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GCSE Science – Schemes of Work

Biology

Unit 1: Biology 1

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B1.1 Keeping healthy

B1.1.1 Diet and exercise

a Healthy diet Evaluate information about the 2 Developing explanations using ideas Working critically with primary NHS choice website
Know the right effect of food on health. and models evidence ‘Behind the headlines’
balance of the Explain how carbohydrates, fats Devise a model to explain the link How far would you have to run hot discussion topics
different foods you and proteins are used by the between energy transfer and different to equal the energy transferred PPT B1.1.Diet and
need and the right body to release energy and to foods. Evaluate the strengths and from one chocolate bar? Exercise
amount of energy. build cells. weaknesses of own and models of Research suggests that Some
Explain that mineral ions and others pizzas are saltier than the sea.
vitamins are needed in small Developing argument How could you test this
amounts for healthy functioning Should companies advertise unhealthy statement?
of the body. foods? There is a link between kidney
Explain labelling on a range of food cancer and obesity. How could
products and discuss how informative you test this statement?
these are in making healthy choices.

c Metabolic rate – The Describe factors that affect the 1-2 Presenting and writing arguments Working with primary and
rate at which all the metabolic rate, eg the rate What’s the ideal proportion of muscle to secondary evidence
chemical reactions in varies with the amount of body fat? Prepare a presentation to How can we use height-weight
the cells of the body activity you do and the

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are carried out. proportion of muscle to fat in compare the ideal proportion of muscle charts to classify people? BMI calculator can be
your body. to fat in the bodies of 3 different Calculate BMIs using primary found in the Health
athletes eg cyclist, rugby player, long and secondary evidence. section of the BBC
distance swimmer website at
www.bbc.co.uk or at
d Inherited factors Explain how inherited factors Developing explanations using
Discuss: Use food labels to discuss www.eatwell.gov.uk
affect health, eg can also affect our health; these models
saturated and unsaturated fats and by searching ‘BMI
metabolic rate and include metabolic rate and Develop a model of blockage in
their effect on cholesterol levels and calculator’.]
cholesterol level. cholesterol levels. artery. Now evaluate the
heart disease.
strengths and weaknesses of
Developing argument: Accurately
your and other’s models
assess the validity of a scientific claim,
eg ‘Healthy Chocolate’.

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b Mass Analyse and evaluate claims 1 Reaching agreement on scientific Working critically with Use BBC - Super
A person loses mass made by slimming programmes explanations secondary evidence Slim Me PART 1/6
when the energy and products.  Research different types of diets,  Research obesity problems video on Youtube to
content of the food eg Atkins, Slimfast, G.I., Weight in children in the UK or stimulate discussion
taken in is less than Be able to explain the benefits watchers and produce a table to from another country.
the amount of energy of exercise on the body. compare evidence and accept or Extend by comparing data
expended by the reject evidence. from different countries to
body.
conclude or evaluate
 Match diets to different types of
More information on
employment. Write an article or a  Calculate dietary values exercise can be found
blog to advise lifestyle changes for from nutritional in the Health section
e Regular exercise any of the above information on food of the BBC website at
Evaluate information about the
improves your health. packets. www.bbc.co.uk by
effect of lifestyle on
Note: Effect of searching for
development of diseases.
exercise on breathing ‘Importance of
and heart rate is not exercise’.
required.

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B1.1.2 How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseases

a Pathogens cause Explain how pathogens cause 2 Communication for audience and Working critically with primary A useful website is
disease. disease. purpose evidence www.curriculumbits.c
om – Microbes and
Do all pathogens have the same effect Are some pathogens more disease.
Be able to describe the on the body? dangerous than others?
Information on health
 Complete report for a scientific  Use data to compare the
processes involved in aseptic
conditions can be
techniques.
journal illustrating examples of numbers of deaths from found in the Health
diseases caused by viruses and different pathogens. section of the BBC
bacteria. website at
www.bbc.co.uk by
searching ‘Medical
Conditions’.
Video clips can be
Note: Structure of found at
bacteria and viruses
www.bbc.co.uk/learni
is not required.
ngzone/clips

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f Semmelweiss Describe the work of 1 Societal aspects and applications of Developing practical skills
recognised the Semmelweiss and link to results scientific evidence through planning and risk

importance of hand- of class investigations. assessment
Research the work of
washing to reduce the
Semmelweiss and write his blog Why are we always told to wash
spread of infection.
or produce mock TV interview. our hands before meals and
after the toilet?
 Relate work of Semmelweiss to
 Plan an investigation
problems with spread of infection
using agar plates to
in hospitals today in a ppt
compare the growth of
presentation with video
micro-organisms from
clips/animations
unwashed and washed
hands. Check CLEAPPS
advice to help with
assessing risk

b Microbes can Describe ways in which the 1 Developing explanations using models Assessing risk and working A video clip on white
reproduce rapidly body defends itself against Are all bacteria and viruses dangerous? safely blood cells can be
inside the body and disease.  Conduct research into Why do research scientists found on the BBC
produce toxins that Explain how microbes make us different diseases. Devise a working microbes that cause website at
make us feel ill. feel ill and how viruses damage model to illustrate how diseases such as influenza, AIDS www.bbc.co.uk/learni
cells. bacteria and viruses invade and Ebola, rarely catch the ngzone/clips by
searching for clip

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the body . disease? ‘1838’.
 Produce a risk Video: BBC clip or
assessment for their video on defence
work against disease.

c The body has Communication for audience and


different ways of purpose
protecting itself  Produce an article for a
against pathogens. teenage magazine to explain
how the body defends itself
against disease.

 Use Point, Evidence,


Explanation to help to
structure writing
White blood cells
ingest pathogens and Describe the actions of white Developing ideas using models
d
produce antibodies blood cells using terms ‘ingest’,  Produce a cartoon strip or
and antitoxins. ‘antibodies’ and ‘antitoxins’. animation to show actions of
white blood cells.

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e Immunity and action Explain the processes of natural 1 Developing argument Working critically with Information on
of antibodies. and acquired immunity. Look up and interpret child secondary evidence vaccinations can be
immunisation programmes. Role play found on the NHS
the relationship between the per
on whether to give your child website at
cent vaccinated and frequency
vaccinations. www.nhs.uk by
of the disease. Use data from a
line graph to describe searching ‘When are
l Vaccines – what they Evaluate the advantages and Reaching agreement on scientific vaccinations given?’.
are and how they disadvantages of being explanations
Information on the
work. vaccinated against a disease, eg Consider the actions of Dr Wakefield
MMR vaccine can be
the measles, mumps and and the MMR vaccine. .
found on the BBC
rubella (MMR) vaccine. website at
www.bbc.co.uk by
searching ‘MMR
debate’. Information
about the history of
medicine can be
found on the GCSE
Bitesize section of the
BBC website at
www.bbc.co.uk by
searching ‘Medicine
through time’.

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g Use of medicines to Describe the use of aseptic 1 Application to society and cultural Selecting and managing Be able to explain
relieve symptoms. techniques and explain the understanding variables why schools do not
m precautions taken when Are antibiotics universal in their incubate above 25 °C.
Investigating the Discuss: Brainstorm medicines used to
n handling microorganisms. action against pathogens?
action of disinfectants relieve symptoms and treat disease; A video clip on
o Antibiotics or antiseptics etc and
and antibiotics; Explain how antibiotics work to names of some antibiotics. penicillin can be found
growth of microbes (area of
aseptic techniques; combat pathogens. Research work of Fleming and/or on the BBC website
clearance to be measured in
incubation Florey and Chain and discuss the at
later lesson). Investigate type of
temperatures. impact of their work on society. www.bbc.co.uk/learni
agent or concentration.
ngzone/clips by
searching for ‘2884’.
h Use of antibiotics – Explain how the treatment of 1 Developing argument Working critically with Useful information
how they work and disease has changed due to Describe the impact of antibiotic secondary evidence can be found on the
problems of overuse. understanding the action of resistance and explain how this has Use secondary evidence from BBC website at
Antibiotic resistance, antibiotics and immunity. impacted on cleaning practices in text books, the internet and www.bbc.co.uk
eg MRSA. Explain the difficulty in Britain’s hospitals. Research MRSA and other sources to draw a timeline B1.1.2 How our
i developing drugs that kill C. difficile infections and treatment. to show how treatment of bodies defend against
Mutations lead to
resistant strains of viruses without damaging body Applications and implications disease has changed over the disease
pathogens which can tissues. Evaluate the consequences of flu years.
j pandemics and identify categories of
spread rapidly. Evaluate the consequences of
mutations of bacteria and individuals most at risk and the
viruses in relation to epidemics strategies used to reduce the risks.
and pandemics.

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k Development of new HT only Developing explanations using ideas
antibiotics to combat Explain what we should do to and models
resistant bacteria. slow down the rate of Devise a model to explain how a new,
development of resistant strains named antibiotic has been used to slow
of bacteria. down spread of resistant bacteria.

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B1.2 Nerves and hormones

B1.2.1 The nervous system

a The nervous system Describe the functions of the 1-2 Communication for audience and Selecting and managing PPT
enables humans to main structures in the nervous purpose variables
B1.2 The nervous
react to their system. Describe stimulus response reactions Plan and manage a variety of
system
surroundings and eg loud bang, light, touch, movement, variables to illustrate body
coordinate behaviour. smell and taste. responses eg
Explain how detection of stimuli
protects the body from danger  Response to
temperature: three
b Receptors detect Be able to sequence a reflex Demo: response to different bowls of water – hot,
stimuli. action from stimulus to temperatures. warm and ice-cold.
response
Explain how receptors in the How Science Works: Detecting different  Taste receptors: Salt,
eye, ear, tongue and skin are tastes on the tongue – draw results on sugar, coffee and
linked to the stimuli they detect. diagram of tongue. lemon solutions to
Discuss: How Science Works: taste.
Describe how a light receptor
c Basic structure of a Investigate sensitivity of different areas
cell has a nucleus, cytoplasm
light receptor cell.
and cell membrane.
of the body.  Skin sensitivity: Hairpin
set with 1 cm gap,
Explain the importance of being
able to respond to blindfolds.
environmental changes.

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Obtaining and presenting


primary evidence
Discuss the senses and
complete a table to show name
of sense, main organ and
stimulus it responds to primary
evidence

d Pathway of nerve Explain the importance of reflex 1 Developing argument Obtaining and presenting The Sheep Dash
e Impulses and reflex actions and be able to give primary evidence activity can be found
Use knee-jerk and pupil reflexes as a
actions. examples. Use and apply systematic on the BBC website
stimulus for discussion. Students
observations to gather data. at
Describe the pathway of a discuss their importance and gather
Justify chosen presentation of www.bbc.co.uk/scienc
nerve impulse in a reflex other examples leading into explanation
data eg table, praph, pie chart e/humanbody/sleep/s
response and explain the roles of why they are faster than a voluntary
etc heep
of the structures involved. action.
 Investigate reaction
stimulus→receptor→sensory Developing explanations using models
time using different
neurone→relay Students use a model eg Sheep Dash Reaction time: Metre-
Activity to explain reaction times combinations of rulers and blindfolds
neurone→motor
receptors. Past BLY1 or sensors and
neurone→effector→response
exam questions. dataloggers.
Explain the role of chemicals at
synapses.  Use cards to sequence
Describe different ways of the pathway of a nerve

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measuring reaction time. impulse. Arrange
candidates holding cards
in this sequence and
discuss role of each and
how impulse passes
from one to another.

 Match structures in
nerve pathway to
different reflex actions,
eg production of saliva
when smelling food;
pupil response to light.

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B1.2.2 Control in the human body

a The need to control Describe some conditions that 1-2 Communication for audience and Planning and approach .
water and ion content need to be controlled in the purpose  Investigate what is Body temperature:
of the body, body. Describe the body’s inputs and outputs normal body Digital and forehead
temperature and Explain why body temperature on a diagram of the body – water, ions, thermometers.
temperature.
blood sugar levels. has to be controlled. CO2, sugar and heat. Be able to link the
organ to the condition it helps control in  Investigate the effect Exercise:
the body. of exercise on body Thermometers,
Communication for audience and temperature and/or cotton wool and
purpose sweating. balance.
Devise an advertising campaign for a
Temperature and
holiday resort targeted at families to  Investigate the effect enzymes: Starch and
show the dangers to the body of of temperature on amylase solutions,
remaining in the sun for long periods.
enzyme activity, eg tubes, water baths,
digestion of starch. ice, iodine solution or
Benedict’s solution
and goggles.
Check CLEAPPS

b Hormones are Explain the source function of 1 Developing explanations using ideas . PPT B1.2.2 Control in
chemical substances hormones and models the human body
produced by glands Describe some changes that Discuss: Recap the control of blood

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and transported to occur at puberty and link with sugar levels as a lead into names of
target organs in the secretion of hormones. other hormones, where they are
blood. produced and how they are transported
c Hormonal control of around the body.
Describe the hormones that
d the menstrual cycle – Describe collectively changes that occur
control the menstrual cycle and
FSH, LH and in boys and girls at puberty – what
the glands that produce them.
oestrogen. causes them?
Use a model eg diagram, chart,
animation etc to show the names, sites
of production and effects of FSH, LH
and oestrogen in the menstrual cycle.
e Uses of hormones in Evaluate the benefits and 1 Working with primary evidence Useful information
the control of fertility problems of using hormones to Identify the hormones used in can be found at
– oral contraception control fertility. contraceptives www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk
and fertility drugs. Describe the hormones that Communication for audience and /en
may be present in oral purpose A good activity can be
contraceptives.  Research why each hormone is found at
Explain the link the hormones used and produce a report for www.UPD8.org.uk by
used in oral contraceptives to a teen magazine on the searching for ‘New
their effects on the body. advantages and disadvantages womb?’.
Use a model eg a flow diagram of different oral contraceptives.
to explain the process of In Useful information on
Vitro Fertilisation (IVF).  Be able to state how oral IVF can be found at

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contraceptives have been www.babycentre.co.u
improved over the years. k
by searching ‘In Vitro
Applications implications and cultural Fertilisation’.
understanding
 Research the process of IVF
and produce a leaflet for a PPT 1.2.2 Control in
the Human Body
doctor’s surgery to describe
the main stages involved in IVF
treatment.

 Apply different ethical


approaches to making a
decision about non-vital
transplants.

 Discuss possible causes of


infertility in men and women
and treatment available.

 Invite an outside speaker to


discuss contraception, eg
women’s health nurse.

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B1.2.3 Control in plants

a Plant shoots and Describe how plant shoots and 2 Developing explanations and arguments Working critically with primary Useful information on
roots respond to light, roots respond to light, gravity using models evidence plant growth can be
moisture and gravity. and moisture.  Compare and contrast the Obtaining and presenting found at www.s-
ability of different plants to primary evidence cool.co.uk by
reach light – obstacle course. Are all plants sensitive? searching for ‘plant
b  Students use evidence growth’
Hormones control Explain the role of auxin in  Explain positive and negative from demo of a plant’s Obstacle course:
and coordinate plant responses in terms of phototropism. sense of touch – Three identical shoe
growth in plants. unequal distribution in shoots
Venus fly trap, boxes with simple
and roots.  Use diagrams to explain plant obstacle course inside
Mimosa, Honeysuckle
responses in terms of and hole at one end,
or from video clips to
c Responses to light, distribution of auxin. dish of mustard
suggest degrees of
gravity and moisture seedlings,
are controlled by the  Interpret Charles Darwin’s plant sensitivity germinating broad
investigations into tropisms  Effect of light on bean and sprouting
unequal distribution
of auxin which causes growth of shoots – potato.
unequal growth rates dark, even light, light Positive and negative
in shoots and roots. box and clinostat in phototropism: Broad
light box. Investigate bean seedling held by
which part of a shoot pin in jar with light
is sensitive to light. entering through a
slit.

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 Effect of gravity on Light sensitivity:
growth of plants Three pots of oat
seedlings in three
 Demo response to light boxes – tips
water. removed, tips covered
and untreated.
 Interpret experiments
Gravity: Grow broad
using agar blocks and
beans in dark jar in
seedlings with shoot different positions,
tips removed. blotting paper. Broad
bean seedling in
clinostat in dark –
rotating and still.
B1.2.3 Control in
plants
d Use of plant Explain how plant hormones 1 Planning an approach Rooting hormone:
hormones in are used as weed killers and Are all pant hormones useful? Rooting powder, jars

agriculture and rooting hormones. of water and plant
Investigate the effect of
horticulture. cuttings.
rooting hormones on
growth of cuttings.
Weed killer: Selective
 Investigate effect of weed
weed killer solution.
killer on an area of lawn.

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B1.3 The use and abuse of drugs

B1.3.1 Drugs

a Testing of new drugs Explain the term ‘drug’ and give 1 Presenting and writing descriptions and
b and clinical trials. examples of medical drugs. explanations PPT B1.3 Use and
Discuss: Brainstorm – what is a drug? abuse of drugs
Explain why drugs need to be Names of medicines.
tested before they can be Use pictures to relate uses and
Useful information on
prescribed. problems associated with thalidomide.
thalidomide can be
Describe the uses and problems Research: Research and produce a
Thalidomide found at
associated with thalidomide. newspaper report on thalidomide to
d www.thalidomideuk.c
include
Explain how the drug testing om
 original use,
procedure for thalidomide was
 use in pregnant women,
inappropriate.
 current uses.
Describe the main steps in
testing a new drug. Be able to
Discuss: Discuss drug safety and how
give reasons for the different
drugs are tested today.
stages in drug testing.
Using models
Explain the terms placebo and Cards/cut-outs to sequence stages in
double-blind trial. drug testing and trialling and purpose
of each stage.

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c Statins lower the Describe and evaluate the effect 1 Developing argument Working critically with Caffeine:
amount of cholesterol of statins in cardiovascular secondary evidence coffee/energy
in the blood. disease. Interpret data on statins (links drink/coke vs. decaf
Recreational drugs with inherited factors B1.1.1d). version or water,
e Describe some recreational timer/pulse rate
Discuss: Brainstorm on recreational Obtaining and presenting
drugs. sensor and a ruler
drugs, sort into legal and illegal and evidence
(alternative measure
Describe some effects of discuss why people use them. Investigate the effect of caffeine effect of caffeine
caffeine on the body. on heart rate or reaction time concentration on
Explain why a person might (see B1.2.1 reaction time heart rate of daphnia)
become addicted to a experiment’).
recreational drug
g Overall impact of Evaluate the impact of smoking 1 Presenting and writing arguments Obtaining and presenting Be able to use data
legal drugs on health. ‘My granddad is 85 and has smoked all primary evidence from a line graph to
his life so why shouldn’t I?’ Demo: Smoking machine to describe the
 Students work in groups to show carbon dioxide and tar relationship between
produce arguments for and content of smoke. Students birth mass of a baby
gather and present data and the number of
against the statement then
cigarettes smoked by
debate in class
the mother.
 Poster to show effects of Useful information on
chemicals in smoke on the drugs can be found at
body. www.talktofrank.com
A useful tool about

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Evaluate why some people use  Calculate the cost of smoking smoking can be found
illegal drugs for recreation. cigarettes. on the NHS website
at www.nhs.uk by
Evaluate claims made about the
Show health warning on packets of searching‘smoking
effect of prescribed and non-
cigarettes; video clips of smoking calculator’.
prescribed drugs on health.
adverts. Why do people smoke? Further information
on smoking can be
found at
www.ash.org.uk

Reaching an agreement on scientific


explanations
Use evidence from research to arrive at
an opinion about claims made about
the effect of prescribed and non-
prescribed drugs on health. Students
write a blog about how they came to
this view

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e Recreational drugs Evaluate the impact of alcohol 1 Applications, implications and cultural Working critically with primary Exhibition of alcoholic
on health. understanding evidence drinks with units per
g Evaluate whether individuals measure.
Impact of legal drugs Evaluate why some people use Discuss: Discuss effects of alcohol on
who smoke and drink alcohol to A tool about drinking
on health is greater illegal drugs for recreation. the body, recommended units for men
excess should receive the same can be found on the
than illegal drugs as Evaluate claims made about the and women.
NHS treatment as those who NHS website at
more people use effect of prescribed and non- Survey friends and family and calculate
do not eg heart by-pass www.nhs.uk by
them. prescribed drugs on health. number of units of alcohol consumed in
operations, lung transplant searching ‘alcohol
a week. What advise would you give
about drinking? tracker’.

e Recreational drugs Describe the effects of cannabis 1 Applications implications and cultural Working critically with primary Information on
on the body. understanding and secondary evidence cannabis can be
f Interpret data on drug use found on the NHS
Cannabis Consider the possible How fine is the line between
Interpret data on cannabis use website at
progression from recreational recreational and hard drugs?
and progression to hard drugs www.nhs.uk by
to hard drugs. Can using ‘hard drugs’ ever be justified?
h searching ‘the
Drug addiction and Describe the effects of Students gather evidence for a class dangers of cannabis’.
withdrawal symptoms heroin/cocaine addiction on the debate from Further information

– heroin and cocaine. body and withdrawal on drugs can be
Invite an outside speaker, eg
symptoms. found on the
drugs and alcohol adviser.
following websites
 Research effects of cannabis www.dare.uk.com
on the body. www.nida.nih.gov and
on the NHS website

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 Watch NHS video clip on the at www.nhs.uk by
dangers of smoking cannabis. searching for ‘drugs’.
Video: Watch video
. clips from NHS site
on cocaine use.
i Steroids and Evaluate the use of drugs to 1 Reaching agreement about scientific Information about
performance enhance performance in sport. explanations drugs in sport can be
enhancing drugs. Consider the ethical issues of Is taking a dietary supplement to boost found on BBC GCSE
performance enhancing drugs. fitness and stamina in athletes any Bitesize at
different to taking steroids to increase www.bbc.co.uk/school
Describe some effects and risks
muscle bulk? s/gcsebitesize by
of these drugs.
searching ‘doping’ or
Students research and debate
‘performance
Research: Research types of drugs used enhancing drugs’.
in sport and their effects on the body
and produce a table.
Presenting and writing arguments Role
play, write a story or debate about
using drugs in sport; random drug
testing; getting caught cheating.

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B1.4 Interdependence and adaptation

B1.4.1 Adaptations

d Adaptations for Explain the reason for 2 Communication for audience and Use full range of practical and Useful information
survival. adaptations in a range of purpose enquiry skills ie planning; can be found on the
e organisms. variable; assessing risk; BBC website at
Extremophiles Are all living things on the planet
obtaining and presenting www.bbc.co.uk by
Explain how organisms are adapted in one way or another?
evidence; evaluating searching ‘adaptations
Adaptations for adapted to survive in their Use evidence to
f Investigate the rate of cooling – and behaviours’.

survival in deserts habitat.
produce a display of plants, either SURFACE AREA Further information
and the Arctic. Describe and explain animals and microorganisms (SA)/Volume ratio, colour of can be found at
Adaptations to cope adaptations for survival in the body, body covering or
g with labels to explain how their www.yourdiscovery.co
with specific features Arctic. huddling. Link results to
adaptations help them to m
of the environment. Describe and explain survive in their habitat. Include different organisms. Useful video clips can
adaptations for survival in a be found on the BBC
examples of extremophiles and
desert. website at
desert and arctic organisms.Or
Define the term extremophile www.bbc.co.uk/learni
and be able to give general  Prepare a presentation in any ngzone/clips by
examples. media to answer the question. searching for
Be able to relate features seen extremophile bacteria
in a diagram to the organism’s (clip 10469), plant
survival. adaptations –
extreme cold (clip

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5506), and plant
adaptations –
extreme heat (clip
5514).

a Organisms require Describe factors that affect the 2-3 Presenting and writing arguments Working critically with Video clip on
materials from their survival of organisms in their secondary evidence courtship displays.
Discuss: Brainstorm factors that affect
surroundings and habitat. Interpret population curves, eg Exhibition of
the survival of organisms in a habitat.
from other organisms hare and lynx, red and grey camouflaged
Discuss resources that organisms may
to survive. squirrels, and native and organisms.
compete for and the effect on
American crayfish..
Plants compete for populations.
Describe resources that plants Working critically with primary
light, space, water
b and animals compete for in a evidence PPT B1.4
and nutrients.
given habitat. Investigating the distribution of Interdependence and
Animals compete for plants on the school field or
Describe adaptations that some adaptation
food, mates and relationship between light
c organisms have to avoid being
territory. intensity and types of plants.
eaten.
Competition in radish seedlings
Interpret population curves.
– spacing trials and height
(links with B2.4.1 and B3.4.1).

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B1.4.2 Environmental change

a Environmental Evaluate data on environmental 2-3 Presenting and writing descriptions and Planning an approach Be able to give two
change and the change and the distribution and explanations Demonstrate use of rain ways in which
distribution of behaviour of living organisms. gauges and maximum -and humans damage the
Prepare a concept map to show how an
organisms. minimum thermometers ,the environment.
Describe with examples how an environment can change and how these
b use of equipment to measure
Environmental environment can change. changes could affect organisms within Be able to
oxygen, temperature and
changes due to living it. Show the impact eg on distribution Pond dipping: Kick
rainfall..
and non-living of bird species, disappearance of bees, nets, sample trays
Assessing risk and working
factors. Interpret data on lichen global warming, agricultural pollution, and pots,
c safely Investigate the effect of
Indicators of pollution distribution and sulfur dioxide sulfur dioxide and oxygen levels in identification charts,
phosphate levels on algal
– lichens and levels. water. oxygen, pH and
growth and oxygen levels
invertebrates. temperature sensors
d Interpret data on invertebrates Pond/stream dipping and
Reaching agreement on scientific Lichen identification
Measuring and water pollution. measurement of environmental
explanations charts, clip boards.
environmental factors, eg temperature
Research why the bee population is Phosphate levels: Jars
changes. changes over a day, oxygen
falling and the effects this will have of water and algae,
content of water and pH..
(overlap with B2.4 and B3.4) and come phosphate solution
What are indicator species?
to an informed opinion. Share with and pipettes and
Carry out a lichen survey on
group oxygen sensor.
local trees/walls.
Interpret data on lichens and A useful clip on the
invertebrates. honey bee can be
found on the BBC
website at

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Choice chambers: choice www.bbc.co.uk/learni
chambers, with areas of ngzone/clips by
different conditions, woodlice or searching for clip
maggots. ‘7187’.

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B1.5 Energy and biomass in food chains

B1.5.1 Energy in biomass

a The Sun is the source Be able to construct and 1 Obtaining and presenting Useful information
of energy for most interpret pyramids of biomass. primary evidence can be found at
communities; Investigate leaf litter – separate www.gould.edu.au/foo
photosynthesis. into plant material and dwebs
b different types of animals;
Pyramids of biomass. Leaf litter,
construct pyramids of number
identification charts,
and biomass.
balance and
containers.
b Pyramids of biomass Describe how energy and mass 1 Developing explanations using models Working critically with Note: Candidates do
is transferred along a food secondary data not need to be able to
Are pyramids of number, biomass and
chain. Interpret data on energy interpret pyramids of
Energy losses in food energy always pyramid shaped?
c transfer in food chains and list number.
chains. Explain why energy and Review and research to compare energy losses at each level.
biomass is reduced at information shown in pyramids of B1.5 Energy and
successive stages in a food number and biomass and discuss why biomass in food
chain. biomass decreases at each level. chains

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B1.6 Waste materials from plants and animals

B1.6.1 Decay processes

a Living things remove Describe how plants and 2 Presenting and writing arguments Selecting and managing Grass clippings:
materials from the animals return materials to the Should non-biodegradable packaging variables Thermos flasks with
environment for environment. be banned? thermometers/temper
Why do leaves decay faster in
growth and other Describe the role of  Classify items as biodegradable summer than winter?
ature probe,
disinfectant, wet and

processes; these are microorganisms in decay. and non-biodegradable and Investigating the dry grass and
returned to the agree criteria for classification. factors that affect composting agent.
environment in
Be able to name the type of

wastes and when decay, eg temperature, PPT B1.6 Waste
Discuss: Show some examples
living organism which causes moisture, pH, oxygen materials from plants
organisms die and of rotting foods; discuss what
leaves to decay? and decay of bread or and animals
decay. has caused the food to rot.
fruit.
What would happen if things
Conditions for decay didn’t rot when they died?  Investigate the rate of
b
Decay releases decay of grass
nutrients for plant Developing explanations using ideas
c and models clippings
growth. Describe factors affecting the
 Discuss why plants in a wood
Material is constantly rate of decay.  Competition – whose
continue to grow without the
d cycled and can lead to Explain how decay is useful to potato will decay the
use of fertilisers and relate to
stable communities. plants. fastest? Plan the best
recycling of materials. Useful information on
Evaluate the necessity and earthworms can be

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effectiveness of recycling  Research how kitchen and conditions for decay found at
organic kitchen or garden garden wastes can be www.curriculumbits.c
wastes. recycled. om by searching for
Demo: Set up a wormery and ‘Earthworm
observe how they improve the investigation’.
soil and breakdown dead
leaves.
Online activity: Earthworm
investigation.

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B1.6.2 The carbon cycle

a The main processes Explain the carbon cycle in 1 Applications implications and cultural Assessing risk and working
involved in the carbon terms of photosynthesis, understandings safely
cycle. respiration, feeding, death and Can any action to use natural resources Demos: Show examples of Carbon dioxide
decay, combustion of wood and be justified if it is part of a recycling fossil fuels; burn a fossil fuel sensor, coal and oil
fossil fuels. programme? and bubble the fumes through
Explain the role of Gather evidence to debate this topic limewater.
microorganisms and detritus from the following Use sensors to measure carbon
feeders in decay.  Revise how carbon dioxide is dioxide levels in the air; show a
Explain why deforestation used by plants in piece of coal and discuss what
increases the amount of carbon photosynthesis and why this is it is and how it was formed.
dioxide in the atmosphere. of use to animals. What
happens to the carbon? Demo: fuels, inverted glass
funnel to direct fumes through
 how the carbon passes from tube of limewater and pump.
plants to animals; how it is
returned to the air;

 what happens when things die;


describe how the carbon in
dead bodies may be recycled.

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 formation and combustion of
fossil fuels.

Developing ideas through models


Cut-out different coloured cards for
processes and organisms and arrange
them as in the carbon cycle.

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B1.7 Genetic variation and its control

B1.7.1 Why organisms are different

d Genetic and Classify characteristics as being 1-2 Developing argument Obtaining and presenting B1.7 Genetic
environmental causes due to genetic or environmental Why do organisms of the same species primary evidence variation and its
of variation. causes. show variation? Class survey of characteristics – control
 Discuss genetic and collate results in a table and
Decide the best way to present Useful information
environmental variation. produce a display of the results
information about variation in can be found at
in appropriate format.

tables and charts. www.UPD8.org.uk
Discuss continuous and Include in the table whether
discontinuous variation. each characteristic is due to by searching ‘the
genetic or environmental future in your genes’.
Would you want to know if you had a causes, or both.
genetic predisposition to illness that Measure variation in a plant
could be linked to environment? Eg species growing in different
high cholesterol levels in family areas of school grounds, eg leaf
Examine the benefits of knowing how length in areas of sun/shade
genes can be linked to diseases

c Different genes Describe the order of size of 1 Developing explanations using models Working critically with primary Name cards to sort.
control different cell, nucleus, chromosome and Students produce models eg and secondary evidence
Microscopes,
characteristics. gene. animations, artefact, diagram to explain Ask Rich questions such as
 What determines
prepared slides, and
the relationship between cell, nucleus,
a Genes carry bioviewers.

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information about chromosome. gene gender? Photos of karyotypes
characteristics and gather evidence, for example, from  Why are stem cells so – partially paired
are passed from  Look at chromosomes on valuable? chromosomes.
parents to offspring in slides or bioviewers.  Should genetic www.sciencemuseum.
gametes. screening be

org.uk/WhoAmI/FindO
b Nucleus contains Look at photographs of
compulsory utMore/Yourgenes
chromosomes that chromosomes from a male and
Students use secondary this is also available
carry genes. a female or cut and pair for download in PDF.
evidence to suggest answers to
chromosomes from photos of the questions
male and female karyotypes.

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B1.7.2 Reproduction

a There are two forms Explain why sexual reproduction 1 Developing argument Application of science Be able to sequence
of reproduction – results in variation, but asexual Rich questions to support recap of Should the EU subsidise the stages involved in
sexual results in reproduction does not produce reproduction horticultural farmer at the adult cell cloning.
variation in the variation. Students work in small groups or pairs expense of traditional growing Show video clips of
offspring due to to research and share answers methods? fertilisation of an egg
Describe sexual reproduction as
mixing of genes;  Do we really need males? Take stem cuttings of by a sperm and of
the joining of male and female
asexual produces  Is sex necessary? geraniums or leaf cuttings of insects pollinating
gametes.
genetically identical  Can scientists solve the world African violets; produce potato flowers Show
clones. food shortage? plants from sprouting potatoes. strawberry runners,
Define the term ‘clone’.
b New plants can be Explain how plant cuttings can  Do hermaphrodites lead a carrot top growing on
produced by taking solitary existence? damp blotting paper,
be grown into new plants.
cuttings. They are potato sprouting,
genetically identical to spider plant
the parent plant. producing runners,
bulb, amoeba and
yeast.
Cuttings: Healthy
geranium plants and
African violets,
sprouting potatoes,
knives or scissors,
pots, compost, warm

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water, labels and.
marker pens, rooting
compound if wanted.
c Modern cloning Interpret information about 1 Applications, implications and cultural Working critically with primary Worksheet for
techniques – tissue cloning techniques. understanding/ Developing explanations evidence Cauliflower activity
culture, embryo using ideas and models can be found at
Make informed judgements
transplants and adult Discuss: Discuss how identical twins are http://www.saps.org.u
about the economic, social and Students produce cauliflower
cell cloning. formed and lead on to embryo k/students/projects/1
ethical issues concerning clones –follow guidance from
transplants. 49
cloning. SAPS and draw reliable
Students produce models to explain the
Describe the process of tissue conclusions from the evidence
method of embryo transplants or adult
culture in plants. gathered
cell cloning.
Explain the importance of Students evaluate strengths and
cloning to plant growers. weaknesses of their own and other
Describe the process of embryo models
transplants in animals.
c Modern cloning Describe the process of adult 1 Developing explanations using ideas Applications, implications and Video clips on cloning
techniques – tissue cell cloning in animals. and models cultural unders anding can be found on the
culture, embryo Interpret information/ BBC website at
Explain advantages and Video: Watch a video clip of adult cell
transplants and adult dataabout cloning techniques. www.bbc.co.uk/learni
disadvantages of cloning cloning/Dolly the sheep.
cell cloning. techniques. Produce a flow diagram to describe the ngzone/clips by
process of adult cell cloning or carry out searching for clips
card sorting activity. ‘4140’ and ‘4139’.
Be able to present arguments
Developing argument

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for and against human cloning. Should human cloning be allowed? Useful websites are
Research and debate the advantages www.bbc.co.uk and
and disadvantages of cloning plants and www.hfea.gov.uk
animals.
Research latest legislation on human
cloning and discuss social and ethical
issues related to human cloning.

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d Genetic engineering Define the term ‘genetic 1-2 Reaching agreement on scientific Working critically with Be able to give two
techniques. engineering’. explanations secondary evidence reasons why farmers
e Interpret information about are in favour of
Examples of genetic Describe the process of genetic Discuss: Brainstorm what the terms
genetic engineering techniques. growing GM crops.
engineering. engineering to produce bacteria genetic engineering, genetic
f Weigh up the pros and cons of
Concerns about that can produce insulin and modification and gene therapy mean. Be able to give two
growing genetically modified
genetically modified crops that have desired List examples of genetic engineering. reasons why people
food and produce up to fifty
(GM) crops characteristics. Communication for audience and are against growing
word headline paragraphs to
Interpret information about purpose GM crops.
represent the views of
Produce a leaflet for a doctors surgery
genetic engineering techniques.  Organic farmers Information on
to explain how human insulin is
Make informed judgements  Food-Aid organisers genetically modified
produced by bacteria and discuss the
 GM Research scientists
about the economic, social and food can be found at
advantages of this over porcine insulin www.curriculumbits.c
ethical issues concerning
(links with B3.3.3).  Students themselves
genetic engineering. om
Research: Research advantages and
Explain advantages and PPT B1.7 Genetic
disadvantages of GM crops; what
disadvantages of genetic variation and its
characteristics may be modified;
engineering. control
produce a web page or a table of Information on genetic
benefits versus concerns for homework. engineering can be found at
www.UPD8.org.uk by searching
for ‘mosquitoes vs malaria’.

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B1.8 Evolution

B1.8.1 Evolution

a Darwin’s theory of Describe Darwin’s theory of 1 Working critically with primary and Video clips on
evolution by natural evolution. plus secondary evidence evolution and natural
selection. HWK selection can be
c Other theories, eg found on the BBC
Discuss: Look at exhibition to show the
Lamarck, are based Describe different theories of website at
wide variety of organisms that live, or
mainly on the idea evolution. www.bbc.co.uk/learni
have lived, on Earth.
that changes that ngzone/clips by
Where did they come from?Describe searching for clips
occur in an organism
Video: Watch video on Darwin’s theory ‘5523’ and ‘5516’.
during its lifetime can
of evolution and other theories
be inherited.
Research: Research and produce report
on evolutionary theories, eg Darwin,
Lamarck, Creationism, Buffon, and
Cuvier. Be able to give two reasons
why people were against Darwin’s ideas
at that time.
e Evolution occurs by Identify differences between 1 Presenting and writing descriptions and Planning an approach/Working
natural selection. Darwin’s theory of evolution explanations with secondary evidence)
and conflicting theories. Does evolution always produce better Describe how to gather
f Mutations may lead Suggest reasons for the organisms? evidence for an evolutionary

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to more rapid different theories. Discuss natural selection and create a tree to describe relationships
evolution. Explain the terms ‘inherited’ presentation in media of choice to between organisms (HT
and ‘acquired’ characteristics. answer the rich question include the time scales involved
Developing explanations using ideas in evolution).
Describe the stages in natural
and models
selection.
 Natural selection role play
Define the term ‘mutation’. activities.
Explain why mutation may lead  Peppered moth game; explain
to more rapid change in a in terms of natural selection.
 Produce flow diagram to
species.

explain evolution by natural


selection.
 Look at pictures of Darwin’s
finches and match up with the
Galapagos Island they lived on
based on food available there.
b The theory of Explain why Darwin’s theory 1 Reaching an agreement on scientific Working critically with primary PPT 1.8 Evolution
evolution was only was only gradually accepted. explanations and secondary evidence

gradually accepted. Evaluate conclusions drawn by
Interpret evidence relating to Explain why Darwin did not
d Darwin and his followers. Why
Studying similarities evolutionary theory. publish his theory straight
do some people today not
and differences Classify organisms based on away and why it was only accept Darwin’s theories
between organisms their similarities. gradually accepted.
allows us to classify

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them as animals,  Interpret evidence relating to Exhibition of organisms to
plants or evolutionary theory – fossils, classify into groups (this could
microorganisms. pictures of horses, humans, be the first lesson on
tree of life etc. evolution).

How Science Works: Sort pictures of organisms into


an evolutionary timeline.

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