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Department of Chemical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I

Solution key of Quiz II March 30, 2015

1. (a) buoyancy force, viscous force


(b) neither, nor
(c) low, high
(d) number of equilibrium trays, number of real trays

2. 120.6892

3. 70

4. 44.03

5. 0.85

6. (a) 2.5
(b) 480

7. A = Dumping, B = Weeping, C = Flooding, D = Priming

8. raschig ring, berl saddles


pall ring, tellerette

9. a = True, b = False, c = False, d = True

10. (a) 2
(b) 60 MJ

11. (a) As the feed is saturated liquid, the feed point (A) is identified on HL line. With the
help of y∗ vs.x VLE diagram the point B on HG line has been identified and thus
tie-line AB is produced at the feed point. Once extended upto the x−coordinate
yD = 0.96, the minimum reflux point C is achieved that indicates enthalpy of 117
MJ. On the other hand point D on HL line that indicates saturated liquid condition
at yD = 0.96 has enthalpy of 12 MJ. Hence the enthalpy at actual reflux condition
will be (117 − 12) × 1.46 = 153.3 MJ and indicated by point E. The point E and
point A are joined and extended upto x−coordinate xW = 0.1 and arrive at point
F. Operating lines are drawn from points E and F in usual manner and the stages
are graphically produced to be 12.

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Solution Key of Quiz II CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I March 30, 2015

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Solution Key of Quiz II CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I March 30, 2015

(b) As the feed is saturated liquid, q−line is vertical. The feed point (A) is identified on
45◦ line and the minimum reflux point B on the y∗ vs.x VLE diagram. yD = 0.96 is
indicated by point C. The line BC is joined and extended to arrive at point D that
yD
indicates = 0.34, solving one gets Rm = 1.82, hence R = 1.8 × 1.46 = 2.66
Rm + 1
yD
that eventually yields point E where = 0.26; the line EC crosses the feed line
R+1
at point F which is joined with point G that indicates xW = 0.1; the lines F C and
F G are enriching line and stripping line respectively. The stages are graphically
produced to be 12.

12. Consider a packed tower of unit cross section and a packed height of Z. Solute A in gas
phase needs to be absorbed in liquid phase. The molar flow rates of gas and liquid are
G and L (Gs and Ls on solute free basis) respectively. The concentration of solute A in
gas and liquid are y and x respectively. The operating line for the system is

G (y − y2 ) = L (x − x2 )
G
x = (y − y2 ) + x2 (1)
L

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Solution Key of Quiz II CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I March 30, 2015

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Solution Key of Quiz II CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I March 30, 2015

and the equilibrium line is


y ∗ = mx (2)
Specific interfacial surface area of packing material is a. Consider a differential section
of dZ of the column. The quantity of solute A in the gas passing through the differential
section under consideration is d (Gy). Both G and y vary along the length of column,
however Gs remains constant. Hence,
 
Gs Gs dy Gs dy Gdy
d (Gy) = d ×y = 2 = × = (3)
1−y (1 − y) 1−y 1−y 1−y

Again

rate of absorption of A d (Gy)


mass transfer rate = = = ky (y − yi ) = kx (xi − x) (4)
interfacial area adZ
Rearranging eq.(4) and using eq.(3) we obtain the following pair of equations:
 
kx
yi = − (x − xi ) + y (5)
ky
d (Gy) Gdy G (1 − y)iM dy
dZ = = = × (6)
ky a(y − yi ) ky a (1 − y) (y − yi ) ky a (1 − y)iM (1 − y) (y − yi )

where (1 − y)iM is the logarithmic mean of (1 − yi ) and (1 − y) as follows:

(1 − yi ) − (1 − y) (y − yi )
(1 − y)iM = = (7)
(1 − yi ) (1 − yi )
ln ln
(1 − yi ) (1 − yi )

G
It has been observed from experiments that the ratio indicates unit packing
ky a (1 − y)iM
height that remains more constant along the entire packed bed than either of G or
ky a (1 − y)iM . Hence integrating eq.(6),
Z y1
(1 − y)iM dy
Z
G
Z = dZ = (8)
ky a (1 − y)iM y2 (1 − y) (y − yi )

(1 − y)iM
Moreover, if we disregard the ratio , the integrand is seen as a number of times
(1 − y)
the average of (y − yi ) divides into the change of concentraion (y1 − y2 ). Let us now
define the following terms

G
HtG = = height of a transfer unit (9)
ky a (1 − y)iM
Z y1
(1 − y)iM dy
NtG = = number of transfer units (10)
y2 (1 − y) (y − yi )

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Solution Key of Quiz II CL 205:Mass Transfer Operations I March 30, 2015

Thus the height of packed bed can be expressed as the product of height of a single
transfer unit and the number of such transfer units. Without inviting much error,
eq.(10) can further be simplified by substituting logarithmic mean of (1 − y)iM by its
arithmatic mean as
(1 − yi ) + (1 − y) (1 − y) + (y − yi ) + (1 − y)
(1 − y)iM ≈ = = (1 − y) + 0.5 (y − yi )
2 2
(11)
Hence
y1 Z y1
(1 − y)iM dy (1 − y) + 0.5 (y − yi )
Z
NtG = = dy
y2 (1 − y) (y − yi ) y2 (1 − y) (y − yi )
y1
1 y1 dy
Z y1
1 (1 − y2 )
Z Z
dy dy
= + = + ln (12)
y2 (y − yi ) 2 y2 (1 − y) y2 (y − yi ) 2 (1 − y1 )
1
A plot of vs. y yields a simpler graphical integration, however it often covers
(y − yi )
awkwardly large ranges of ordinates. This can be avoided by replacing it by logarithmic
scale as
dy
dy = y × = y × d (ln y) = y × ln (10) × d (log y) (13)
y
using eq.(13) in eq.(12) one obtains
Z y1
dy 1 (1 − y2 )
NtG = + ln
y (y − yi ) 2 (1 − y1 )
Z 2y1
y × ln (10) × d (log y) ln (10) (1 − y2 )
= + log
y2 (y − yi ) 2 (1 − y1 )
Z y1
y (1 − y2 )
= 2.303 d (log y) + 1.152 log (14)
y2 (y − yi ) (1 − y1 )

Hence intersection of operating line (eq.1) and interfacial line (a.k.a driving force line)
(eq.5) gives the value of y in eq.(14) whereas intersection of equilibrium line (eq.2) and
interfacial line (eq.5) gives the value of yi in eq.(14). Using eqs.(1) and (2) in eq.(5) one
obtains     
kx G yi
yi = − (y − y2 ) + x2 − +y (15)
ky L m
Rearranging the above
  
kx G
− (y − y2 ) + x2 +y
ky L
yi =   (16)
1 kx
1+ −
m ky
The eq.(16) generates the pairs of {y, yi } for the calculation of transfer units.

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