Hilbert and I.A. Kalil,

Exxon Production Research Co.

SPE Members

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1990 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Hou!!ton, Texas, February 27-March 2, 1990.

This paper was selected for presentation by an IADC/SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the

paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers or the International Association of Drilling Contractors and are subject to correction by the author(s).

The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the IADC or SPE, its officers, or members. Papers presented at IADC/SPE meetings are subject to publication

review by Editorial Committees of the IADC and SPE. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. lllu!!trations may not be copied, The abstract should

contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Publications Manager, SPI;:, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083·3836. Telex, 730989 SPEDAL.

combine to contribute to the overall compressive

This paper provides compressive loading design 1oad. One of the major sources is derived from

guidelines for the provision of safe, economic the combined tensile 1oads imposed by the inner

casing for any type of onshore well. Compressive strings 1anded in the we 11 head. Liners hung off

loading design is analyzed by looking at the be 1ow the outer string cement top, do not con-

nature of compressive loads, casing compressive tribute to the tensile 1oad and can therefore be

failure mechanisms, and load distribution. Field neglected. The weight of the wellhead sections

data verifying such analysis is presented. and BOPs stacked on top of the surface casing must

Lastly, recommended procedures and design factors also be considered although the load is relatively

are offered to reach a final design. sma~ 1.

INTRODUCTION are affected by mud weight, temperature, and

pressure changes experienced during the 1i fe of

A compressive loading failure can result in severe the well. To counter these, stability ca 1cul a-

subsidence of the wellhead, circumferential tions may indicate additional tensile loading is

bulging of the near surface tubulars, and collapse required when an individual string is initially

or buckling of the inner strings. While an landed. This overpull must be included in summing

abundance of industry 1i terature exists for all loads.

offshore pile and conductor compressive loading

design, very little has been published for onshore Even if no stability overpull is placed on a

locations. Historically, compressive loading has string, additional tension may still be generated

not been a major concern. In fact, it is often with time. As shown in Figure 2, tension can be

neglected, except in extremely deep wells. affected by changes in external pressure. A

Because of the differences in the environment and common example of this is the tension increase as

load constraints between offshore and onshore, and the annulus mud weight decreases with time. 1 If

the ever increasing trend towards deep, expensive external pressure decreases, the resulting in-

wells which will experience high ten- crease in tension is defined by the following

sile/compressive loading in :the wellhead, design formula 2 derived from Hooke's law:

guidelines need to be established for land loca-

tions. (1)

CASING COMPRESSIVE LOADS can occur 1ater if a change in i nterna 1 pressure

occurs as shown in Figure 3. Most commonly, this

Before a design procedure can be prepared, one develops when mud weight must be increased d~ring

must first look at the origination of surface drilling after the string is set. Another source

compressive forces to adequately understand the may be a casing or tubing leak. If internal

nature and magnitude of all contributing loads. pressure increases, the resulting increase in

tension is also defined 2 by a derivation of

Hooke's law:

References and illustrations at end of paper.

145

2 COMPRESSIVE LOADING CASING DESIGN IADC/SPE 19923

~Fa = 0.471 d 2 ~Pi (2) shown in Figure 5. Fortunately, for the classes

of steels used in most conductor and surface

Changes in wellbore temperature over the well life casing designs, the yield stress of the steel in

can also affect tensile loading. A large decrease compression and in tension is, for all practical

in temperature may result in a significant in- purposes, identical. Thus, for casing design

crease in tension as the casing contracts. An purposes, the minimum tensile yield strength as

example would be a fracture or acid stimulation specified in API Standard 5CT 4 can be used as an

workover with a cold fluid. This force can be accurate approximation of the compressive yield

defined 2 by: strength.

~Fa = -58.8 w ~T (3) When casing is subjected to sufficiently large

axial compression, and the casing is not laterally

In summary, all of the above forces contribute to supported by cement or by the well bore, it may

the compressive load on the surface casing and/or deflect laterally, or buckle. Since casing is

conductor. generally confined within a cylindrical bore and

has little or no resistance to bending, the

post-buckled geometry is helical. This ·type of

CASING COMPRESSIVE FAILURE MECHANISMS buckling may occur due to applied compression

(i.e., slacking off weight from the surface), due

Casing may fail due to excessive compressive loads to an increase in i nterna 1 pressure, or due to

or strains in several modes: increased compressive strains when the wellbore

fluid temperature increases. In addition, such

• Casing material yield buckling often· occurs at loads well below the

casing yield stress.

• Columnar or Euler buckling of a joint or

section of casing There are a considerable number of published

studies of casing helical buckling. The methods

• Cross-sectional buckling (i.e., a circumferen- used to calculate the buckling loads can be

tial bulge) complicated. This type of buckling is most

applicable to production and protective casing

• Casing material fracture or splitting strings, in which there may be a considerable

1ength of non- supported casing above the top of

• Shear or fracture of connection threads cement. Conductor and surface strings are in most

cases cemented to the surface, and thus are not

The mode of compressive failure may be one or a allowed to deflect laterally (unless there is a

combination of the above mechanisms, depending on significant portion of washed out hole or cement).

the loading mechanism (strain or load controlled

loading), the load magnitude, and the casing When casing is laterally confined by cement or the

material properties. Casing design is the process wellbore and is subjected to large compressive

of determining the casing size, wall thickness, strains, it is not allowed to relieve the com-

and material strength required to prevent failure. pression deformation by laterally buckling into a

Therefore, knowledge of the failure mechanism and helical shape. Instead, the casing will yield,

a means of quantifying the failure load are and under continued compressive deformation, the

important factors in casing design. casing pipe wall will buckle into a localized,

circumferential bulge. Continued compressive

Although yield of casing material may not be deformation may result in a fracture in the pipe

recognized as a catastrophic failure, yield of the body as the bulge deforms around a threaded

material in a threaded connection may result in a connection, s i nee the bulge forms near the con-

1oss of pressure integrity or a reduction in the nection due to local radial deformations resulting

tensile strength of the casing. The axi a1 com- from makeup. This type· of fa i 1ure occurs under

pressive load required to yield the cross section large axial compressive deformation caused by

of the casing pipe-body or the minimum cross formation compaction, permafrost thaw 5 , or general

section in a threaded connection is usually subsidence.

understood to be the compressive yield load of the

casing. Calculation of the load is simple, since Casing fa i 1ure due to fracture occurs when the

it involves merely calculating the product of the casing steel actually parts or separates. Frac-

cross-sectional area and the compressive yield ture generally occurs in ductile steels after the

strength of the casing. However, the compressive yield stress is exceeded, and is usually associ-

yield stress may not be so simply determined. It ated with high tension loads or stresses. In

cannot always be assumed that the material behaves compression, fracture genera 11 y occurs as a

identically in compression and in tension. secondary failure mechanism subsequent to extreme

material deformation. If the connection thread

For example, many corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) width or height is insufficient to support the

casing materials used in deep, high-temperature, compressive 1oad, the threads will shear off and

high-pressure, sour gas wells exhibit a signifi- the pin will te 1escope into the coup 1i ng or box.

cant Bausch i nger effect, in which the tension and In some other cases, a connection may permit

compression strengths are quite different. 3 An sufficient radial deformation that results in the

example is shown in Figure 4. Also, a casing steel pin and coupling threads riding over one another

may exhibit significant yield-point behavior in a causing jump-in of the connection. In extreme

11 11

tensile test, but none in a compression test, as cases, tha casing body may fracture .in the tensile

146

IADC/SPE 19923 E. M. KOCIAN, R. N. MEFFORD, L. B. HILBERT, I. A. KALIL 3

portion of a bend due to localized cross-sectional of Hooke's Law for the case where the underlying

buckling or columnar buckling. cement is not considered to contribute support and

shows that the ratio of the casings' cross-sec-

It should be noted that the connections between tional areas is equal to the ratio of the distri-

joints of casing have an important role in the bution of 1oad. For ex amp 1e, a conductor casing

compressive failure mode. As mentioned above, with a 4:1 ratio of cross-sectional area to the

jump-in can occur. In many cases, large diameter surface casing, theoretically would be designed to

conductor casing joints are welded together, or support 80% of the compressive load.

weld-on connectinns used. Usually, low-carbon,

line-pipe type casing steels are used that provide The second support mechanism, cement compression,

a weld that is as strong as the pipe body. In may only be considered when a base plate is used

fact, the weld may be stronger than the pipe to transmit 1oad. Very often cement between the

simply because the weld has material properties surface and conductor casing is p1aced to be in

greater than the pipe. On the other hand, higher contact with the base plate, thus providing an

carbon-content steels, such as N-80 and P-110, additional shoulder to support compressive load.

·generally have lower strength welds due to prob- To ca 1cul ate the contribution of the cement in

lems associated with welding on these types of this scenario, Hooke's law is solved a second time

materials (i.e., the heat affected zone around the by utilizing a modulus of elasticity for the

weld has lower strength, or the weld material may cement. Appendi~ B documents the calculation for

be weaker than the pipe material). this case. The contribution of the cement may be

initially significant because, despite its rela-

tively low stiffness, the contact surface area may

LOAD DISTRIBUTION CONSIDERATIONS be large.

Once the calculation of the maximum anticipated The compressive strength of the cement used wi 11

compressive load is completed, the design of a a1so influence it's contribution as a secondary

well head support system can begin. The well head support member. Even if the cement yields in its

support. system is designed based on the compres- secondary support role, it may be assumed to

sive load distribution. Four aspects need to be contribute to the overall compressive load capac-

considered, notably: 1) casing compression, ity because, even at yield, it is confined by the

2) cement compression, 3) cement bond, and 4) soil casings present on either side. However, due to

shear. The first two aspects, casing and cement its low relative stiffness it may be prudent to

compression, represent the capacity of the system ignore the compressive support of cement and

components to resist applied compressive load. assume that the casings must bear the total load.

The final two aspects, cement bond and soil shear,

represent the ability to transfer the applied load The third aspect of system design is cement bond

into surrounding members and/or surrounding soil. which is independent of the compressive support

mechanisms. Cement bond strength is the primary

Casing compression is achieved through the dis- method of vertical load transfer and casing

tribution of wellhead loads to the casing string support. End bearing support can typically be

to which the first wellhead section is attached as ignored because, for normal casing strings, it is

shown in Figure 6. The primary casing string is only a small contributor. The cement bond strength

usually designated "surface" casing and the first is a calculation of the shear resistance developed

wellhead section, or A-Section, is either welded between the casing and the surrounding cement and

or screwed onto the top joint. The first design is considered to be a function of the contact area

calculation involves comparing the total worst and strength of the cement. Cement bond strength

case anticipated compressive load to the connec- is equivalent to approximately 10% of the com-

tion rating and the yield strength of the size of pressive strength. 6 ·

casing desired. The casing size is typically

governed by the drift diameter that will accommo- For example, assume 200 feet of 20-inch casing is

date the desired bit size for drilling the next cemented to surface with cement having a compres-

section of hole. sive strength of 3000 psi. Assuming full contact,

the resulting shear restraining force is 4.5 x 10 7

If the desired casing cannot be located with lbs. It is obvious from this example calculation

sufficient compressive strength, additional that cement bond capacity is typically not the

compressive support components must be designed. governing factor in a well head support system.

The most common second step is to order the Cement/soil bonding will be greater than ce-

A-Section with a base plate or landing base. The ment/casing bonding based on the greater surface

base plate is used as a vehicle to distribute area available and assuming similar contact

compressive load to a member other than the efficiency.

surface casing string as shown in Figure 7. The

most common secondary member is the previously set The 1ast support system to be considered is soil

initial casing string designated "conductor" shear capacity. This represents the ability of

casing, although some of the load may be distrib- the surrounding soil to diffuse compressive load

uted into cement underlying the base plate. from the casing through shear transfer and hence,

reduce the compressive 1oad as the depth be 1ow

The 1oad di stri but ion between the different ground increases.

members is largely governed by stiffness and may

be simplistically estimated by application of The soil shear capacity is a function of the

Hooke's Law. Appendix A documents the derivation cement/soil surface area and the soil shear value.

147

4 COMPRESSIVE LOADING CASING DESIGN IADC/SPE 19923

The soil shear capacity is related to the type of • Setting of 7- inch OD by 5-1/2- inch OD produc-

soil and the soil properties. For sands, the tion casing

shear value is related to the overburden pressure

and the angle of friction. For clays, the shear During each of the three casing running opera-

value is related to the undrained shear strength. tions, the strain gage data was collected imme-

Undrained soil shear values can range from 25 diately after the hook weight was slacked off and

lbs/ft for very soft clay to 4000 lbs/ft for hard again some eight to ten hours later. The data was

clay. Because the variability in the properties then reduced to indicate an average load supported

of shallow soils is high, an assumption of shear by the 30- inch conductor pipe and summarized in

capacity based on surface conditions is often Table 1.

erroneous. The most accurate method of determin-

ing a wellsite soil shear capacity is with a soil The Table 1 data indicates that, with each suc-

boring. cessive string hung, the support offered by the

conductor pipe is asymptotically approaching some

Soil borings are common to the offshore oil field maximum percentage of the total string weight

structures industry and the onshore construction landed in the wellhead as shown in Figure 9, The

industry, but not the onshore dri 11 i ng industry. compressive load supported by the 30-inch conduc-

A conductor, or surface casing compressive load tor pipe increased from 53%, or 611 kips of the

capacity curve can be generated from evaluation of 1,160 kips landed in the A-section for the

actual field soil properties. An example of this 12-1/16-inch casing, to 71%, or 532 kips of the

is provided later in this paper. As a sidenote, 747 kips landed in the C-Section for the 7-inch x

these same soil borings can be used to develop 5-1/2-inch production casing. Total load sup-

soil bearing capacity for designing drilling rig ported by the 30-inch casing through a summation

foundations. of the incremental measured loads is 1663 kips out

of a total wellhead load of 2647 kips (63%). The

A design factor should be incorporated into the remaining 984 kips of load would then be logically

design procedure to account for tolerances and supported by the cement underlying the base plate

inconsistencies associated with the support system and the 16-inch casing.

components. A 1.33 casing compression design

factor is often used to derate the corflpress i ve Solving Hooke's Law to determine the distribution

yield of casing based on API wall tolerance and of the 2647 kip compressive load results in 1615

potential wear. No factor is typically associated kips (61% of total load) on the 30-inch, 744 kips

with cement compression or bond strength due to (28%) on the cement between the 30-inch and 16-

reasons previously discussed. A soil shear factor inch, and 288 kips (11%) on the 16-inch. The

of 1.5 to 2.0 is the common industry practice to strain gage data therefore compares favorably with

account for uncertainty associ ated with soil the design theory and calculations. The intent of

properties and, when applicable, to 1imit defor- the well head support system to distribute 1oad

mations to acceptable values. without failing cri t i ca 1 members a1so appears to

be substantiated.

COMPARISON OF FIELD DATA TO LOADING PREDICTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

In January 1989, Exxon instrumented the 30- inch

conductor pipe on an ultra-deep sour gas well to This design procedure provides step-by-step ·

determine the effectiveness of the 1andi ng-base compressive loading design guidelines for the

design. In theory, the weight of the casing provision of safe, economic tubulars. Burst,

strings hung off in the wellhead would be trans- collapse, and tensile design considerations will

ferred from the A-section to the 16-inch surface not be addressed in this ·paper. The design

casing string, the 30-inch conductor casing, and factors used in the design process are values

the cement between the two, via the landing base. frequently employed, but should not to be con-

strued as industry standards which may widely

To verify that the conductor pipe would share in vary.

supporting the compressive loads, Exxon installed

strain gages on the conductor pipe exposed surface To illustrate the design procedure, consider an

and gathered geometrical and dimensional data. example well with the data provided in Tables 2

The dimensional data was needed to determine any through 7 and Figures 10 and 11.

pipe ovality, wall eccentricity, and possible

load-axis misalignment. The orientation of the STEP 1: Calculate the total compressive load due

strain gage locations and sites for data to the hanging weight of the tubul ars

collection, referenced to geographic North, are hung off in the wellhead plus the

shown in Figure 8. stability overpull required.

Strain gage data was collected and analyzed ·on From Table 2, the total load is 2635

three separate occasions. These included the kips.

following:

STEP 2: Calculate additional loads due to

• Setting of 12-1/16-inch OD protective casing changes in i nterna 1 and extern a1 pres-

sure, and temperature versus initial

• Setting of 9-7/8-inch OD protective casing cas1ng setting conditions. Also include

weight of wellhead sections and BOPs.

148

IADC/SPE 19923 E. M. KOCIAN, R. N. MEFFORD, L. B. HILBERT, I. A. KALIL 5

kips. STEP 10: Design a landing base that can transfer

the required 1oads from the surface to

STEP 3: Sum the tubular loads and the additional the conductor casing.

loads.

A landing base with a minimum rating of

TOTAL LOADS (WORST CASE) is 2800 kips. 3700 kips would be required to transfer

the 1848 kips of compressive load from

STEP 4: Se 1ect a surface casing size to drift the surface casing to the conductor with

the desired bit size. a 2.0 design factor. The 2.0 design

factor is assumed to account for any

In this example, a 14-3/4-inch hole size deficiencies in the load bearing welds.

is desired to run the 11-3/4-inch

casing. The available 16-inch surface STEP 11: Design the cement required to transfer

casing is shown in Table 4. the compressive loads into surrounding

support members and/or surrounding soil.

STEP 5: Compare joint strength of the available

surface casing to the total load calcu- The 270 feet of 24-inch conductor casing

lated in Step 3. has a surface area of 1696 ft 2 or 244 k

in 2 to support 1848 kips of compressive

None of the 16-inch casing available load. Assuming full cement contact, a

will support the 2800 kips of compres- cement compressive strength of only 152

sive load with a 1.33 design factor. psi would be required to support the

Therefore, select a conductor casing casing with a 2.0 design factor. The

that can offset a portion of the 1oad 180 feet of 16-inch surface casing below

through use of a landing base. the conductor casing has a surface area

of 757 ft 2 or 109 k in 2 to support 952

STEP 6: Select a conductor casing size to drift kips of compressive load. Assuming full

the desired bit size. cement contact, a compressive strength

of 175 psi would be required to support

In this example, a 20-inch hole size is the casing with a 2.0 design factor.

desired to run the 16-inch casing. The

available conductor casing is shown in Note in the tubular design that no con-

Table 5. tribution from the cement under the

landing base was assumed to help support

STEP 7: Compare the joint strength of the the well head system. A cement with a

available conductor casing to the total compressive strength of 3000 psi and a

load calculated in Step 3. landing base/cement surface area of 205

in 2 (22.75-inch x 16-inch), would result

None of the 24-inch casing available in the cement shouldering a total of 615

will support all of the 2800 kips of kips prior to yielding.

compressive load with a 1.33 design

factor. Cement with high early strength and

minimal shrinkage should be specified to

STEP 8: Perform a combination analysis to assure an effective soi 1-cement and

determine if the 16-inch x 24-inch cement-casing bond as soon as possible

combination will adequately support the after cement placement. Use standard

total load calculated in Step 3. industry cementing practices to achieve

good mud displacement.

From Table 6, the third listed combina-

tion is the lowest cost design with STEP 12: Summarize design.

adequate strength.

See Table 7 for summary considering

STEP 9: Eva 1uate soi 1 boring data to determine compressive loading only.

m1 mmum depths to set surface and

conductor casing.

CONCLUSION

From Figures 10 and 11, minimum depth of

24-inch conductor in a 30-inch hole is The field data gathered on instrumented conductor

270 feet to maintain a 2.0 design factor casing closely corroborates with loading predic-

in supporting 1848 kips of compressive tion achieved through the design theory, thus

load. Minimum depth of 16-inch surface substantiating the design accuracy. In general,

casing in a 20-inch hole is 450 feet to the above design procedure can be used to obtain

maintain a 2.0 design factor in sup- safe, economic tubulars for land wells with regard

porting 952 kips of compressive load. to compressive loading. Of course, individual

Any casing run deeper than the mini mum landing-base designs should be verified as suit-

depths is no longer governed by com- able for the load rating prior. to their applica-

pressive loading design assuming that tion in the field.

full cement coverage of minimum depths

has been achieved.

149

6 COMPRESSIVE LOADING CASING DESIGN IADC/SPE 19923

NOMENCLATURE

6) Smith, D. K.: "Cementing", SPE Monograph

A = Area Series, Second Edition, 1976.

d = Casing inside diameter 7) Popov, E. P.: "Mechanics of Materials",

Second Edition, 1952.

D = Casing nominal diameter

!J. = Deformation APPENDIX A

!J.Fa = Change in axial force DERIVATION OF HOOKE'S LAW FOR DISTRIBUTION OF

COMPRESSIVE LOAD BETWEEN CASINGS

!J.pe = Change in external pressure

For axially loaded rods, the total deformation

!J.pi = Change in internal pressure between two given points (A' and 8') is 7

!J.T = Change in temperature !J. = JB' d!J. = JB' P(x) dx (A-1)

A' A' A(x) E

E = Elastic modulus

For a tubular of constant cross-sectional area

L = Length with 1ength L, a constant 1oad P, and one fixed

and one free end, the deformation equation becomes

P = Force

!J. = ___fL

Pt = Total force AE

Pc = Force on conductor casing Assuming the base plate is in simultaneous contact

with both the conductor and surface casing, and

Ps = Force on surface casing th~t the bottom of each casing is immobile,

a = Stress and therefore,

w = Casing weight per foot Pc Lc = Ps Ls

Ac Ec As Es

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Unlike two independent springs, both the conductor

and surface casings are concentrically .cemented,

The Authors wish tn express their appreciation to and therefore, compressive 1oad is assumed to be

Exxon Company, U~S.A. and Exxon Production Re- distributed along an equivalent length (or depth)

search Company for permitting the publication of of each string. Thus,

this paper. Individual acknowledgements are

accorded to M. J;t Morrison and D. J. Broussard who Lc = Ls

contributed to the development and verification of

this well design technique. Additionally, both the conductor and surface

casings are manufactured from carbon steel and

thus have the same modulus of elasticity, so

REFERENCES

1) Cooke, C. E., Kluck, M. P., and Medrano, R.: Ec = Es

"Annular Pressure and Temperature Measure- The remaining equation becomes

ments Diagnose Cementing Operations",

IADC/SPE. Paper 11416, February 1983.

2) Bourgoyne, A. T., Millheim, K. K., Chenevert,

M. E., and Young, F. S.: "Applied Drilling

Engineering", First Edition, 1986. or

3) Dieter, G. E., Jr.: "Mechanical Metallurgy",

1961.

4) API Specification 5CT: Specification for Ac and As can be calculated for selected casings,

Casing and Tubing, American Petroleum Insti- and the maximum load, Pt, is equal to Pc + Ps.

tute, March 15, 1988. Thus two equations with two unknowns can be solved

for Pc and Ps.

5) Hirshberg, A. J., Moyer, M. C., Rickenbach,

R. M.: "Surface Casing Strain Capacity for

North Slope Operations", SPE Drilling Engi-

neering, September 1988.

150

IADC/SPE 19923 E. M. KOCIAN, R. N. MEFFORD, L. B. HILBERT, I. A. KALIL 7

steel changes the equation to

SOLVING HOOKE'S LAW FOR DISTRIBUTION OF COMPRES-

SIVE LOAD BETWEEN CASINGS INCLUDING CEMENT UNPER-

LYING THE BASE PLATE Pt = ac [A c + As + (5 x 106) Acmt

(30 6X 10 )

l

The total load on the casings and cement, Pt, can so

be equated tn the sum of all forces,

Pt = ac [Ac +As+ 0.16 Acmt]

Pt = Pc + Ps + Pcmt

Rearrange the equation to solve for ac

Substituting the deformation equation for Pc, Ps

and Pcmt changes the equation to

ac = - - - - - -Pt= - - - - -

Ac +As+ 0.16 Acmt

Pt . [~~A)/ [~~l + [~~lmt

Then multiply ac by Ac to yield Pc

Isolating the conductor stress and cancelling Pc = ac Ac

identical values based on the same logic as

applied in Appendix A results in Solve for Ps and Pcmt in a like manner. Verify

values against Pt by

Pt - ac [Ac + As + (~:)cmt]

Pt = Pc + Ps + Pcmt

TABLE 1

COMPRESSIVE LOAD SUPPORTED BY 30-INCH CONDUCTOR PIPE

STRING HOOK WEIGHT BY CONDUCTOR SUPPORT SUPPORT

(kiQS} (kiQS} (%} (%}

12-1/16-inch 1160 611 53 53

9-7/8-inch 740 520 70 60

7-inch x 5-1/2-inch 747 532 71 63

TABLE 2

TUBULAR LOADS (SUSPENDED IN WELLHEAD)

STABILITY

CSG SIZE WEIGHT MW SET IN DEPTH BUOYED WEIGHT OVERPULL TOTAL LOAD

(in} llifL (ppg} illl_ (kips} (kiQS} (kips}

11-3/4 60 10.0 15000 765 150 915

9-5/8 47 12.5 17500 665 100 775

7 41 15.0 20000 635 100 735

3-1/2 12.95 10.5 19500 210 210

TOTAL............................................................ 2635

NOTE: No change in buoyed weight.due to "as cemented" conditions was

considered. Use air weight of tubing if latched into a packer.

151

TABLE 3

LOAD

IT EM ill.l!..tl

Chahges in interha1 pressure (stimulation)............... 50

TOTAL ••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••• ,,............ 165

TABLE 4

illfL {kli!S} ilLlli

75 K-55 STC 565 31

TABLE 5

illfL {kii!S} ilLlli

156 x~s6 Welded 1932 67

TABLE 6

COMBINATION ANALYSIS

16• INCH AREA 24- INCH AREA 16- INCH/24- INCH 16- INCH/24- INCH COMBINATION OK?

SURFACE CSG 1i!l.:L CONDUCTOR CSG 1i!l.:L {%} {kii!S} YLN

75 ppf, K, STC 21.4 156, X-56, W 45.9 32/68 896/1904 N

NOtE: Load ratio is calculated by multiplying total load (2800 kips) times area l"atio percent.

TABLE 7

MIN.

CSG SIZE WEIGHT GRADE CONN OEPTH HOLE SET IN

___linL illfL ..llli_ {in}

24 156 X-56 Welded 270 30

152

IP£ 1992 3

• TENSILE LOADS FROM INNER CASING STRINGS

(EXCLUDE LINERS)

• TENSILE LOAD FROM PRODUCTION TUBING

• TENSILE LOAD FROM STABILITY OVERPULL

• TENSILE LOADS FROM CHANGES IN EXTERNAL

AND INTERNAL PRESSURES

INTERMEDIATE

• TENSILE LOADS FROM CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE

LINER

ALONGATION

_..ALONGATION \, ,..,j

\, ,... J ' •1

I

'- '1

I

I

I

I

I

I I

I

I

I

I

I Ut

!./

:

I

I

I

I

I I

I I

I I

l/

I

!/

I

Figure 2. A decrease in external pressure can cause an increase in tensile loading. Figure 3. A increase in internal pressure can cause an increase in tensile loading.

(PSI) (PSI)

STRAIN, IN/IN

COMPRESSION TEST

153

SP.E 19 9 2 ~

A-SECTION

A-SECTION

CASING HEAD

WELD

lOOr------------------------------------------,100

f- (")

:r 0

Q(!) z

ow 0

:rS: c-i

u(!)

~z

~~

30-INCH 61E ~~

CONDUCTOR PIPE Mf- ::!!r

>-CJ) 'tiO

m)>

"'"'

cO

ww

)>O

UlCJ)

f-(!1 'tiC

a:~ m'tl

Of- :lJ'tl

n.z

n.w;#!

::JU *~~

Z-i

Ula: -im

ow l>O

~n. G'lm

oUl m-e

LEGEND ...J~ Ow

(H,A) = (HOOP, AXIAL) ...JW

~!!: ;;;~

f-£L -iZ

Za: 2:1(")

wo z:r

:2f- G'lo

wu

a:::~ ~0

uc

~z Gi

0 :r

u -i

--~--TOTAL

#5 (H,A)

Figure 9. Percentage of load supported by 30-inch OD conductor pipe vs Total strings

run.

SECTION A-A

154

1 6-INCH CSG IN 20-INCH HOLE

w

u

<(

LL

a:

:::>

en

~i=

o!:

...J

w

co

I

1-

a..

w

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

LOAD CAPACITY

(KIPS)

2) SURFACE CASING CAPACITY CURVE IS BASED

ON INCREMENTAL LOAD BELOW 2 70'.

w

u 0

<

LL

~ 100

CJ)

~-

oti:

....J-

w

al

I

b:

w

0

0 500 1000 1 500 2000

LOAD CAPACITY

(KIPS)

155

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