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RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION IN A VOLUNTARY

ORGANIZATION:

A CASE STUDY ON THE MALTA GIRL GUIDES ASSOCIATION

By

CLAIRE DUFF

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award


of a

Bachelor of Commerce Honours Degree in Management

at the

UNIVERSITY OF MALTA

Faculty of Management, Economics and Accountancy

May 2010
ABSTRACT

Claire Duff

B. Com (Hons.) Management: May 2010

Recruitment and Retention in a Voluntary Organization:


A Case Study on the Malta Girl Guides Association
Human resource management is essential for voluntary organizations, even more so

when these organizations depend on volunteers and members for their survival and

growth. The recruitment and retention process is essential to keep the Voluntary

organization up and running, and for it to reach its goals and missions. Volunteers

are capable of giving very valuable input which they gather through first-hand

experience; they are also capable of helping with the recruitment of new volunteers

and members; this increases their worth and the importance to keep them motivated

and willing to give their time as a volunteer. This research question focuses on how

the Malta Girl Guides Association (hereunder referred to as the Association) can

improve their ways to retain their present volunteers and members, and increase the

number through better recruitment and retention methods. Both quantitative and

qualitative approaches were used as insight into the voluntary organization and the

Malta Girl Guides Association was chosen as a Case Study. Interviews, focus groups

and observation methods were conducted to gather a wider range of information

from different stakeholders. The results show that the Association has been

increasing in membership and volunteers over the past five years, but at a very slow

rate. The Association depends on these numbers for sustainable growth and therefore

these recruitment rates need to increase to maintain a strong amount of members and

volunteers. The research also show that volunteers need to feel more motivated and

that the Association needs to work harder to put forward a stronger image in society;

this will make it easier to recruit new volunteers and members in the long term.

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STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY

I, the undersigned, declare that my dissertation entitled “Recruitment and Retention

in a Voluntary Organization: A Case Study on the Malta Girl Guides Association”, is

authentic and has been carried out under the supervision of Mr. Mario Grixti, DPA

Msc. (HRM), appointed by the Faculty of Economics, Management and

Accountancy.

Claire Duff

___________________

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Several people have shown their support in a number of ways throughout the
completion of this dissertation.

I would first like to thank my tutor, Mr. Grixti, for his constant support, guidance and
constructive comments during this study.

I would also like to thank Ms. Marjoe Abela, for her continuous and valuable support
whenever I needed it.

I am grateful to the Malta Girl Guides Association, the volunteers and the members,
who have always shown their support in this study through their participation, input
and feedback.

I am also forever indebted to my family, for their boundless patience and support
throughout my studies, and to Matthew for his patience and understanding.

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Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….ii
Statement of Authenticity.…………………………………………………………...iii

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………..iv

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………..v

List of Figures ........................................................................................................... viii


1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 9
1.1 General Background............................................................................................. 10
1.2 Research Objectives ............................................................................................. 10
1.3 The Malta Girl Guides Association................................................................. 11
1.3.1 History ........................................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Programme .................................................................................................... 12
1.3.3 Structure ........................................................................................................ 12
1.4 Study Overview.................................................................................................... 15
2. LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................ 16
2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 17
2.2 Human Resource Management ............................................................................ 17
2.3 Human Resource Management Policy ................................................................. 19
2.4 Recruitment and Retention................................................................................... 20
2.4.1 Recruitment ................................................................................................... 20
2.4.2 Retention ....................................................................................................... 21
2.5 Voluntary Organizations ...................................................................................... 24
2.5.1 The mission statement ................................................................................... 26
2.5.2 The External Environment ............................................................................ 27
2.5.3 The Internal Environment ............................................................................. 27
2.6 Recruitment in Voluntary Organizations ............................................................. 28
2.6.1 Job description .............................................................................................. 30
2.6.2 Attracting new volunteers and members ....................................................... 31
2.6.3 Recruitment through Promotion.................................................................... 32
2.6.4 Advertising ................................................................................................ 33
2.7 The volunteer ....................................................................................................... 34

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2.8 Membership ......................................................................................................... 35
2.9 Motivation ............................................................................................................ 36
2.10 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 39
3. METHODOLOGY........................................................................................... 40
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 41
3.2 Aims and Objectives ............................................................................................ 41
3.3 Data Collection Methods ..................................................................................... 41
3.3.1 Secondary Data ............................................................................................. 41
3.3.1.1 Qualitative Secondary Data Used In This Research .............................. 42
3.3.1.2 Quantitative Secondary Data Used In This Research ............................ 42
3.3.2 Primary Data ................................................................................................. 43
3.3.2.1 Qualitative Primary Research Methods Used ........................................ 43
3.3 Procedure Overview ............................................................................................. 49
3.5 Pilot Study ............................................................................................................ 50
3.6 Ethical Issues ........................................................................................................ 50
3.7 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................... 51
3.8 Limitations ........................................................................................................... 51
4. ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION .......................................................................... 53
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 54
4.2 General Statistics.................................................................................................. 54
4.3 General Information on Participants .................................................................... 56
4.3.1 The National Board ....................................................................................... 56
4.3.2 Adult Volunteers ........................................................................................... 57
4.3.3 Parents of members ....................................................................................... 58
4.3.4 Focus Group Participants .............................................................................. 59
4.4 Recruitment & Retention ..................................................................................... 59
4.5 Motivation ............................................................................................................ 68
4.6 Decision Making and Communication................................................................. 73
4.7 The external Environment .................................................................................... 76
4.8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 78
5. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................. 80
5.1 Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 81
5.2 Limitations ........................................................................................................... 83

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5.3 Recommendations ................................................................................................ 83
5.3.1 Recommendations for the Malta Girl Guides Association ........................... 84
5.3.2 Further Research ........................................................................................... 85
5.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 85
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 87
APPENDICES .......................................................................................................... 92
Appendix A: The Malta Girl Guides Draft Statute as on May 2010 ......................... 93
Appendix B: Focus Group Questions Asked ........................................................... 104
Appendix C: Guidelines for Mediators .................................................................... 107
Appendix D: Letter to Volunteers regarding Focus Group Participation ................ 108
Appendix E: Letter to Parents/Guardians regarding Focus Group Participation ..... 109
Appendix F: Adult Volunteers Questionnaire ......................................................... 110
Appendix G: Parent/Guardian Questionnaires ......................................................... 115
Appendix H: Letter sent to the Malta Girl Guides Association ............................... 117
Appendix I: Growth Strategy 2009 – 2010 .............................................................. 118

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List of Figures

Figure 1: The Malta Girl Guides Association: Organizational Chart ........................ 13


Figure 2: The Mala Girl Guides Association: District Organizational Chart ............ 14
Figure 3: Strategic Accountability Approach ............................................................ 23
Figure 4: Yearly Membership Statistics..................................................................... 54
Figure 5: Volunteer/Membership Statistics Line Chart ............................................. 55
Figure 6: Adult Volunteer Age Groups ...................................................................... 57
Figure 7: Parents'/Guardians' Occupations ................................................................ 58
Figure 8: Recruitment Method (Adult Volunteers) .................................................... 60
Figure 9: Member Recruitment Method (Parent/Guardian Questionnaires).............. 61
Figure 10: Association's Relevance Today ................................................................ 63
Figure 11: Does Society Benefit? .............................................................................. 63
Figure 12: Membership Fees ...................................................................................... 66
Figure 13: Do Volunteers Feel Appreciated?............................................................. 69
Figure 14: Motivators for Volunteers ........................................................................ 70
Figure 15: Volunteers Involvement in the Decision-Making Process ....................... 75
Figure 16: Malta Girl Guides Logo .......................................................................... 106
Figure 17: Malta Girl Guides Advert ....................................................................... 106

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1. INTRODUCTION

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1.1 General Background

Recruitment and Retention can be considered as the most important processes that

human resource managers undertake, even more so since the people of an

organization are the ones who make the operations of an organization possible;

especially in voluntary organizations where resources are even more limited and

goals are different (Herman, 2005). It is important that the vision is communicated

well and for people to be enthusiastic about transferring goals to reality (Bratton &

Gold, 2001). According to Emerald Group Publishing (2006), enthusiasm is very

important to achieve lasting change through people who are formed together through

one common goal. „The essence of a voluntary organization after all, is that people

are there because they want to be there‟ (Handy, 1988, p2) and this aspect leads to

the need for voluntary organizations to adapt the for-profit recruitment process so as

to cater for the specific needs of the not-for-profit organization.

1.2 Research Objectives

The objectives of this research are to identify the recruitment and retention process

already in use by a specific voluntary organization. It explores the recruitment and

retention tools used by the Malta Girl Guides Association which has been chosen as

the case study. Through volunteers and members, various aspects of the recruitment

and retention process will be focused upon. Different HRM policies are studied such

as motivation, training and recruitment promotion which shed light on the present

situation and how volunteers and members feel about these aspects; several features

of recruitment and retention are also given particular attention to see how they can be

improved to increase the number of volunteers and members in this specific

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Association. For this reason, the background of the Association is also researched to

get a better understanding and appreciation of the case study.

1.3 The Malta Girl Guides Association

The Malta Girl Guides Association (hereunder referred to as the Association) is the

voluntary organization chosen for this case study. It is locally based and focuses on

an informal programme which is directed at girls and young women and aims at

enabling “girls and young women to develop a good character and to discover their

potential through an interactive programme, giving a positive sense of direction and

a world of opportunities as responsible citizens”(Malta Girl Guides Statue, 2009,

p3). As can be seen in the previous quote, the Association is only for female

volunteers and members and focuses on their development.

1.3.1 History

Girl Guiding in Malta began in 1918 when British Girl Guides moved here during

the war and started forming groups where Maltese girls used to have their own

groups. In 1923, the first Maltese organization was founded. At this time, Malta was

not a member of the World Association for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS)

but in 1966 it became a partial member, known as an associate member. In 1972 they

became full members of the World Association and still remain till this day. From

the beginning, the Malta Girl Guides always made use of the material and uniforms

of the British Girl Guides in the United Kingdom. Even their programme was the

same until a few years ago; then everything changed and the programme and

uniforms of the Malta Girl Guides were published and produced locally.

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1.3.2 Programme

The Association first utilized the programme by the Girl Guides in the United

Kingdom, since they originated from there; but in 2006 the Association launched

their own programme which catered for Maltese girls and young women. The

programme is non-formal which means that it provides a mixture of different

activities and skill learning while at the same time still making the opportunities fun

(Mitchell & Reid-Walsh, 2008).

The programme is an eight point programme which is divided into six areas of

personal development. The eight points consist of the following themes: Health,

Mind & Spirit, Local & International Guiding, Creativity, Skills, Environment,

Culture and Heritage and Service. While focusing on these eight points, the

Association must also make sure to develop the six areas of a person‟s development,

which are: Emotional, Intellectual, Spiritual, Moral, Social and Physical

development.

These points and areas of development are all incorporated into monthly programmes

which are delivered to members by volunteers on a weekly basis through weekly

meetings held on a village level. Volunteers and members in the Association have

different roles which define how the Association is structured and capable of

reaching its mission statement through the monthly programmes and through the

volunteers.

1.3.3 Structure

The Council is the governing body and has the role of passing policies and

determining the Association‟s primary values; it is chaired by the President of the

Association. The National Board is the administrative body which takes all the

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decisions and guides the volunteers through their role in the Association; this board

is headed by the Chief Commissioner. Members of the National Board consist of

three District Commissioners for the three Districts in the Association, which are the

North the Central and the South. Each District has its own Secretary and Treasurer as

well as volunteers. Volunteers then have their own units in different villages around

Malta with their own members to whom they provide a monthly programme.

Council
(President)
National Board
(Chief
Commissioner)

Island Island
Treasurer Secretary

District International
Commissioners Commissioner

Education
Training
Programme
Commissioner
Commissioner

Figure 1: The Malta Girl Guides Association: Organizational Chart

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District
Commissioner

District District
Treasurer Secretary

Adult
Volunteers
(Leaders)

Members

Figure 2: The Mala Girl Guides Association: District Organizational Chart

The members of the association are divided into four different sections according to

age. These are as follows:

Dolphins that are aged from five to seven

Brownies that are aged from seven to ten

Guides that are aged from ten to fourteen

Rangers that are aged from fourteen to eighteen

From then on, rangers go on to become young volunteers, taking part in training to

acquire a license; these then become warranted volunteers, which are known as

leaders.

If leaders decide that they do not want to continue on in a specific section or village,

they can choose to become adult volunteers who are also known as the Link Support

Group. This is a group of those volunteers who do not feel up to taking care of their

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own unit but are still willing to give their volunteering time to the Association on

other occasions.

1.4 Study Overview

This research is divided into the following five chapters which consist of:

The Introduction gives an overview of what the research questions will discuss its

aims and objectives as well as a general background on the case study chosen as a

voluntary organization.

The second chapter will go through the literature review to identify the different

aspects of recruitment and retention as a human resource management tool as well as

provides a closer look into voluntary organizations and how they apply to human

resource policy and in voluntary organizations to motivate and recruit new volunteers

and members.

The third chapter will give a close look at the different methods of research used in

this study and what different data and information these provided the researcher.

Chapter four will divulge the information which was gathered throughout the

research question and views the different practices in the specific case study. This

chapter shows the results and views how the Association makes use of its recruitment

and retention practices. Results in this section are compared and contrasted to

promote discussion.

The final chapter concludes this research as well as gives recommendations to the

Malta Girl Guides on how to improve recruitment and retention of volunteers and

members better and longer as well as recommendations on future studies.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1 Introduction

The literature presented below looks at recruitment and retention as one of the main

components of Human Resource Management. It focuses on recruitment and

retention practices and how these are put to use particularly within Voluntary

Organizations. It also discusses relevance to increase membership and volunteers

when organizations depend on these for growth and success. It then moves on to

discuss voluntary organizations and how these are made up, what drives them and

what internal and external environmental aspects affect their success. In merging the

two main themes together, the literature review will then discuss the relationship

between recruitment and voluntary organizations and what methods can help to

attract and retain volunteers and members. Motivation is also discussed and how it

affects the recruitment and retention process in voluntary organizations.

2.2 Human Resource Management

“Human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment


management which seeks to obtain competitive advantage through the
strategic deployment of a highly committed and skilled workforce, using
an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques” (Storey 1995,
p5)

Armstrong (2003) goes on to say that the organization‟s human resources are the

most important asset. Many organizations, referring to employees, say that their

people are the most important asset as they play an important part in organizational

success. It can also be said that Human Resource Management can be an important

strategic tool and it can also help establish a competitive advantage for companies

who give HRM a high level of importance (Robbins & Coulter, 2007).

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Armstrong (1999) states that better contributions from human resources can be

achieved through better management of people and how this affects the company‟s

mission in the long term. This can be achieved through activities based on research,

best practices and continuing to enhance efforts of Human Resources.

Most importantly, Armstrong (1999) points out that Human Resource Management

involves everyone from first line managers to team leaders as well as can include

human resource specialists to ensure that the organization is able to reach success

through these people.

Although people do make a very big difference, one cannot generalize on the

common elements of HRM as there are other factors that affect it such as the internal

and external environments that surround the organization (Armstrong, 1999).

“The human resources functional unit has evolved and is now responsible
for a large, complex array of duties related not only to the company and
the employees, but also to the government and other entities from the
external environment”(Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006, p13).

Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc. (2000) also discusses how human resources are

concerned with finding the right people with different skills that make up a good

team, able to reach the organization‟s goals.

Bach (2005) goes on to say that HRM focuses on the improvement of employees and

points out that investing in employees builds trust in management and increases the

level of commitment towards achieving results; this is an important element to

reaching success. The relationship between the management and employees is

strengthened through a good recruitment and retention strategy which focuses on the

relationship with present and prospective employees.

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An important aspect of Human Resource Management is that for setting policies. The

review will therefore follow on Human Resource Management Policies.

2.3 Human Resource Management Policy

“A policy is a statement of the organization‟s position regarding a


specific condition of employment – what the organization believes is the
correct approach to fulfilling that condition of employment” (McConnell,
2005, p16).

Human Resource Management is different in each organization or business and one

can see a difference in the Human Resource Policies organizations implement

according to their preferences and factors in their internal and external environments

(Brunstein, 1995).

Policies are set to equip organizations and its employees with guidelines on how to

proceed with organizational actions (Mathis & Jackson, 2007). These vary from

codes of conduct, to attendance, performance, recruitment, training and equal

opportunities amongst others (McConnell, 2005).

Recruitment, Retention and Motivation need to be invested in through the

development of strong human resource management policies (Barbeito, 2004). These

are discussed further in detail below.

One important policy area and human resource management practice is that of

recruitment and retention of human resources (Brunstein, 1995). Literature on this

area was therefore also reviewed.

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2.4 Recruitment and Retention

2.4.1 Recruitment

With the increase in changes being met by organizations, there is always a need to be

proactive, and one way of doing so is recruiting the best people for the job who are

qualified.

“The attraction, selection and retention of staff are perhaps the most
important processes managers in organizations undertake. After all the
people of the organization are the architects and agents of everything
that ultimately gets accomplished.” (Herman, 2004, P623)

The aim of recruitment most of the time, is to obtain a good quality of employees at a

reduced cost to satisfy the needs of an organization (Armstrong 2003). Armstrong

(2003) then goes on to define the process of recruitment as having job specifications

as the first step and then moving on towards attracting candidates, advertising,

recruiting and educating employees. But according to Bach (2005), recruitment

doesn‟t necessarily mean that there is an opening or a vacancy, it could mean that the

organization is looking to grow; a company looks to recruitment not only as a

reaction when an existing employees leaves, but should look at recruitment also

when the organization wishes to become larger.

Arthur (2001) discusses how employers today look at recruitment in a more

proactive manner to attract the required qualified employees for their organization.

They look at all the recruitment resources around and sometimes choose a more

creative way of recruiting new employees. Arthur (2001), states that employers

nowadays choose a more electronic method of recruitment with the use of the

internet. The author also says that choosing which method of recruitment to choose

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every time there is the requirement, can sometimes be found as a bit of a challenge

and managers can sometimes ignore these available sources. Since market conditions

and certain internal and external factors change, one must be aware and make use of

the most effective resource and choose the best way that suites each situation.

Now literature on retention will be reviewed and discussed.

2.4.2 Retention

Arthur (2001) discusses retention environments and how focus has moved beyond

recruitment to creating an environment in which employees feel satisfied and less

likely to leave. She also looks into what may resolve current retention problems by

getting to know employees and employee demographics, patterns and examining

how the organization impacts the employees in this respect. “Therefore retention

must be a crucial business objective if they are to remain competitive” (Arthur, 2001,

p281). She discusses aspects such as rewards, recognition and employee satisfaction

as common elements that should be included in a retention strategy of any

organization. She also states that the toughest groups of workers to retain are the

younger workers. Overall an organization must nurture a retention environment if it

wants to keep a strong and capable workforce.

Kaye & Jordan-Evans (2008) describe retention as not something that you can turn

on and off; it works best when you engage and retain talent in a genuine and

recurrent manner by believing and demonstrating it on a daily basis through your

actions with people in the organization.

Managers should ask their employees what makes them happy and what doesn‟t so

that they can better understand what can be done to retain the best employees. They

also point out that different employees are retained in a different manner; it all

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depends on the person at hand. Some appreciate being informed, some do not like

their allocated job or some part of it; managers need to know about these issues for

them to be able to retain these people in the organization before it is too late (Kaye &

Jordan-Evans, 2008).

Taylor (2002) says that when a qualified employee is lost, it can cause real damage

since much needed and valuable knowledge and experience, which have been

accumulated over time, leave with the employees when they leave.

As seen in the diagram below, (Figure 1), Phillips and Connell (2003) see the

retention process as an accountability approach that holds eight steps from measuring

and monitoring turnover, developing costs of turnover and diagnosing causes and

needs for improvements in retention on the organization concerned. They then move

on to exploring a range of solutions, identifying and matching these solutions to the

needs at hand and after forecasting the value of retention the organization should

calculate the return on investment of these solutions and make the required changes.

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Figure 3: Strategic Accountability Approach

(Philips & Connell, 2003)

As seen above, recruitment and retention is a basic need for human resource

management practices; but sometimes voluntary organizations tend to shy away from

management since they are not aimed at making profit (Drucker, 1990); the

voluntary sector is therefore a very complex sector (Courtney, 2002).

Now the study will focus on the Voluntary Organization.

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2.5 Voluntary Organizations
In the Malta Voluntary Organizations Act (Act XXII, Chapter 492, 2007), a non-

profit organization calls for an organization that defines its purpose in its statue and

does not include the making of profits, the promotion of private interest other than

that of social purpose as well as no part of the assets being made available directly to

a specific person. This is also described in the following statement by Smith,

Bucklin & Associates, Inc. (2000, p x): “The word nonprofit …. Describes an

organization that does not distribute profit to its owners; it has no owners in the

sense of the for-profit sector, and any income that exceeds expenses stays with the

organization.”

Hussey and Perrin (2003) stated that “although all charities are Voluntary

Organizations, not all Voluntary Organizations are charities” (Hussey & Perrin,

2003, p5). They also state that Voluntary Organizations play a very important part in

our society because they provide a service as well as being a powerful source of

gathering society together creates “the glue that holds society together” (2003, p xi).

They also state that each Voluntary Organization is very different in its size and

goals and that these differences can reach different areas of society and provide for a

variety of services that are required.

Drucker (1990) goes further to discuss the Management of Voluntary Organizations

and points out that although management is frequently used for businesses, it must

still be put to use in Voluntary Organizations so that it may help them concentrate on

their mission. “Once the nonprofit moves into its formative years, most of its policies

and procedures should be in place, with its governing board working closely with

staff to fulfill the defined mission” (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc., 2000, p27)

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Voluntary Organizations differ in their missions and types and therefore each must

take a different approach to management based on its circumstances, social and

environmental surroundings. (Bach, 2005) Drucker echoes this as he describes

voluntary organizations as “human-change agents” (Drucker, 1990, p85) meaning

that results in a voluntary organization will most probably always reflect a change in

its people such as their behaviour, change in circumstances and their vision and hope

to name a few. Drucker (1990) goes on to say that people in a voluntary organization

are all contributing their time to the same goals

Herman (2004) lists the beneficiaries of voluntary organizations, as the members

who receive “direct benefits” (Herman, 2004, p59), as well as volunteers of the

organization itself together with those in whose name the voluntary organization

advocates.

Many voluntary organizations that are based on membership also look to

membership as a stable income and must also increase this number to be able to

function; many times membership is also a good source of volunteers (Hussey and

Perrin, 2003).

Organizations should therefore also know their target market since a common

mistake is to “assume that they have only one market” but the more an organization

knows about its market, the better “decisions you will make on how to serve them”

(Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000, pg59). This same reason can also be

allocated to knowing the organization‟s environment (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates,

Inc., 2000). An organization must make strategic decisions based on its external and

internal environment and serve as a path for the organization to follow (Anthony,

Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006).

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One important aspect of the internal environment which also gives a direction to the

organization is its mission statement; this is discussed in the next part.

2.5.1 The mission statement

“Whenever and wherever men and women have endeavored to achieve


something purposefully, a statement of mission or purpose is
pronounced.” “People, by their very nature, seem to ennoble a task by
endowing it with a stated mission.” (Abrahams, 2003, p2)

Companies and organizations need mission statements to give a sense of what the

organization stands for and what goals it and wishes to achieve. It also helps

stakeholders such as employees and customers know what direction the company

has. Abrahams (2003) points out several reasons why a company or organization

should have a mission statement. Some mentioned are that a mission statement

provides for a foundation on which a company can be built; it gives the company a

purpose and also serves as an element to bring together the diversified people in an

organization – it gives them a unified sense of identity.

It is very important that values of the organization should be summarized in the

organization‟s mission statement, but it is also important that they are understood and

accepted by everyone (Talbot, 2003). It is suggested that organizations translate their

mission statement into a strategic plan or operational plans so that it can be easily

understood by volunteers (Pynes, 2004)

Organizations can never be well developed until it is clear on what its fundamental

goals and missions are. Since board members change over the years, a mission

statement can help maintain an ongoing, clear and concise mission for the

organization; even when the board members are constantly changing (Smith,

Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000).

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Change is brought on by different aspects of an organization; be it a change in board

members as well as changes in the mission of the organization (Harmon, 2003).

Organizations must therefore take into consideration the environment around it

(Porter, 2001).

2.5.2 The External Environment

Looking at the organization‟s external environment of a voluntary organization can

help reveal any barriers that are between the organization and the market and how it

will affect entering the market or reaching new volunteers and members. Some

common barriers could be the lack of knowledge in the community regarding the

organization as well as government regulations or other competing organizations can

all become barriers that affect market entry. Looking at the external environment can

also give you some idea of the future so that the organization can plan for

tomorrow‟s market. (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000) “The external

environment is multifaceted and complex….that can have a major impact on the

long-term success of a company” (Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006, p70)

2.5.3 The Internal Environment

Internal environments for organizations consist of how groups are organized and how

they interact socially; it also includes the technical system which is based on how the

groups then carry out the required work to produce the service or product.

Technology is always shaping the internal environment of organizations (Armstrong

2003). The internal environment also impacts the organization‟s ability to produce

the required programmes that are required by consumers and that make the

organization successful. An internal environment scan can help identify whether or

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not the organization has the right resources to produce such programmes that would

be successful (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000).

Some variables which affect the internal environment include corporate strategy,

management philosophy, the types of job at hand and the productivity level

(Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006)

The internal environment also helps the organization respond to external factors. But

for an organization to do this, it must widen its source of recruitment (Brunstein,

1995).

2.6 Recruitment in Voluntary Organizations

Membership is still very important to attract a constant flow of new volunteers and

new members to the association or organization (Rich & Hines, 2006). A frequent

reason for attracting new volunteers and members is because of the declining rate of

membership; many times organizations start looking for fresh volunteers and

members as a indicator that membership is declining; “this calls for a strategic plan”

(Rich & Hines, 2006, p26).

Organizations must make use of such problems, as is the lack of membership, as an

opportunity to discuss the environmental issues that may be affecting this drop and

how it can be reversed; this may be done by use of a membership program (Rich &

Hines, 2006, p26).

“To find loyal volunteers, an organization needs to effectively promote the altruistic

or educational endeavors of its mission. This can be done by offering training, new

opportunities as well as acknowledgement.” (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc.,

2000, p311)

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There is no just one perfect way of managing human resources in Voluntary

Organizations. The best way depends on the circumstances in which an organization

finds itself in (Pynes, 2004). Paynes also argues that Voluntary Organizations must

remember that people in organizations such as theirs, are very important and must

therefore be given priority. But none the less, recruiting the best people for the job is

also a priority, even “critical” (Pynes, 2004, p168) for the Voluntary Organization

because such organizations depend highly on their employees.

Volunteers no longer have the amount of time they once had to dedicate to non-profit

causes and therefore it is becoming more and more difficult to find people to

volunteer their time to non-profit organizations (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc.,

2000).

“To find loyal volunteers, an organization needs to effectively promote the altruistic

or educational endeavors of its mission.” (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc., 2000,

p311). Finding and hiring staff starts with a clear vision of what the job being filled

entails; if this is not available, than the hiring process is flawed from the start.

(Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc., 2000) Management must therefore be very

careful with recruitment and also invest heavily in the recruitment process and

training of staff (Brody, 2005).

For voluntary organizations that are based on membership, their main issue is the

retention of old members and the gaining of new ones. This means that they must

have a good amount of information on the organization‟s members to be able to take

good decisions. (Hussey and Perrin, 2003)

To recruit volunteers, an organization needs to provide them with enough

information about what their role will be, and this is done with the use of a job

29
description (Barbeito, 2004). In the recruitment process, job descriptions have a very

important role (Shilcock & Stutchfield, 2003).

The next part will give particular focus to the job description.

2.6.1 Job description

“The essential building block of a successful volunteer program is the job


description” (Herman & Associates, 2004, p322)

A job description is job oriented and identifies the particular aspects that are crucial

to the success of that job position (Bach, 2005)

According to McCurley and Lynch (1996, p30) the job description should include:

“Job title and purpose


Benefits of the occupant
Qualifications for the position
Time requirements
Proposed starting date
Job Responsibilities and activities
Authority invested in the position
Reporting relationships and supervision”

In other words, a job description puts forward the purpose of the post available, how

it fits into the whole organizational structure, how the job holder will function and

the main tasks they will be required to do (Armstrong, 2003).

Different job descriptions contain different amounts of information, however the

main important features should always be present (Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé,

2006). This will help volunteers know what their position is and help them decide

whether or not they are ready to take up such a role and will therefore help attract

new volunteers to these roles.

30
2.6.2 Attracting new volunteers and members

Organizations need to create a variety of niche market techniques to search for

potential volunteers and members. Volunteers have changed over the years and today

many look for a benefit when giving their time to a cause. It is therefore the

organization‟s job to see what these benefits are and try to provide them so as to

attract volunteers and members to the organization (Wittich, 2003)

Management knows that they must give a lot of attention to attracting volunteers and

they must also work very hard to retain them as well as their enthusiasm as well as

prevent them from leaving (Brody, 2005).

Attracting and cultivating new volunteers calls for an abundance of charisma; some

are blessed with such charisma that they find it very easy to attract new volunteers or

members, but others most often find it difficult to do so or even to obtain minimal

results. It seems that people who are pessimistic will always find it difficult to attract

volunteers (Simon & Lindauer, 2009). This is because attracting volunteers “calls for

positive thinking and positive actions” (Simon & Lindauer, 2009, p37)

People might not come forward to volunteer like they used to before, but they do so

if they approached in a better manner; People will also come forward if they see a

need and if they feel that their service is useful and required (Simon & Lindauer,

2009).

Although volunteers are altruistic in their service, many times they still have a

specific reason for choosing a certain organization since they tend to have a

connection to the organization or its cause. There are many ways in which to attract

volunteers; organizations need to know where potential volunteers and members are

31
and go where they are. It is sometimes useless to advertise but best to market your

organization to a niche market. (Wittich, 2003)

Another method of attracting volunteers and members is to have a recruitment plan

which is well thought out. This could include more methods such as asking

volunteers to bring a friend to the organization or spread the word themselves and do

their best to recruit more members and volunteers themselves. For this to happen the

volunteers need to know what message to spread and will therefore need some sort of

training. (Wittich, 2003)

Part of the recruitment plan could be to promote the organization so that people are

aware of its existence and of its role in society.

2.6.3 Recruitment through Promotion

The customers, in this case, members and volunteers, must become aware of the

organization and what it does for them to join in. This goal is reached by promoting

the organization through the various types of promotion available; these can include

advertising, publicity, ad much more (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000).

Since competition even in the voluntary sector is always on the increase, non-profit

organizations should make use of similar marketing principles as those used in the

for-profit organizations. Armed with research and knowledge, the organization is

able to plan ahead to make sure marketing, public relations and fund-raising are

integrated into the everyday processes and worked upon by all the organization and

its volunteers and members (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000).

As mentioned above, this could be through different promotional tools such as

advertising.

32
2.6.4 Advertising

Before producing any advertising material, organizations must always define the

message they want to put forward and who they want to attract. The organization

must also define how the persons interested will contact the organization and what

they will be doing. They must also define a specific budget as well as decide on how

they will measure the success of the advert (Keaveney, Kaufmann, 2001).

The aim of recruitment advertising is to be as visible as possible, to as many people

as possible. You must place the advert where your niche market is most likely to

look (Torrington et al., 2005).

Some forms of advertising to attract new members or volunteers are a necessity to

recruitment. Some can choose to put adverts in the local newspapers or the classified

sections in newspapers. Other options for certain positions could include posting ads

at community centres as well as online on websites. But the most useful is sometimes

the simplest method, and that is Word-of-Mouth advertising (Smith, Bucklin, &

Associates, Inc., 2000).

Radio and television are the more expensive ways of advertising and are the less

frequently used, although they do reach a larger audience. Firms are increasingly

turning to online forms of advertising, through online newspapers, magazines and

also through the organization‟s website, which is a more direct approach. Using

online advertising is very cheap and easy to use (Bach, 2005).

When advertising an organization, the organization must give special attention to the

audience and must know who their audience is (Conley & Friedenwald-Fishman,

2006); in this case, the audience would be those people who are willing to give their

time to volunteer.

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2.7 The volunteer

In 2008 there were 21,920 persons aged 12 and over doing some form of voluntary

work, while 12,650 persons were members of a voluntary organization (International

Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development News Release, National

Statistics Office, 2009).

““I‟m just one person. What can I possibly do?” You would be
surprised: You can do a lot! Your efforts can improve people‟s lives,
change the outcome of events and shape the future for the better. It is one
sure way of experiencing how you, one individual, can make a difference
in the world.” (Weeldreyer, 2000, p7)

A volunteer is someone who provides a service without payment or remuneration

with the help of a voluntary organization. (Act XXII, Chapter 492, 2007) For an

organization to have volunteers, they must be recruited, screened and given an

overall orientation to the organization itself and what it does. They must also be

given training and be supervised and motivated (Herman, 2004)

It is more challenging to manage volunteers that it is to manage paid employees.

Volunteers need more clarification of what is expected of them and it is far more

difficult to obtain commitment to reach these expectations. (Hussey & Perrin, 2003)

The organization must have a structure in place that will support the volunteer

(Herman, 2004). Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc. (2000) also point out that

maintaining a good level of available volunteers requires managers to be very

attentive, communicative and of very strong leadership ability. The larger the number

of volunteers grows, the more of these skills are required.

The volunteer can also be an asset to organization when it comes to increasing

membership – this can also help increase volunteer involvement in the organization

(Rich & Hines, 2006). Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc. (2000) describe volunteers

34
as being an extremely important pool of labour and that some organizations are not

able to function without them.

Pynes (2004), Rich & Hines (2006) and Herman & Associates (2004) all mention a

volunteer programme as being something that would help organizations manage their

volunteers better and help this sector be more effective and efficient in what they do

since it provides a structure on how to manage the voluntary human resources. In

order to attract volunteers, organizations need to know what motivates people to

become volunteers and what does not (Wymer et al., 2006).

Having discussed volunteers, people sometimes prefer to become members and

belong to associations (Rich & Hines, 2006); therefore membership is also an

interesting area to discuss.

2.8 Membership

“Membership is a fluid concept, defined by each individual group.” (Rich & Hines,

2006, p2) being a member varies from one association to another; it can be as basic

as giving a donation or paying a membership fee, to giving your time to

volunteering, self-development as well as spreading an issue (Rich & Hines, 2006).

For a member to join an organization or association there must be a reason. The

person must feel that he has an interest in that organization and its mission; if not,

there is no reason for that person to become a member. It is therefore important that

the association or organization knows the different reasons why a person would

become a member. Usually membership is acquired with the payment of a fee. The

amount paid varies on the association as well as the output a person will get from

such memberships (Rich & Hines, 2006). More often than not, membership also

35
includes some kind of payment or dues. “Flat dues are the same for everyone;

graduated dues have different levels at which people can join.” (Rich & Hines, 2006,

p6)

With regards to membership, one will also find that there are a set of criteria for

membership in organizations or associations. These are imposed by the organization

for anyone who would like to join; these guide people on who can and cannot join an

organization. Some organizations have strict requirements whereas others may have

gender requirements, time requirements as well as experience or qualification

requirements (Rich & Hines, 2006)

For a membership-based organization, the members usually have something in

common that will make them want to be part of the organization itself. Such

organizations are usually more geared at increasing the number of members rather

than choosing who can and who cannot become a member (Smith, Bucklin, &

Associates, Inc., 2000).

It is important that organizations are aware of motivation for both volunteers as well

as members (Rich & Hines, 2006). Following the statement about how important

motivation is with regards to HRM policies, motivation is discussed in detail to see

why this is so.

2.9 Motivation

“Once involved, volunteers need recognition and thanks for the contribution they

make to your organization. They won‟t be receiving paychecks, so their worth should

be acknowledged in other ways.” (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc., 2000, p311)

Motivation is important because it is the “surest guarantee of growth” (Minarik,

36
1992, p12). Since volunteers are not paid for their work and effort, they need to be

able to find satisfaction in other areas. It is for this reason that management must be

careful to nurture and motivate them to invest more of their time into the

organization (Brody, 2005).

“Everyone believes in delegation. But it needs clear rules to become productive. It

requires that the delegated task be clearly defined, that there are mutually

understood goals and mutually agreed-on deadlines, both for progress reports and

or accomplishment of the task” (Drucker 2009, p90). It is also important that

management is not centralized so that people do not wait about for action to be taken

from above as this can create a passive attitude as well as critical and negative

approaches (Minarik, 1992). Burn-out can sometimes occur where stress levels are

too high and volunteers may lose interest or acquire a negative attitude towards the

organization (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000). This can be achieved

through training. A training policy not only offers equal opportunities to all

(Barbeito, 2004), but also gives the volunteers a sense of professionalism in what

they do, therefore increasing their motivation since they are more capable in their

role (Hussey & Perrin, 2003).

Organizations may choose reassignment as another method of increasing motivation

as this can be beneficial when people start looking for new challenges. Promotions

can also be used to motivate volunteers as well as recognition of works to satisfy

volunteer needs (Smith, Bucklin, & Associates, Inc., 2000).

According to Maslow‟s Hierarchy of needs (1954), it shows how the different

personalities of people define the differences in their needs for achievement, power

and affiliation. In Maslow‟s Hierarchy, this falls under the need for love, affection

37
and belongingness; whereas the need for power and achievement relates to the top

two levels of Maslow‟s Hierarchy which are esteem and self-actualization.

According to McKee (2000), people respond to three levels of motivation which are:

The first would be joining an organization because it meets some kind of need that

they have. This might include the need for new friends as well as the need to belong.

The second is because a friend asks and they have a hard time saying no. Having a

friend that is very excited about a cause or organization makes for good recruitment

and also motivates others to join. The third mentioned reason is the belief; the strong

level of commitment towards a cause. The third is the one that motivates volunteers

the most and that will keep them from leaving in the long run. This should therefore

be a goal with all voluntary organization; to instill such a feeling in their volunteers

and members.

Creative Individualism is also said to be a very good motivator, giving the

opportunity for individuals to use their instincts and demonstrating their creative and

innovative ideas and abilities can be positive. (Minarik, 1992)

Other reasons why volunteers sometimes choose to stop volunteering is because they

feel a lack of opportunities for advancement or that they become bored of their

position in the association. This can be countered by management knowing what is

stressing out volunteers and work towards making things better (Smith, Bucklin, &

Associates, Inc., 2000). It can also be because people feel that they are restricted in

their environment and cannot operate as they wish (Minarik, 1992)

38
2.10 Conclusion

As one can see from the above literature review, Human Resource Management

incorporates many areas which management must focus on. Different HR policies

must complement each other to help implement proactive and effective management

of human resources. With regards to voluntary organizations, it is still important that

these practices and policies are put to use as recruitment and retention in these types

of organizations take more time to be successful when dealing with un-paid

volunteers and members. Various differences can be seen from the normal profit-

making organizations‟ recruitment and retention process; this is because volunteers

and members must be recruited and treated differently from paid employees. When it

comes to recruitment, there must be emphasis on promoting the organization so that

prospective members and volunteers know of the organizations‟ mission and what

benefits one gets from being involved. With regards to retention, factors such as

motivation can make or break an organization. Voluntary organizations depend

highly on volunteers and membership and therefore must make sure that they have a

sound system which caters for their needs so as to attract them and retain them even

longer. The following chapter will look at the Research Methodology used in this

research question and how data and information was gathered and applied to the case

study.

39
3. METHODOLOGY

40
3.1 Introduction

Understanding the various methods of research used is very important because it will

enable a better and more thorough understanding of the research subject. This

chapter will give a general idea of which techniques were used to conduct the

research; both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used and a specific

voluntary organization was chosen as a case study. The following will also include

how data was gathered and how it was then analyzed to produce information. Ethical

issues and limitations with regards to this research have also been included.

3.2 Aims and Objectives

The research makes use of various methods of research which are aimed at shedding

more light on how The Malta girl Guides Association, as a voluntary organization,

deals with the recruitment and retention of its volunteers and members and how this

process can be improved to deal with a decrease in membership over the past years.

This was done with the use of various methods aimed internally at present members

and volunteers as well as parents/guardians of members.

3.3 Data Collection Methods

Several different methods were used during this research to collect data; both

qualitative and quantitative methods of research were used on the various sample

groups. These will be discussed in greater detail below.

3.3.1 Secondary Data

Secondary data was used throughout the course of this research. It was first used to

identify the case study subject, as well as to produce the material used in the previous

chapter.

41
Secondary Data is the type of information that has already been gathered for other

purposes but that is available to the researcher while gathering data on a specific

theme or area. It enables a more methodical and holistic approach to answering

research questions since this type of research enables the user to read about what has

already been discussed and published and also gives way to asking new research

questions. (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

As previously mentioned, both qualitative and quantitative data was used in this

research question.

3.3.1.1 Qualitative Secondary Data Used In This Research

Various qualitative secondary data was used during the course of this research.

Different books, by a variety of authors, were used and quoted in the Literature

Review to sustain the subject at hand. These gives justification for the topic as well

as start off the research by giving a credible background as well as help the

researcher pose questions that need to be answered. They also offer a valid and

reliable source of data for the user (Saunders et al., 2009). Another source of

qualitative secondary data were publications provided by The Malta Girl Guides

Association on various areas; these were used to help provide the researcher with a

better background on the case study chosen as well as to come up with better

solutions and recommendations; publications from the „World Association of Girl

Guides and Girl Scouts‟ were also used for this reason.

3.3.1.2 Quantitative Secondary Data Used In This Research

As for Quantitative Secondary Data, internally these were used in the form of

Association statistics with regards to The Malta Girl Guides so as to get an idea of

the present situation of the recruitment and retention patterns of the Association.

42
External quantitative secondary data was also used in the form of national statistics

which were attained form the National Statistics Office website. These were used to

get a perspective of the actual amount of prospective female volunteers and members

on the islands as well as the number of persons who already give their time for such

causes.

Although very important, one will not answer such a research question through

secondary data alone; therefore this must be linked to primary data which is to be

collected by the researcher (Saunders et al., 2009).

3.3.2 Primary Data

Although secondary research is cheaper and very useful in starting off one‟s

research, primary research is much more practical in identifying information which is

not yet available (Saunders et al., 2009)

Primary data is gathered by coming in contact with people through observation as

well as through communication (Kotler et al., 2008). In this research question,

various methods of primary research where used, both qualitative and quantitative.

3.3.2.1 Qualitative Primary Research Methods Used

3.3.2.1.1 Focus Groups

An important method of qualitative research used during this research was that of

Focus Groups. In Focus Groups, a group of people are called together and are asked

specific questions about the research topic to get a more in depth answer as well as

spark some form of discussion on the topic at hand. During a focus group session, a

moderator is in charge of asking pre-determined questions to the group as well as to

make sure that discussions are kept on-track with the subject and that everything runs

43
smoothly. The setting in which they take place also helps to reveal information that

will otherwise not be identified. This is because focus groups are kept confidential

and therefore people feel more comfortable in stating their real opinions on the

subject matter as well as interacting with others (Krueger & Casey, 2000).

In this research, four different focus groups took place; one group for each members‟

section of the Association. Each focus group had one moderator and one media

device recording the discussion. The groups were divided as such so that the

different age groups are not mixed and each member is able to understand what the

others are saying since they can all relate to each other on the various questions

asked.

Various subjects where tackled during these focus groups; some questions also

involved showing pictures, logos and adverts to introduce topics and to get feedback

from the participants. One question also made use of an emotional picture depicting a

sad girl, to see how the participants related the emotion to the Association and their

membership. (See Appendix B)

Participants for the focus group where hand-picked by leaders in each locality all

over Malta. Therefore each village had the opportunity to include four participants,

one in each age group. Leaders were directed to choose participants who are

confident to talk in groups and who have been members of the Association for more

than a year (See Appendix D). This was done to increase the validity of the data

created since a lack of confidence or a lack of experience would reduce the quality of

the discussion and the final worth of the data produced. By being able to speak up,

participants will ensure that everyone‟s opinion is shared; by having a good amount

of experience as a member in the Association, it could ensure that opinions were set

44
on a good amount of activities and meetings visited and that a more holistic opinion

could be provided for. The numbers of participants for each group were as follows:

Dolphins (aged 4 to 6): 10 participants

Brownies (aged 7 to 10): 15 participants

Guides (aged 11 to 14): 10 participants

Rangers (aged 15 to 18): 6 participants

Each Focus Group had one mediator; the youngest group had two mediators so that

one could keep participants attentive due to their young age. Mediators were given

guidelines on how to proceed with the focus group so that all four focus groups were

able to make use of the same introduction approach, this ensured consistency. (See

Appendix C)

The media used to record the focus groups were as follows:

Dolphins (aged 4 to 6): Cassette Recorder

Brownies (aged 7 to 10): Asus A6000 Laptop Computer with Recording

Facilities and external microphone

Guides (aged 11 to 14): Asus A3000 Laptop Computer with Recording

Facilities and internal microphone

Rangers (aged 15 to 18): Cassette Recorder

3.3.2.1.2 Observational Research

In Observational research, the researcher is looking at specific group of people and

looks at how they interact, communicate and react to certain circumstances

(Angrosino, 2007). This type of research can be both unobtrusive and obtrusive in

nature (Jonassen et al., 1999).

45
Unobtrusive Observation, where the individuals are unaware of the fact that they are

being monitored (Jonassen et al., 1999), took place in each district during their

monthly leaders‟ meeting.

A visit to two National Board meetings was also done to observe how the

administrative board went about taking decisions, how the members in the board

worked together and how this affected recruitment and retention. This time the

members knew of the researcher‟s presence; this is known as Obtrusive Observation

(Jonassen et al., 1999).

During the observations sessions, descriptive notes were taken where the researcher

wrote things as they happened; The setting and the mood were described in detail

and reflected upon during the formation of results.

3.3.2.2. Quantitative Primary Research Methods Used

Questionnaires are very useful for gathering specific data. They are composed of a

number of questions to enable the researcher to gather information from participants

(Pakroo, 2008).

The various types of questions used in the questionnaires varied from open ended

where participants could give a wider answer, to closed ended questions which

required only a „yes‟ or „no‟ answer.

3.3.2.2.1 The Questionnaire Design

Two different types of questionnaires were compiled for both Leaders, who are the

volunteers of the Association, as well as questionnaires for parents of members so as

to produce an external view of the Association. Questionnaires were designed based

46
on the most important areas of recruitment and retention which were previously

identified through the literature review.

Leaders (Adult Volunteers)

Questionnaires were made up of forty-five questions starting with general questions

on the person‟s demographics followed by information with regards to their history

and position as part of the Association. Other topics followed, such as motivation,

mentoring, personal opinions on the Association, decision making, communication,

recruitment, roles and responsibilities as well as training (See Appendix F).

Distribution took place during monthly Leader‟s Meetings, held at district level.

Questionnaires were distributed by hand by the researcher, filled in by the volunteers

present and collected during the same meeting; this increased the response rate in

addition to giving the researcher the opportunity to explain what the research is

about. The researcher explained that the research was aimed at identifying the

recruitment and retention process of this specific Association. It was also pointed out

that by their input, the researcher could be able to get an insight into what they, as

volunteers, feel, their opinions on the several topics and the effect the process has on

the overall recruitment and retention in this voluntary organization.

The questionnaire was aimed at all the adult volunteers in the Association; this

number at the moment stands at one hundred and twenty-six leaders. Since not all

leaders attend the monthly meetings on a regular basis, a total amount of seventy-

seven questionnaires were collected with an overall total of sixty-one percent of total

number of leaders in the Association having answered the questionnaire. All

participants were female since the Association is all-female based and ages ranged

from eighteen years and over.

47
External Sources (Parents/Guardians of Members)

Questionnaires for this section were shorter and consisted of twelve questions. The

first part consisted of personal demographic information, relationship to member and

employment. The second part of the questionnaire focused on the participant‟s view

on the work done by the Association, how they became aware of the association and

what affect they have seen on their daughter/sibling due to membership with the

Association. Questions were also asked regarding practicality of membership fees as

well as overall educational programme. These questionnaires were aimed at

acquiring an external view of the Association; the views of people who are not

members or volunteers in the Association (See Appendix G).

Distribution of the questionnaires took place with the help of adult volunteers who

were allocated two questionnaires per village. Each village unit had the responsibility

of choosing 2 parents/guardians to answer the questionnaire; these were chosen by

the adult volunteers randomly and were not specifically for female participants only.

The fact that each village chose two respondents meant that each had representatives

to voice their views on that particular village unit. Since variances are found from

one village to another, this method reduced any biases and provided a good sample.

A total of twenty-nine questionnaires were collected from a total of forty-four

distributed questionnaires; an overall total of sixty-six percent response rate. Since

questionnaires were given to volunteers to give out to parents, some resulted in a lack

of receipt due to negligence or the questionnaire being lost. Another reason why

some questionnaires were not collect is because some adult volunteers were not

present during the monthly leader‟s meeting and were therefore not notified of the

research.

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3.3 Procedure Overview

The process which took place so that all the above mentioned research could be

gathered was as follows:

First a letter was sent to the Chief Commissioner of the Malta Girl Guides aimed at

acquiring approval from the National Board of the Malta Girl Guides (See Appendix

A). After approval was given, the literature review helped the researcher form the

different research tools and the questions they involved. These were then presented

to the National Board for approval during a visit to one of their meetings.

Observation research also took place during these two meetings. The National Board

members knew that the researcher was gathering such data and that it would be used

during the analysis of this research question.

Contact was then made by e-mail with the three different District Commissioners to

set dates on when to visit the leader‟s meetings of each district. During the visit to

these meetings questionnaires as well as Focus Group details were distributed and

the procedure was explained in detail to all present. The observation sessions also

took place during these meetings.

The explanation given to adult volunteers regarding this research was necessary since

the researcher needed their help for questionnaire distribution and collection as well

as notification to focus group participants. They were told that the research was

focused on the Association‟s ability to recruit and retain members as well as how this

can be improved. It was also pointed out that their help was much appreciated.

Information on the data gathering through observation was not divulged since this

would hinder the research process if the volunteers knew what the researcher was

observing.

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3.5 Pilot Study

Before conducting the questionnaires and focus groups, a pilot study took place on

all material with three different members of the Association. All three were given the

material separately and then gave the researcher feedback. This process was held

informally and feedback was given instantly after the three volunteers went over the

material at hand. Only a few minimal changes in the wording took place since they

found the questions to be easily understood. The pilot study also tested that questions

asked did not offend the person or go against any ethical issues.

3.6 Ethical Issues

Ethical concerns were taken into consideration throughout the whole of this research

question. The researcher made sure that at all times, participants of questionnaires,

focus groups and observational research never gave out personal information such as

names and contact details; nor do these details ever appear in this research. All

participants were notified that at no time would their details be published in any way

or made available to anyone other than the researcher.

Since all adult volunteers, national board members and parents/guardians are over

the age of eighteen, no parent consent was required according to the Data Protection

Act (Chapter 440, Act XXXVI of 2001). With regards to the Focus Groups, since

they involved underage members, parents were notified with a letter detailing what

the focus group was about and that the session will be recorded. Parents/Guardians

were also required to sign a consent form allowing the member to participate;

participants without the consent from were not allowed to participate.

50
Apart from parents/guardians, adult volunteers were also notified of the research

with a letter describing the research itself and their role in the data collection process.

A copy of the research question will also be available at the Malta Girl Guides

Association‟s Island Head Quarters for access by volunteers and members if the need

arises.

3.7 Data Analysis

The method of analysis during this research question was with the use of computer

software, namely Microsoft Excel 2007, a spreadsheet programme which enables

easy access to tables as well as formulas and summations. Information gathered from

questionnaires was inserted into tabular format; this facilitated the calculation of

formulas, averages and totals making them much easier and faster to obtain. For

easier analysis of open ended questions, they were placed into categories depending

on the theme of the answer; this helped increase the logic gathered from each theme

and the researches was still able to utilize the data gathered in a reasonable manner

during the data analysis.

Microsoft Word 2007, a word processing programme for Windows, was used to take

note during observational research as well as to write down the important factors that

were concluded from the focus groups.

3.8 Limitations

A limitation of this research could be that volunteers did not feel comfortable

criticizing the Association and therefore emotions and feelings affected the overall

result gathered from questionnaires; this has been reduced since questionnaires did

not require any personal information divulged as well as the research being carried

51
out by someone who has goals which are set outside the Association and for

academic reasons.

Another limitation of this research is that since the research is mainly based

internally, it is unable to identify factors which could affect recruitment and retention

from the external environment. This could have been overcome by conducting

questionnaires with people who are not members or volunteers in the Association;

this could not take place in this study due to time limitations.

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4. ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION

53
4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the data gathered from the different methods of research will be

examined, compared and analyzed to provide a summary of how people responded to

questionnaires, during focus groups and what the statistics can reveal. Reference will

also be made to what was observed during board meetings and adult volunteer

meetings.

The main characteristics from the methods of research used will be emphasized and

analyzed so that the different answers can be broken down into smaller parts and

compared. This way differences in answers can be visible, a better understanding can

be acquired and finally lead the researcher to a clearer conclusion.

4.2 General Statistics

Yearly Membership Statistics

Figure 4: Yearly Membership Statistics

54
Yearly Statistics as at February 2010
1400

1200

1000
Number of people

Leaders
800

Young Leaders
600
Adult Members

400 Members

Total
200

-200

Figure 5: Volunteer/Membership Statistics Line Chart

From the statistics provided by the Malta Girl Guides Association, it can be seen that

over the past five years, starting with 2005-2006, members and volunteer numbers

have fluctuated but has always stayed close to an average of one thousand and

seventy-seven members. In the Guiding Year 2004-2005 however, membership and

adult volunteer numbers were far less than they are today. The figure above shows

how membership and volunteer numbers have changed throughout these past six

guiding years. It also shows that the current year 2009-2010 has been the strongest

55
out of the six, both with regards to membership as well as in the number of adult

volunteers. The slow increase in membership could be due to the fact that the

Association has realized their need to invest more time in recruitment and retention

methods and have therefore started giving the issue more time and have contributed

more time to this aim. The issue of age gaps can also be linked to mentoring and the

ability of the younger leaders to learn faster and their want to gain knowledge; while

at the same time a desire of lifelong learning by other, older volunteers.

4.3 General Information on Participants

4.3.1 The National Board

The National Board is made up of nine members who are adult volunteers. Their

ages vary from twenty-three up to a member who is over fifty years of age. Their

careers fall between professional to white collar as well as one who is still a student.

As a board, they seem to work very well together as a team and are driven by their

dedication to the Association and a vision of the future.

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4.3.2 Adult Volunteers

Figure 6: Adult Volunteer Age Groups

The total number of volunteers that answered questionnaires was that of seventy-

seven participants. These were divided into three districts namely the North, South

and Central Districts; an average of twenty-six members from each district replied to

the questionnaires. The majority of the adult volunteers interviewed where in the „21-

25 years old‟ age gap (thirty percent) and therefore most of them were students

undergoing their studies in a tertiary education institute. The increase in this age

segment could be due to more interest from youths to give a service to their

community as well as the need for an extracurricular activity throughout their time as

a student. The majority of the volunteers have been members of the association for

more than eleven years, having been members from a younger age; which could

show that being a member can increase the chances of members becoming volunteers

and hence strengthening the Associations‟ succession planning. Having been

members themselves, this also meant that during the answering of questionnaires,

they could give a realistic account of their experiences.

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Through observation, once could see that adult volunteers also have a very good

relationship between them and some are even friends in their personal life. Each

village has a number of volunteers each, who work as a team and in tune with the

Association‟s set goals and objectives.

4.3.3 Parents of members

Parents from all three districts took part in a questionnaire to give an insight into this

research with somewhat of an external perspective for a better overall view of the

Association‟s recruitment and retention processes.

Figure 7: Parents'/Guardians' Occupations

The parents or guardians who took part in the questionnaires were either a mother or

a father of one of the Association‟s members and the majority of the occupations

were those of housewives followed by white collar workers. The occupation of

58
parents or guardians may have an effect on whether or not they register their

daughters as members. It also affects their knowledge and awareness on the

Association. Parents, who know what programme the Association offers, are more

likely to keep sending their daughter; parents who think that the Association has

more of a recreational purpose may choose different alternatives for their daughters.

4.3.4 Focus Group Participants

The participants for the Focus Group were all members of the Association between

five years of age and eighteen years of age. This is because all four sections of the

Association were represented with a focus group each section. Since they are all

under the age of eighteen, all are still students. Also, as requested by the researcher,

members have all been members for more than one year so as to be able to provide a

better perspective of their experience.

4.4 Recruitment & Retention

The Malta Girl Guides Association has a very recent Strategic Plan for Growth (see

Appendix I) which was set up this year and is in its first year of operation. The

objective of this strategy is to retain present members longer as well as increase

membership by five percent each year until the year 2015. Since it is in its first year,

it is still in implementation stage and not much result has come from it but has

started to instill a sense of responsibility towards these goals for the whole of the

Association. It draws up on several issues such as recruitment and retention of adult

volunteers and members through better programmes, training and resources.

Appendix I).

59
With regards to recruitment, from both the adult volunteer questionnaires as well as

the parents‟ questionnaires, one could see that word-of-mouth is the most popular

recruitment tool for this Association.

Figure 8: Recruitment Method (Adult Volunteers)

Seventy-seven percent of adult volunteers first heard of the Association through

word of mouth from friends and family.

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Figure 9: Member Recruitment Method (Parent/Guardian Questionnaires)

This was also reflected in the parents‟ responses where fifty-two percent of the

parents stated that they heard of the Association through word-of-mouth; this method

of recruitment had a seventeen percentile in the adult volunteer questionnaires; this

was also commonly found during the focus group. The young section from age seven

till ten years said that their family and friends told them about Girl Guides. They also

stated that they also introduce new friends to the Association in this manner and that

since they enjoy themselves, they share this with others and promote the Association

at school or at other extra-curricular groups. Word-of-mouth can be very popular and

the method most used by the Association since it is affordable.

The older section, who are in the between the ages of fifteen and eighteen, said that

they too were introduced to the Association by friends or family through word-of-

mouth when they were young and feel that that is why they are still strong active

members. They believe that when a member is recruited at a young age, they are

more likely to remain members and become volunteers in the future as they are

61
instilled with the values and goals of the Association from an early age and this

grows with the person as they mature.

However, from the Parents‟ questionnaires, it also resulted that thirty-five percent of

the parents heard about The Malta Girl Guides Association after seeing them during

an outdoor activity. This was also true during the focus group of the older section

who is between the ages of ten and fifteen where some participants said they stared

showing interest in becoming a member after seeing the Association‟s members and

volunteers during a local marching parade or during a local event in which the

Association was were represented. Being visible in different activities and locations

can also help increase visibility recruitment at no extra cost.

With regards to other aspects of recruitment, the majority of adult members feel that

the Association in today‟s world has many obstacles to face with regards to

recruitment and retention. When asked if they feel the Association has a lot of

competition with other extracurricular opportunities available for children and youth

today, seventy-five percent felt that this is the case. This can be further strengthened

with the fact that seventy-four percent of the parents who were questioned, said that

their daughter attended some sort of extracurricular activity apart from being a

member of the Malta Girl Guides; also evident in the focus group held with the two

younger sections who were asked a similar question; many had said that they attend

activities such as dancing, art or music lessons to name a few. Nowadays there is a

large variety of extracurricular activities for children and youth and this can hinder

the recruitment into this specific Association. Another question that focused on

children and youth and what affects the recruitment process is that since the

Association is an all-female one, girls would prefer to be part of a mixed Association

that accepts boys as well as girls. The majority of adult volunteers, that is, thirty-one

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percent of the questionnaires, felt that this could be an issue for those older than ten

years of age; eighteen percent felt that this would not be a problem for the members

younger than ten years. This is because as members get older they appreciate mixing

with boys during their extracurricular activities while the younger girls prefer to be

on their own.

Figure 10: Association's Relevance Today

Figure 11: Does Society Benefit?

Another set of questions were also set to shed light on the relevance of the

Association to its members and to society in general. The first question of this sort

asked adult volunteers whether or not they feel the Association is still relevant in

today‟s society while another question asked whether or not society benefits from

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Associations of this sort. Ninety-seven percent of the adult leaders felt that the

Association was still relevant in today‟s society and ninety-two percent of them felt

that society itself can benefit from such Associations. Being volunteers themselves,

they must feel that what they are doing is important and this question shows that they

do feel in this way; this can also be incorporated with motivation which will be

discussed at a later stage.

Ninety-seven percent of the adult volunteers feel that girls and young women today

need something other than school to help them develop into better citizens. All of the

parents feel that their daughter benefits from being a member of the association.

Ninety-seven percent of Parents also feel that being a member has had an impact on

their daughter‟s development and the same percentage also see a difference in their

daughter since sending her to Girl Guides. They mostly see a difference in their

daughter‟s confidence, with forty-eight percent of parents choosing this as their first

option of how Girl Guides has made a difference in their daughter‟s life. This holds

elements of the mission statement of the Association which states that it aims at

giving girls the opportunity to develop their potential.

Being able to provide opportunities to develop one‟s potential is part of the mission

statement of the Malta Girl Guides; when asked whether or not the adult volunteers

felt the mission statement was being accomplished by the Association, eighty-eight

percent of the adult volunteers felt that this was being reached. Ninety-seven percent

of leaders thought that in twenty years time, the Association would still be up and

running while the other three percent were unsure that it would be. This can

sometimes prove to be a de-motivator for these adult volunteers since they feel that

what the Association stands for, will not be relevant in twenty years time, or that

society will no longer search for such Associations. Talbot (2003) talks about how
64
important it is that the organization must put forward its goals and values with the

help of the mission statement, and it must also be understood and accepted by

everyone involved. If a person does not believe or understand the cause or reasons

behind an Association‟s actions, it will be difficult for that person to promote or

work towards these goals and values. When asked whether or not the adult

volunteers helped the association increase its membership, ninety-seven percent felt

that they did; when asked if they felt a duty to do so, ninety-six percent felt that they

should, while the other four percent did not think this was their duty. It is very

important that everyone is on the same wavelength with regards to goals and values,

and therefore recruitment of new members must be a goal for all the adult volunteers.

With regards to retention, during the focus group, the young section who are between

seven and ten were asked if they would remain members of the Association when

they grew up. Many of them said that they would only if programmes remained

interesting. Some also stated that when they grow up, they would like to become

adult volunteers just like their leader. One child disagreed and said that she does not

feel accepted by her group and that this would ultimately result in her leaving the

Association. Therefore the experience that a person has can be very different from

another person‟s experience. One participant in the focus group stated that although

she enjoys being part of this Association, her enthusiasm is sometimes reduced due

to the lack of interest from older volunteers who have been members for a longer

period of time. This show shows how important a quality programme is for

members. The Association must make sure that every person‟s needs are being met

and that individual needs are taken into consideration by those in charge; this could

make a difference in retention of members and volunteers.

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With recruitment of members comes the payment of a membership fee, and this is no

different in this Association. Membership fees can have a positive or negative effect

on recruitment and retention depending on the reasonability of the payment required.

This is because parents/guardians may find the membership fee expensive and refuse

to send their daughter, or else they may find it too cheap and associate it with a low-

standard programme. A standard fee is not paid to the Association in this case, but to

the individual village units. Each village is to pay insurance and membership fee for

each member to the Association‟s Financial Control on a yearly basis but the rest of

the village fee is decided upon on an individual level. Therefore parents identified

different amounts of membership fees.

Figure 12: Membership Fees

Most of parents, sixty-seven percent, paid in between twenty-one and twenty-five

Euros each year whereas others varied from fifteen to twenty Euros (fifteen percent),

twenty-six to thirty Euros (eleven percent) and also one parent pays more than forty

Euros a year. Although there is a lack of consistency between one village and

66
another, eighty-nine percent of parents felt that the fees they paid are of a reasonable

price, while twenty-two percent feel that the fee they pay is too cheap; none of the

questioned parents felt that the fees were expensive. Having a reasonable

membership fee can enable the Association to compete with other extracurricular

groups.

Moving on to training and mentoring – these were discussed in the adult volunteer

questionnaires. Seventy-nine percent of adult members felt that they are given

adequate training to fulfill their role in the Association. Another question then

focused on what type of training the adult volunteers wished they could have. The

most common answer was Child Behaviour Management Training, with forty-four

percent choosing this as their first option. This was followed by training on Dealing

with Disabilities which scored a twenty-two percent. This shows that some leaders

do not feel qualified in certain areas of their role in the Associations. Training is very

important to adult volunteers so that they can feel confident in their role in the

Association and providing training can make them feel more secure and much more

ready to take on their role. As observed during the adult volunteer monthly meeting,

this is also evident. More often than not, Adult volunteers have a very interactive

meeting with their District Commissioner where the first part is the sharing of

information but the second part is more of a games and training session. Observing

the volunteers, they seem quite content to take part in all the activities as well as they

seemed to be very confident with each other and more of a friendship environment

rather than a formal meeting. Since most of the time, adult volunteers are somewhat

busy; holding training during the monthly meeting motivates the volunteers to attend

more and reduces the need to meet on a separate occasion. It also means that

volunteers keep their skills up-to-date and are more able to fulfill their role.

67
The Association also provides for a mentoring process for new adult volunteers so

that they can learn from others and have a person who is their point of reference

when in difficulty. When asked if the adult members ever heard of mentoring,

eighty-eight percent said that they did and fifty-two percent acknowledged that the

Association offered mentoring to help fulfill roles better. Thirty percent of the adult

volunteers did not know that the Association offered this service while sixty-four

percent stated that they were never assigned a mentor during their voluntary work.

From those who said that they were provided with a mentor, eighty-nine percent said

that this even made a difference and helped them fulfill their role better. Those who

were never assigned a mentor, sixty-nine percent were not interested in having a

mentor.

A set of questions were then posed with regards to their future in the Association and

whether or not they felt they had a future as adult volunteers. Asked whether or not

they would leave the Association had they not been so involved, thirty-four percent

said that they would; asked whether or not they saw themselves as still adult

volunteers in twenty years time, fifty-three percent said that did. The last question

was based on whether or not they wished to have a higher role in the Association in

the future, to which sixty-nine percent said they would not want that; this shows a

need for more motivation.

4.5 Motivation
For the Association to recruit and retain volunteers, they must provide them with

opportunities to engage and retain their talent on a frequent basis (Kaye & Jordan-

Evans, 2008). This is true to motivate the volunteers to want to remain active in the

Association. Questions which were based on motivation showed that different people

68
had different needs and what motivates one person may not motivate another. Kaye

& Jordan-Evans (2008) also pointed out that different employees are retained in a

different manner and that managers should ask their employees what does motivate

them.

During the questionnaires to the adult volunteers, several questions were asked with

regards to motivation. Since volunteers are not paid in money, they need recognition

and acknowledgement for their work (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc., 2000).

When asked if they felt appreciated in their role in the Association, eighty-six

percent felt that they were, whilst thirteen percent felt that they were not; the other

one percent did not answer the question.

Figure 13: Do Volunteers Feel Appreciated?

Another question was aimed at asking whether or not the Association showed its

appreciation towards hard work from its volunteers; seventy-nine felt that the

Association did show its appreciation while twenty-one percent felt that it did not.

69
Many volunteers look for added personal benefits when giving their time to a cause

(Wittich, 2003). During the questionnaire, adult volunteers were asked about the

effect that being a volunteer has on their life. When asked what was the main

motivator for being an adult volunteer, most replied were that they enjoyed

themselves when they were members at a younger age and still do now that they are

adult members (thirty-four percent). The next most popular answer, with thirty

percent, was that they feel a sense of fulfillment from their role in the association.

Other popular answers where that they enjoyed working with the younger members

(nineteen percent) and that they enjoyed the sense of responsibility (ten percent).

When asked how being a volunteer helps them in their personal life, thirty-four

percent saw that being a volunteer gave them confidence in themselves; a tie of

fourteen percent was seen between acquiring a sense of accomplishment, developing

skills and experiences that help their personal career as well as having a chance to

give something back to the community in the form of voluntary work. Having

benefits which incorporate the volunteers‟ personal life can help increase motivation.

Figure 14: Motivators for Volunteers

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During the focus group a common theme between all age groups was that they

enjoyed themselves during meetings and activities and that they enjoyed their time

with friends; this is a major aspect of motivating members to remain members of the

Association. Motivating members and volunteers means that they remain loyal to the

Association and retention is made possible.

On the other hand, a related question looked to how being an adult volunteer

hindered their personal life. The most popular reply, with forty-two percent, was that

the role took up a lot of their free time. Following was the answer that sometimes too

much was asked of them as volunteers (seventeen percent). Another popular and

similar answer with fourteen percent was that being a volunteer sometimes took too

much time away from family time. In this question, participants had the option of

choosing to write down an answer which was not available as an option. One

particular participant wrote “it takes so much time to prepare but when the

programme is presented to the members, they do not seem motivated at all”; another

wrote “I am often taken for granted”. Another set of questions asked whether the

work load for the volunteer was too much or too little; fifty-one percent felt that they

had too many responsibilities. Such circumstances can hinder retention of volunteers.

In a specific question, adult volunteers were asked whether the association chose the

same people to take part in projects over and over again; fifty-five percent agreed

that this was the case and out of these fifty-five percent, thirty-six percent felt they

were not part of this group of people sought by the Association. This can also be seen

as a de-motivator if volunteers feel that they are not worthy to be approached for

projects or decision making opportunities; in fact, seventy participants felt that the

Association should widen its nucleus of people to provide opportunities to other

members too.

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When asking the members what motivates them to be active in the Association, they

replied with various answers including learning new things and becoming more

confident and courageous, learning new skills, meeting new people and going abroad

to name a few. The oldest members between the ages of fifteen and eighteen also

made it a point to state that they wanted to give back what Girl Guides had given

them throughout their membership and the only way to do that is provide the same

experience to the younger members. This can only be done if they become adult

members themselves in the future. All of this motivates them to remain members.

Other members during the focus group for those members aged fifteen to eighteen

also stated:

"I would have left guiding a long time ago, if my mum would let me"
"The only reason I remain is because it‟s become a usual part of my life"

Such quotes reveal that some members do not like the present conditions that are

provided in their village units. The first quote also shows that parents know how

beneficial it is that their daughter has an extracurricular activity. This was also

evident in the parents‟ questionnaires where they felt that their daughter‟s

membership has a positive impact on their daughter‟s life. The second quote

strengthens the previously mentioned aspect that when members are entered at a

young age, they are most likely to adopt the values and goals of the association; in

fact it becomes part of that person‟s usual everyday life. This shows that in some

cases the Association fails to satisfy the needs of such members or volunteers who

feel that the programme can be better.

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4.6 Decision Making and Communication

Strategic decisions taken must serve as a path for the organization to follow

(Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006). But for an organization to follow in a strategic

path, this path must be communicated with the whole of the organization so that the

whole of it can move in one same direction. During the observation research method,

the researcher was able to gather information on the decision making process as well

as how well the National Board and the members communicate between themselves.

During the first meeting observing the National Board, it was evident that the

members on this board held very informal meetings were all themes and subjects

were discussed at length. Each member was given the time to state their opinion as

well as communicating feedback gathered from adult volunteers. As a team, the

National Board seem to work very well together and have a system whereby

anything that needs to be communicated to the district adult members, is done

through the District Commissioner during monthly volunteer meetings. During a visit

to one district meeting, the researcher observed that the meeting was not only used

for dissemination of information, but also for training purposes; since information is

sent to adult volunteers by e-mail throughout the whole guiding year when necessary.

This could be to reduce the amount of time the volunteers spend listening when

compared to the time being used for training. It can also help increase attendance of

volunteers to such meetings if they are made to be more interesting. During the first

part of the meeting, the District Commissioner shares ideas and decisions which were

previously discussed during the National Board meeting; some decisions are then put

forward for feedback while other decisions are final and are only for informational

purposes. This depends on the type of decisions being taken and whether or not they

can allow for feedback. It shows that the administrative board is able to take better
73
decisions through cooperation and understanding but also shows that in some cases,

decisions are taken at the top and disseminated as required rather than given time for

feedback.

Participants in the volunteer questionnaires were asked whether or not the

Association communicates its vision with adult volunteers, eighty-eight felt that this

was the case. Further on the theme of communication, volunteers were asked

whether or not they could easily give suggestions to the Association, seventy-eight

percent said they could. While sixty-five percent agreed that their decisions were

given importance, the most common approach to communicating these suggestions

was through the District Commissioners (seventy-one percent). This was followed by

a sixteen percent who felt they could call or e-mail the Chief Commissioner with

their suggestions. This shows that most of the adult volunteers do not hesitate to pass

forward their suggestions directly to National Board members. Having said this,

fifty-three percent of adult members feel that they are sometimes left in the dark on

certain subjects or future visions of the Association or that the Association does not

communicate everything to the adult volunteers. This may show that although the

administrative board works well together, they might not be sending all the required

messages through to the volunteers and members.

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Figure 15: Volunteers Involvement in the Decision-Making Process

Asked whether or not they were involved in the decision making process in any way,

almost half of the participants said that they were not (forty-nine percent). From

those whom agreed, fifty-four percent felt that they were given opportunities to be

part of planning teams on certain projects and decision making sessions. Another

twenty-five percent felt that the Association took decisions and then presented them

to the adult volunteers for feedback. By including volunteers in the decision making

process, it would enable for more motivation as well as an increased shared vision

towards the same goals. This is because by including people in the decision making

process, they feel valued and therefore more willing to do better work. From the

focus group, it was evident that many of the age groups were included in the decision

making process with regards to programme preparation. Members from ages seven

up till eighteen all said that their leader asked them what they wanted to do with

regards to monthly programmes; some of the older sections were also given the

opportunity to design their own programmes they way they see fit and this also

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increases motivation and retention since members are doing what they like doing

best as well as feeling part of the decision making process from an early stage of

membership.

4.7 The external Environment

The external environment is complex and it can also influence the success of an

organization (Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006). The recruitment and retention

process is not only affected by the internal company environment but also by entities

from the external environment (Anthony, Kacmar, Perrewé, 2006).

The way people view the Association, or the amount of knowledge and awareness

the external environment has, can affect the recruitment of new members and

volunteers in the Association. This was an important issue that came out in the

various research methods that took place during this research question. Many are

those who do not know about the Association or what its main goals are. This can

reduce the recruitment of new members as they might sometimes have

misconceptions and this reduces the likeliness that people come forward to volunteer

or enroll as a member. As seen previously with regards to adult volunteers, the de-

motivation factors could cause people to shy away from becoming volunteers.

During the focus group, the members between ten and fifteen years of age were

asked about the reaction they got when they mentioned to friends that they are

members of this particular Association. Some answers included that sometimes peer

pressure results in new members not joining in; others say that due to the wearing of

uniforms as well as parades they are not interested in joining. This was also seen in

the adult volunteer questionnaires where they were asked whether or not they felt the

uniform lessened the attractiveness of such an Association to potential members or

76
volunteers; sixty-two adult volunteers felt that this did hinder the recruitment

process.

The oldest group also mentioned that at their age between fifteen and eighteen, many

are still acquiring an education and feel that they do not have the time. Since this age

group sometimes start helping out the adult volunteers in preparations and

implementation of projects and meetings, the amount of time dedicated to the

Association starts to increase with age and some potential members find this as a

hindrance and this can result in such people not approaching the Association.

Awareness about the Association is also very important with regards to potential

volunteers and members. People need to know what the Association provides so that

they may be tempted to join in. During the parents‟ questionnaire, they were asked

what they considered the Girl Guides programme to be. The most common answer

was that it is a Self-Developmental programme (sixty-two percent); the next most

common was that the programme was Educational (twenty-one percent). These two

answers were correct, but some parents, ten percent, also thought the programme was

a recreational one. Although the programme is filled with recreational style activities,

the main aim of the Association is Self-Development through a non-formal

educational programme. Therefore this shows that even parents of members

sometimes are unaware of what the Association stands for, let alone people who

know nothing about the Association itself.

This leads to the next area of the external environment with regards to marketing the

Association to increase awareness and therefore recruitment. With regards to

visibility, it is very difficult to find information on the Malta Girl Guides Association

on newspapers, magazines and any other printed media. During the focus groups, all

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the age groups were shown pictures which included the Association‟s logo and a

recent advert published in a Sunday newspaper. When they were first shown the

advert in black and white (which is how it was printed on the newspaper), they

thought it needed colour to catch the reader‟s eye as well as more pictures of older

members since as it was, it looked as though it was meant only for younger member

recruitment. This shows that although eye-catching, sometimes an advert or a picture

does not get the required or desired message through and going back to

communication, the advert could have been communicated with some of the

volunteers for feedback or reactions.

From this analysis and discussion, a conclusion follows.

4.8 Conclusion

Therefore since the age distribution shows that a younger group of volunteers are

present, the Association must work on building a future for the Association with

regards to succession planning through mentoring and providing all the necessary

training. Although many of the volunteers still see themselves as members in twenty

years time, the Association still needs to build a strong base of volunteers so that

they have enough human resources who are capable of keeping the Association

going in the future; this is done through succession planning.

The Association must also work on building awareness both with its volunteers and

with its members but also with the outside environment so that they will be able to

grow their Association further. The only way that they can grow is through an

increased recruitment and retention plan which provides a constant flow of incoming

recruitment to counter those who will eventually leave or retire as well as keeping

78
the present members and volunteers motivated through training and a programme

which meets the majority‟s needs.

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5. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

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5.1 Conclusions

The research question has provided a broader perspective into the importance of

recruitment and retention in a voluntary organization. The Malta Girl Guides

Association, as a case study, has been researched, analysed and explored so that the

researcher was able to get a clear view of how the actions of the Association affect

recruitment and retention. What makes new members become interested in joining,

what motivates volunteers in giving their time for such a cause and what hold people

from becoming volunteers and members were all reviewed through different research

methods so as to come up with different recommendations for an increased

recruitment and retention rate for the Association.

An important area which was researched was the motivation of adult volunteers and

members and the impact it has on the overall constructive role they can have in an

organization. As could be seen from the questionnaires and observation of adult

volunteers, it was found that these volunteers believe in the cause of the Association

and for this reason, they are still working towards these goals and motivated to do so

by many different factors. They may sometimes feel that their work is not

appreciated or that they need more training on certain aspects of their role, but in the

end are still motivated to make a difference. Many felt that although they are given

training to do their role, there are still areas in which they are finding difficulty and

requested to have more training opportunities. When a person is more confident in

their work, they are able to deliver a better result; and training helps volunteers to do

this. The Association must therefore provide more opportunities for volunteers to

acquire new skills and put forward suggestions for new training themes. This way

any difficulties can be solved from the start. It must also provide a challenging

81
programme for its members and be able to compete with other youth organizations so

as to increase the likeliness that people will choose their Association over another.

Another important aspect that emerged from the adult volunteer questionnaires is the

motivation factors and how they sometimes lack motivation in their role in the

Association. Many times the volunteers do not feel appreciated for their work. Since

volunteers are not given monetary rewards, they are always in need of other

motivation factors such as praise and appreciation. The Association should make it a

point to show their appreciation for the work done by volunteers not only by

thanking them after the hard work but also by acknowledging with others the hard

work of each volunteer and rewarding this hard work with different opportunities.

Decision-making opportunities were also an issue and could also be increased to

include more volunteers as well as different volunteers – not choosing the same

people every time an opportunity comes along. The dissemination of information

must also be done in a way that reaches everyone at the same time and provides

room for feedback and criticism from volunteers. This way volunteers will not feel

that they are being sidelined but included in the process; it also means that volunteers

will feel more motivated to give suggestions as well as feeling part of the

Association rather than just a volunteer.

With regards to recruitment of new members, it was visible that the Association is in

dire need of promotion and marketing within the external environment so that it is

able to build a relationship with the outside world. The Association has a lot of

competition with other extra-curricular and youth groups and must therefore stand

out from this crowd and show the external environment who they are and what they

are all about. Without this relationship, recruitment is very difficult and can lead to

82
the Association loosing members and volunteers and not being able to replace them,

let alone grow in number.

As could be seen in the analysis of data, the Association has been having difficulty in

substantially increasing the number of members and volunteers; the

recommendations in this research could be a good starting point to enable them to

start reaching their recruitment and retention goals.

5.2 Limitations

Each voluntary organization has its own goals and values; they all have different

mission statements and different ways of going about recruitment and retention.

Some voluntary organizations do not depend on membership for survival and some

are based solemnly on membership and volunteers for theirs.

This case study is limited in the sense that the external environment was not

researched on a substantial scale and therefore recruitment still has a wider variety of

areas that can be explored. However it does provide a view into what present

members and volunteers think about their role in the Association and this can be a

starting point for further research as well as for a more detailed recruitment strategy

for the Association.

5.3 Recommendations

A number of recommendations emerged during this dissertation both with regards to

the case study itself as well as recommendations for further studies on the topic.

83
5.3.1 Recommendations for the Malta Girl Guides Association

As an Association, the Malta Girl Guides have been around for more than ninety

years; but it seems the general public knows little about who they are or what they

do; this in turn effects the recruitment of new volunteers and members. Therefore the

first recommendation would be to promote the Association better through a strong

advertising campaign and also making use of present members to promote the

Association through word-of-mouth since this has shown to be the most popular,

attracting the majority of present volunteers and members.

This could be done through activities such as a Membership Drive. Pakroo (2009)

describes two points in particular which would be put to good use in this case study

Association. The first is that the Association needs to define and create incentives so

as to make membership more attractive to potential members; this can also be done

for volunteering in addition to membership. Through doing so, the Association will

be able to produce material which outlines these benefits and enable for a more

informative manner in which to attract and recruit new members and volunteers.

Prospective members and volunteers need to know “what they get in return for

becoming a member” and that “materials clearly outline the material benefits of

joining” (Pakroo, 2009, p109). The second point which Pakroo (2009) points out is

that non-profit organizations need to “Hit the Streets” (Pakroo, 2009, p110); this

means sending out present volunteers to promote these previously mention benefits,

in places where prospective members and volunteers are likely to be.

Another recommendation is to focus on the internal environment when it comes to

volunteers; the Association needs to ask for volunteer feedback from time to time.

The questionnaires showed that some of the volunteers do not feel appreciated. As a

recommendation, the District Commissioners need a better relationship with the


84
volunteers and members of the Association; this is so that volunteers and members

feel that they can give their opinions and feelings more openly. In this manner, the

District Commissioner is able to put forward volunteer comments to the National

Board whenever required. Pakroo (2009) gives importance to paying attention to

members‟ comments. This is because volunteers can offer important contributions on

a variety of areas; they have practice with members and can therefore give first-hand

experience on important insights which can ultimately be very helpful in recruiting

more members.

5.3.2 Further Research

For further research, recommendations include researching the external environment

through state and church primary and secondary schools around the Maltese Islands.

This can give a detailed account of what girls and young women in general, think

and know about the Association; it can therefore give the Association more ground

on what they need to change or introduce to be more competitive with regards to

extra-curricular or youth organizations. This suggestion focuses on state and church

secondary schools because here one can find the majority of children and youth

gathered in the same place and can therefore provide for a better and quicker sample

to be conducted.

Further research can also include the general public so as to get an insight into how

the general public perceives the Association and to which extent do people know

about the Association and its work.

5.4 Conclusion

The research has shown the importance of applying Human Resource Management,

even for voluntary organizations. Voluntary organizations have “become a major

85
economic and social force” it today‟s society (Anheier, 2005, p10). While referring

to non-profit management, Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc. (2000) state that an

organization will prosper if it manages its most important resources well; the most

important resource for a non-profit organization is that of its people. But for a

voluntary organization to have people, it must recruit and retain volunteers and

members and finding “a group of people with different skills who work congenially

together for a common good” (Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc., 2000, p310).

Some organization, The Malta Girl Guides Association in particular, cannot function

without the input of volunteers and it takes good management of these people,

communication and leadership to coordinate and maintain such a good force of

people. The effective recruitment and retention methods used for volunteers and

members are the key to such an organization‟s success (Smith, Bucklin &

Associates, Inc., 2000).

86
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APPENDICES

92
Appendix A: The Malta Girl Guides Draft Statute as on
May 2010

THE STATUTE OF THE MALTA

GIRL GUIDES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preamble

Mission Statement

Vision

Article 1: Name & Logo

Article 2: Headquarters

Article 3: Fundamental Principles

Article 4: Membership

Article 5: Structure

Article 6: Appointments

Preamble

This Statute governs the operation of the Malta Girl Guides Association and
safeguards the Fundamental Principles of the Girl Guide/Girl Scout Movement,
which is based on values and dedicated to the education of girls and young women
through the method conceived by the Founder. The Association is self-governing
and strictly non-political. It is a voluntary and a non–profit making organization in
accordance with the voluntary organizations` act Chapter 492 of the Laws of Malta.

Mission Statement

The Malta Girl Guides enable girls and young women to develop a good character
and to discover their potential through an interactive programme, giving a positive
sense of direction and a world of opportunities as responsible citizens.

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Vision

Guiding

Gives an opportunity for character development based on human, spiritual


and moral values according to the principles embodied in the Promise and
laws as laid down by the Founder Lord Baden Powell;
promotes a love for one‟s country thus encouraging a full sense of
citizenship;
actively supports international goodwill whilst respecting cultural diversity.

ARTICLES

Article 1 Name and Logo

1 Name

The Association is to be known as “Malta Girl Guides” and shall be hereafter


referred to as “The Association”

1.1 Logo

The official logo of The Association is a trefoil design incorporating


the Maltese cross. All copy rights, trademarks, and other intellectual
property rights relating to the emblem, together with any good will
relating to it, belong to the Malta Girl Guides.

Article 2 Headquarters

2 Address

The registered address of the Malta Girl Guides is 49, Capuchins Street, Floriana
FRN 1052.

Article 3 Fundamental Principles

3. Principles

The Fundamental Principles of the Association are those of the Girl Guide/Girl Scout
Movement as expressed in the Promise and Laws.

3.1 Promise
 3.1.1.Dolphins
I will do my best
To love God
My country
And others

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 3.1.2 Brownies
I promise to do my best
To do my duty to God
Serve my country
Help other people
And keep the Brownie Guide law.

 3.1.3.Guide/ Ranger/Adult
I promise to do my best
To do my duty to God
Serve my Country
Help other people
And keep the guide law

3.2 Laws

 3.2.1Guide/Ranger/Adult Law
A Guide

Is loyal and can be trusted


Is polite and respectful
Is helpful and considerate
Is friendly, cheerful and shares in the sisterhood
of Guiding
Makes good use of her time and her abilities
Protects the environment and respects all living
creatures.

 3.2.2.Brownie Law
A Brownie Guide thinks of others before
herself and does a good turn every day.

3.3 Motto

3.3.1 Guide/Ranger/Adults Be Prepared

3.3.2 Brownie Lend a Hand

3.3.3 Dolphin Friendly and Helpful

Article 4 Membership

4. Membership

4.1 The Malta Girl Guides is open to girls and women of every class,
race, religion and nationality, who subscribe to the principles of the Promise

95
and Law and to meet the criteria for membership as laid down by the Statute
of WAGGGS.

4.1.2 Membership is voluntary.

4.1.3 A member is bound by the “Code of ethics and good practice”


of the Association.

4.1.4. The Association which shall have jurisdiction in the islands


comprising Malta and Gozo, shall be administered by the National
Board and governed by the Council.

4.1.5. The Association and all parts of it shall, in all cases, act in
accordance with the guiding manual as drawn up in the Statute and as
authorised by the National Board of the Association.

Article 5 Structure

5 The Council

The Council is the top governing body of the Association which determines its
values and policies. The ultimate decision should be taken by the Council.

5.1 Members of the Council

The Patron
The Honorary Life-President
The Life Vice-President/s
The President
The Vice President
Island Chaplain
National Board
Council Secretary
Legal Consultant
Financial Consultant
President of the Trefoil Guild
Liaison Officer of Adult Member Group
3 Representatives from Districts
Other appointed members (maximum of 10)

5.1.1 Ex-Officio
The Patron
The Honorary Life-President
Island Chaplain
Legal Consultant
Financial Consultant
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5.1.2 Voting Members

The President*
The Life Vice-President(s)
The National Board
The Council Secretary
The President of the Trefoil Guild
Liaison Officer of Adult Member Group
Representatives from Districts
Other appointed members **

*The President has the right to a casting vote when a


tie arises
** These members shall be appointed and approved by
the Council. They can be non-uniformed members and
cannot exceed ten.

5.1.3 Meetings of the Council

The Council Meetings are called at the request of the


President or at the request of any 5 members, being
non-voting or voting members of the Council.
A quorum is formed with 50% + 1 of all voting
members. Such meetings shall commence within 15
minutes from the stipulated time.
If the quorum is not formed during the first meeting,
another meeting with the same agenda is to be called
within a three month period and held irrespective of the
number of members present. Such meetings shall not
commence before 30 minutes from the stipulated time
on the agenda.
Every member of the Council present and eligible to
vote shall have one vote. Every proposal (with the
exception of the President and Chief Commissioner`s
elections) submitted to a meeting shall be passed by a
show of hands unless a request for a secret ballot is
made by any voting member present. Such request
should be determined by a show of hands and the
decision shall be final and binding on all members. A
two-thirds majority of all members present is required
whether a proposal is passed by secret ballot or show
of hands.
Voting by proxy is not permitted.
A number of voting members, not exceeding ten,
whose standing in the opinion of the council, would be
of great support to the Malta Girl Guides shall be
nominated by the council. The term of office for such
affiliated members shall be for a term of 3 years after

97
which they shall be eligible for re-appointment for a
further period of 3 years subject to their acceptance and
approval of the council.

5.2 THE NATIONAL BOARD

The National board is the administrative body of the Association. It shall consider
the interests of the Malta Girl Guides. It`s financial powers are governed by the bye-
laws. The members of the National Board are as follows:

5.2.1 Members of the National Board

Chief Commissioner

Appointed Members

 Deputy Chief Commissioner


 International Commissioner
 Training Commissioner
 Education Programme
Commissioner
 Island Treasurer
 Island Secretary

Elected Members

 North District Commissioner


 South District Commissioner
 Central District Commissioner

The Chief Commissioner is to appoint at least one


member under the age of 30, at the time of election.

5.2.2 Meetings of the National Board

The Chief Commissioner is bound to call meetings at


regular intervals to manage the Association`s affairs, in
order to ensure the smooth running of the Association
in accordance to the statute.

5.3. THE DISTRICTS

The Association is made up of three districts comprising of North, South and Central.
The function of the district is to promote and expand Girl Guiding within the district
and develop plans for assisting the National Organization. They are administered by
the District Commissioners who are elected by their respective warranted guiders.

98
5.3.1 Meetings of the District

The district commissioner is bound to call a guiders` meeting at regular intervals for
the proper functioning of the units.

5.3.1.1 The Units

A unit can be composed of the following:

 Guiders ( 18+)
 Unit Helpers ( 18+)
 Young Leaders ( 16-18)
 Ranger Group ( 14-18)
 Guide Company ( 10-14)
 Brownie Pack ( 7-10)
 Dolphin School ( 5-7)

5.4 TREFOIL GUILD ASSOCIATION

The trefoil guide is part of the Malta Girl Guides. It has a separate Statute, is
independent (independently) administered and is financial (financially) self
supporting.

5.5. ADULT MEMBERS

***** must insert text here!!!

5.6. GENERAL ASSEMBLEY

The General Assembly called by the Chief Commissioner and presided by the
President is to be held yearly during the first quarter of the year. Notice for the
meeting is to be sent to all adult (enrolled) members eight (8) weeks prior to its being
held.

The Annual Review will be held during the General Assembly. Strategic planning
for the coming year/s will be on the Agenda. Proposals for discussion are to be
forwarded in writing two (2) weeks from notice of the General Assembly to the
Island Secretary of the National Board. Only proposals approved by the National
Board will be discussed in the General Assembly.

Article 6: Appointments

6.1 THE PRESIDENT

Nomination Forms for the election of a President are issued by the Island Secretary
on the instructions of the Chief Commissioner, three months prior to the expiration
of the term of office of the President. The nomination forms are to be duly filled in
by Council members. Candidates for presidency of the Association shall be
nominated and approved by the National Board. Voting by secret ballot shall be

99
taken by the National Board to approve the nominated candidates. The approved
nominations are to be forwarded by the National Board to the Council within 3
weeks. A council meeting is to be held within one month for the election of the
President. The term of office shall be for a period of 3 years, renewable for a
further period of 3 years, subject to the President`s acceptance and approval by a
secret ballot of the council members.

The Vice-president and the Council secretary are appointed by the newly elected
president.

6.2 THE CHIEF COMMISSIONER

Nomination Forms for the election of a Chief Commissioner are issued by the
Council Secretary on the instruction of the President of the Council, three months
prior to the expiration of the term of office of the Chief Commissioner. The
nomination forms are to be duly filled in by the council members and sent within 3
weeks to the National Board for approval.

Candidates are to be nominated in accordance with the requirements as laid down in


the job description. The approved nominations are to be forwarded by the national
board to the council within three weeks of receipt.

Voting for the approved candidates shall be held by secret ballot during a council
meeting to be held within 1 month from receipt of the said approved nominations.
The term of office shall be for a period of five years renewable for a further period of
three years subject to the Chief Commissioner`s acceptance and approval by secret
ballot of the council members.

6.3 Voting for president and Chief Commissioner

***** must insert text here!!!

6.4 The Members on the National Board

All members on the National Board (see article 5.2.1) are to be appointed by the
elected Chief Commissioner with the exception of the District Commissioners.

6.5 District Commissioners

The District Commissioners shall be elected by the respective district warranted


members and appointed and approved by the Chief Commissioner for a term of three
years. They are eligible for re-election for a further term of three years. They preside
over all meetings and administer their respective districts.

Re: Election of District Commissioners - To abide by policy of the National Board


(should wording and structure change?)

6.6 Other Posts

100
The Chief Commissioner has the right to appoint and withdraw other
officers/advisors whom she deems necessary to complement the National Board
during her term of office.

Upon the completion of the term of office/resignation of the Chief Commissioner all
nominated members with the exception of the District Commissioners are to
relinquish their posts.

6.7 Premature Termination

(president, chief commissioner, district commissioners)

Any post that is vacated before the post expires,

***** must insert text here!!!

Article 7 Finance

7.1 Compliance

The Association will conduct its financial activities in accordance with the
regulations and laws of Malta. No part of the income, capital or property is available
directly or indirectly to any member of the association. (Indirectly to any member,
administrator, donor or any private interest )

7.2 Accounting and Auditing

7.2.1 The Treasurer of the Association shall prepare a statement of accounts in


respect of each financial year to be audited by a professional accountant not involved
in the maintenance of the accounts.

7.2.2 A financial year shall commence on the 1st October of each year.

7.2.3 The financial statement is to be presented at the General Assembly during the
Annual Review and be accessible to all members.

7.2.4 The signatories of all the Association‟s banking transactions shall be any two of
the following:

The Chief Commissioner

The Island Treasurer

The Island Secretary

The National Board can appoint another co-signatory in addition to or in place of any
of the above.

101
Other accounts can be operated by other members of the association upon approval
of the national board.

7.2.5 The Treasurer with the approval in writing of the National Board shall borrow
or raise money under such terms and conditions and against such security as she may
deem appropriate for any one or both of the following:

a) The capital expenditure for the expansion of or addition to the fixed assets of
the Association.
b) Any valid expenditure properly chargeable to the refurbishing of any of the
Association‟s property.

7.3 Financial provisions

The Association shall draw up a set of financial procedures which will be applicable
to all its members.

Article 8 Dissolution

8.1 Dissolution of the Association

The Association shall be dissolved following an “ad hoc” resolution approved by not
less than 50% + 1 of the council members at a council meeting called specifically to
deliberate on a proposal for dissolution.

Upon dissolution, all remaining assets of the organization shall be applied in favour
of another non-profit organization with similar purposes as the organization which
may be selected by the Association. Three trustees shall be elected during the said
meeting to represent the Association and make all the decisions to carry out the
dissolution.

8.2 Dissolution of Districts

Should a district cease to exist, its assets should be passed on to the Association and
the national board shall have the right to supervise the disposal of its properties and
funds as it may deem advisable.

8.3 Dissolution of a Unit

Should a unit cease to exist, its assets should be passed on to the district and become
the property of the district when two years have elapsed.

Article 9 Amendments of the Statute

The articles in the statues may be amended, added or repealed by vote taken by the
council members at a council meeting.

102
Conclusion

The interpretation of all the articles in this statute, is the prerogative of the council of
the day and is not to be contested.

The provisions contained in this statute are in force upon obtaining the approval by
WAGGGS and thus the previous Statute is repealed.

103
Appendix B: Focus Group Questions Asked

Dolphins (4-6 years old):


1. Do you enjoy being a dolphin?
2. What do you do during weekly meetings?
3. When you go home, do you talk about Dolphins with your family?
4. Which activities do you like best and why?
5. Which activities don‟t you like and why?
6. Do you have friends in the unit?
7. Do you tell other friends, who are not members of the Association, that you attend
Dolphins?
8. How many leaders/guiders do you have in your unit?
9. Do you attend any other type of afterschool activities apart from Dolphins?
10. Which one do you prefer most? Why?
11. Show images of Logo: Do you like it? Have you ever seen it before?
12. Show image of a sad girl: If that was a Dolphin like you, why would she be sad?
13. Are you sad when you cannot go to the weekly meeting or an activity?
14. Have you ever missed activities? Why?
15. Will continue to go be a Girl Guide when you grow up?

Brownies (7 – 10 years old):


1. Where did you become aware of girl guides?
2. What do you do during weekly meetings?
3. When you go home, do you talk about Brownies with your family?
4. Which activities do you like best?
5. How many leaders do you have in your unit?
6. Do you have friends in the unit?
7. Do you tell other friends, who are not members of the Association, that you attend
Brownies?
8. Have you ever invited new brownies to come with you to Brownies?
9. What was their answer and why?
10. Do you attend any other type of afterschool activities apart from Brownies?
11. Which one do you prefer most? Why?
12. Show images of Logo: Do you like it? Have you ever seen it before?
13. Show image of a sad girl: If that was a Brownie like you, why would she be sad?
14. Are you sad when you cannot go to the weekly meeting or an activity?
15. Have you ever missed activities? Why?
16. Do you ever tell your guider about an activity you would like to do?
17. Does she do the activity when you ask her to?
18. Will continue to go be a Girl Guide when you grow up?
19. Do you think that one day girls will no longer want to be girl guides?
Guides (11 – 13 years old):
1. Where did you become aware of girl guides?
2. What do you do during weekly meetings?
3. How often do you have meetings outside of the headquarters?
4. Which do you like doing the most/least?

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5. Is there anything you don‟t do in guides that you would like to start doing?
6. Do you tell friends you go to Guides?
7. What is their reaction when you tell friends you are a guide?
8. What is the most important reason that keeps you a member of this Association?
9. Show Advert Black & White:
a. What do you think it is?
b. (Advert – For whom?)
c. What do you think about it?
d. What is good about it?
e. What would you change?
Show Colour Advert:
f. Did you ever see it advertised?
g. Where would YOU advertise it so that girls like you would see it?
10. Show logo: what do you think about the logo?
11. Would you change it?
12. What affect does guiding have in your life?
13. Are there opportunities in guiding that one cannot find anywhere else?
14. Do you feel you are given the opportunity to give your opinion on your programme
or activities?
15. Are there any changes you would make to the Association?
16. Do you think that one day girls will no longer want to be girl guides?
17. What will happen then?

Rangers (14 – 18 years old)


1. Where did you become aware of girl guides?
2. Do your friends know you are a ranger?
3. If yes, what is their reaction?
4. Have you ever invited friends over to a meeting or activity?
5. Did they ever accept? And if so, did they continue to be members? Why/Why not?
6. What do you do during weekly meetings?
7. How often do you have meetings outside of the headquarters?
8. Which do you like doing the most/least?
9. Is there anything you don‟t do in guides that you would like to start doing?
10. Have you ever considered leaving girl guides?
11. How much time do you devote to guiding?
12. What is the most important reason that keeps you a member of this Association?
13. Show Advert Black & White:
a. What do you think it is?
b. (Advert – For whom?)
c. What do you think about it?
d. What is good about it?
e. What would you change?
Show Colour Advert
f. Did you ever see it advertised?
g. Where would YOU advertise it so that girls like you would see it?
14. Show logo: what do you think about the logo?
15. Would you change it?
16. What affect does guiding have in your life?

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17. Are there opportunities in guiding that one cannot find anywhere else?
18. Do you feel you are given the opportunity to give your opinion on your programme
or activities?
19. Are there any changes you would make to the Association?
20. Do you think that one day girls will no longer want to be girl guides?
21. What will happen then?

PICTURES

Figure 16: Malta Girl Guides Logo

Figure 17: Malta Girl Guides Advert

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Appendix C: Guidelines for Mediators

1. Introduce the subject: We are here to learn from you. The reason being that

we want to know what makes you enjoy guiding and what doesn‟t.

2. Brief introduction to the rules of focus groups –

 Everything said and done is confidential and will not be used

outside the room except for the purposes of this research;

 Every statement is right;

 Please do not hesitate to disagree with someone else;

 Do not talk all at once

3. Introduce the group: Say your name, what unit you go to and how long you

have been in guiding. For Dolphins and Brownies, their name is enough as

they will probably not know how long they have been a member.

4. Start asking the questions one by one. But if you delve into another subject,

do not cut it short. As long as you stay on the matter of guiding and the

themes of the questions, any information can be beneficial.

5. Bring the focus group to a close and thank them for attending

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Appendix D: Letter to Volunteers regarding Focus Group
Participation

Dear Guiders,

As a student in my last year of university, I am reading for an Honours degree in


Management and part of my final mark requires me to produce a research and dissertation
for which I have chosen the subject above. As you know our membership is what keeps the
Association going and therefore we need to try and increase our members as much as
possible.

As part of my research I would like to hold focus groups with all the sections in the
association. A focus group is where a group meets and discusses pre-set questions. These
conversations are monitored and then from the discussions, information is gathered to help in
the research.

On the day, we will divide groups into the 4 different sections – each group will have one
person in charge that will be asking the questions and promoting discussion. These
discussions will be recorded for future reference during my study.

Each village from each district is to choose one representative from each section. Therefore
for example, Attard Girl Guides will have 1 Dolphin, 1 Brownie, 1 Guide and 1 Ranger
representing the locality. This will help me get a better overview of the whole of Malta and
will make the results more realistic. I would like to emphasize that girls chosen need to be
able to speak their mind and not be shy to talk about their opinion; therefore when
approaching the parents of these girls, please do keep this in mind. Also make sure to inform
parents of what exactly will be happening during these focus groups.

Details for the Focus Group are as follows:

Date: 13th February 2010


Time: 13.30hrs – 15.30hrs
Place: Island Headquarters, Floriana

Children can be dropped off by their parents, there is no need for the leader to be present as
there will be allocated persons who will take care of the focus group on the day.

Leaders from each unit are to send me the name of the girls attending by not later than
29th January 2010. Together with their name I will require also their contact details such as
Address, Parents‟/Guardian‟s Mobile number as well as which unit and section the girls is
coming from together with her age. You can always contact me on claireduff01@gmail.com
or 79065098.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank you in advance for all your help.

Yours Sincerely,

CLAIRE DUFF

108
Appendix E: Letter to Parents/Guardians regarding Focus
Group Participation

Dear Parent/Guardian,
As a fourth-year university student reading for an honours degree in Management at
the University of Malta, part of our course is based on a dissertation. As a topic I
have chosen to research the recruitment and retention methods of a voluntary
organization, focusing on The Malta Girl Guides as my case study.
Part of the purpose of my study will be to determine what influences girls and young
women into choosing what attracts and prevents them from becoming members of
the Malta Girl Guides. For this reason, I have chosen to hold Focus Groups with the
four different age groups found in the association. Participants will be distributed
into 4 groups, namely Dolphins (aged between 4 and 6), Brownies (aged between 7
and 10), Guides (aged between 11 and 13) and Rangers (aged between 14 and 18).
During these focus groups, the participants will be encouraged to discuss topics
related to why they enjoy being members of this association and what hinders other
members from being recruited.
At no time during the focus group will the participants be asked to say or write their
name or any other personal details. All participants will remain anonymous
throughout the whole process and answers will not, in any way, be traceable to any
of the members taking part. The answers gathered will be used for data analysis only
and will be kept entirely confidential; they will not be presented in my dissertation
and will be kept only by myself throughout this whole course.
The consent form, found at the end of this document, gives authorization for the use
your child‟s answers in my data analysis. Your child is asked to bring this slip with
her on the day of the focus group. Participants who do not have this form available
on this day will not be able to participate. If you find any difficulty or would like to
ask any questions, please feel free to do so by contacting me on the below details.
Thank You.

Sincerely, Focus Group - DETAILS

Date: 13th February 2010


CLAIRE DUFF Time: 13.30hrs – 15.30hrs
Place: Island Headquarters, Floriana
4th Year Management Student
Mobile: 7906 5098
E-Mail: cduf0001@um.edu.mt

After reading the provided letter, I hereby give my consent


for_________________________________, to take part in the above mentioned focus
groups.

Signature of Parent/Guardian: _______ ____ Date: _____________________


Name of Parent/Guardian in Block Letters: ______________________________________
Name of Child in Block Letters: _______________________________________________

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Appendix F: Adult Volunteers Questionnaire
Please note that your answers will not be published in my Thesis and Only I will have access
to them.

1. Age: (Please Tick in the Appropriate Box)

16 - 20 31 - 40

21 - 25 41 - 50

26 - 30 Over 50

2. What work do you do in your personal life? (Tick the One that Applies)
Unemployed White Collar*
Student Professional*
Un-skilled worker* Retired
Skilled worker* Housewife
(*---Unskilled---such as farm labour, basic service, house cleaner
*---Skilled work--- such as technician, carpenter, hairdresser, seamstress
*---White collar (office) work---such as clerk, salesperson, secretary, small business
*---Professional---doctor, lawyer, teacher, business executive)

3. In the Malta Girl Guides, what Role do you have? (Please Tick in the Appropriate
Box)

Young Leader Leader Adult Member Unit Helper Commissioner

4. Which District Are You Part Of? (Please Tick in the Appropriate Box)

North Central South

5. How long have you been a member of the Malta Girl Guides? __________

6. Were you a: (Please Tick All That Apply)


Dolphin
Brownie
Guide
Ranger
Young Leader
Leader
Commissioner If So, Please Specify Role: ___________________
Unit Helper

7. How did you become aware of the Malta Girl Guides? (Please The One that Applies)
Word of Mouth (someone told you about them)
Saw them on a television Show
Saw them during an outdoor activity
Received a flyer of a specific unit
Saw an advert on the newspaper

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Read an article on the newspaper
Read an article on a magazine
Visited their Website
If Other, Please Specify: _________________________

8. What motivated you to remain a member?


(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 6 being the lowest)
“I enjoyed myself when I was younger and still do”
“I feel a sense of fulfillment from my role in the Association”
“Guiding gives me something to fill up my free time”
“I enjoy the sense of responsibility”
“Guiding helps me in my professional life”
“I enjoy working with the younger members”
If Other, Please Specify: _____________________________________

9. How do you feel guiding helps you in your personal life?


(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 8 being the
lowest)
Confidence
Sense of accomplishment
Friendship
Time management skills
Communication Skills
Widening your perspectives of the world
Developing Skills & Experiences that help your career
A chance to give something back to the community
If Other, Please Specify: _______________________________

10. How do you feel guiding hinders your personal life?


(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 6 being the
lowest)
“Takes up too much of your free time”
“Doesn‟t give much back in terms of skills and experience”
“Takes time away from my family time”
“The Workload stresses me out”
“I don‟t feel that I make a difference”
“Sometimes too much is asked of me, as a volunteer”
If Other, Please Specify: _______________________________

11. Do you feel that the Malta Girl Guides today have a lot of competition with other
extracurricular opportunities for children and young women? Yes No

12. Do you think that in today’s world, girls would prefer to be part of a mixed Association
that accepts boys as well as girls? (Please The One that Applies)
No
Not for the younger members
Yes, but only for Guides and Rangers
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Yes, but only for Rangers
Yes, for all age groups

13. Do you think that the use of uniforms lessens the attractiveness of such an Association
to potential members? Yes
No

14. Do you feel that the Malta Girl Guides are still relevant in today’s society? Yes No

15. Do you see the local Association existing in twenty years time? Yes No

16. Do you feel that a girl or young woman can benefit from being a member of such an
Association? Yes No

17. Do you think that in today’s world, girls and young women need something other than
school to help them develop into better citizens? Yes No

18. Do you feel that society, in general, benefits from such Associations? Yes No

19. The mission statement for the Malta Girl Guides is as follows:
"To enable girls and young women to develop to their fullest potential
And become responsible citizens of our world."
Do you feel this is being accomplished by the Association? Yes No

20. Do you feel appreciated in your role in the Association? Yes No

21. Does the Association show its appreciation for your work? Yes No

22. Do you feel that the Association communicates its vision with you? Yes No

23. Do you feel that the Association sometimes leaves in you in the dark on certain subjects
or future visions, or that it doesn’t tell you everything? Yes
No

24. Do you feel that the Association chooses the same people frequently to take part in
decision making or projects? Yes
No

25. If yes, are you usually one of those ‘go-to’ persons? Yes No

26. If so, do you feel that the Association should widen this nucleus of people and provide the
opportunity to other members? Yes No

27. Are you involved in any way in the decision making process? Yes No

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28. If yes, in what way do you feel you are part of the decision making process?
(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 4 being the
lowest)

You are given full information as soon as decisions are taken and asked to give feedback
on these decisions.
You are consulted before decisions are taken by the National Board.
You are given the opportunity to be part of a planning team on certain projects and
decision making sessions.
You are not consulted whatsoever before or after decisions are taken

29. Do you feel that you can easily give suggestions to the Association? Yes No

30. Do you feel that your suggestions are given importance? Yes No

31. How do you feel most comfortable communicating your suggestions?


(Please choose the one that best describes your preference)

Anonymously through a posted letter to the Island Headquarters


Through a phone call/e-mail to the chief commissioner
Through a phone call/e-mail to the island secretary
Through a phone call/e-mail to your district commissioner
Through the website contact form

32. Do you help the Association to increase its membership? Yes No

33. Do you feel that recruiting new members is part of your duty as an adult volunteer?
Yes No

34. Do you feel you have too many responsibilities in your role? Yes No

35. Do you feel you have too little responsibilities in your role? Yes No

36. Do you think you are given the appropriate training to fulfill your role in the
Association?
Yes No

37. What other training do you feel you need, but which you are not being given at the
moment?
(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 5 being the
lowest)
Time Management
Child Behaviour Management
People Management
Dealing with Disabilities
Program Management
If Other, Please Specify: ______________________

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38. Have you ever heard of a Mentor or Mentoring? Yes No

39. Does the Association provide for mentors to help you fulfill your role better?
Yes No I Don‟t Know

40. Where you ever assigned a mentor during your voluntary work? Yes No

41. If yes, did the mentor help you fulfill your role better? Yes No

42. If no, would you consider having a mentor? Yes No

43. If you weren’t so involved, would you consider leaving the Association? Yes No

44. Do you see yourself as a member of the Malta Girl Guides in twenty years time ? Yes No

45. Do you see yourself as having a higher role in the Association in the future? Yes No

Any other Comments: If you would like to add anything to this questionnaire, please do so in
this space provided.

Thank You for Your Time.


CLAIRE DUFF
Mob: 79065098
E-mail: cduf0001@um.edu.mt / claireduff01@gmail.com

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Appendix G: Parent/Guardian Questionnaires
Parent/Guardian Questionnaire

Please note that answers are private and will only be viewed by myself, they will not
be included in my thesis.

1. I am a MOTHER/FATHER/GUARDIAN/RELATIVE/OTHER: _________
Of a DOLPHIN/BROWNIE/GUIDE/RANGER
(Please indicate with a Circle the appropriate answer)

2. What work do you do in your personal life? (Tick the One that Applies)
Unemployed
Student *---Unskilled---such as farm labour, basic service, house cleaner
Un-skilled worker* *---Skilled work--- such as technician, carpenter, hairdresser,
Skilled worker* seamstress
*---White collar (office) work---such as clerk, salesperson,
White Collar*
secretary, small business
Professional* *---Professional---doctor, lawyer, teacher, business executive)
Retired
Housewife

3. Which part of Malta are you from?


North District Central District South District

(North District: Sliema St Joseph, Gzira, San Gwann, Swieqi, Qawra


Central District: Rabat, Hamrun, St Venera, Attard, Dingli, Mosta, B‟Kara, Qormi
South District: Paola, Cospicua, B'Bugia, St Lucia, Fgura, Luqa, M'Scala, Tarxien,
Zejtun)

4. How did you become aware of the Malta Girl Guides? (Please The One that
Applies)
Word of Mouth (someone told you about them)
Saw them on a television Show
Saw them during an outdoor activity
Received a flyer of a specific unit
Saw an advert on the newspaper
Read an article on the newspaper
Read an article on a magazine
Visited their Website
If Other, Please Specify: _________________________

5. Do you consider the guides program as:


(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 6 being
the lowest)
Educational
Self-Developmental
Recreational
Hobby

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Service to Others
A Club for Girls
6. Do you think that by being a member of the Girl Guides, it has had an
impact on your daughter’s development? Yes No

7. Did you see a difference in your daughter since sending her to girl guides?
(Physical, mental, spiritual, emotional…) Yes No

8. If so, How?
(Please Mark All that apply in order of preference, 1 being the highest, 5 being
the lowest)

She is more aware of how to live a healthy lifestyle


She knows how to manage her time better
She looks forward to meeting her friends more
She seems more confident when talking to her friends
She feels better about herself

9. What fee do you pay for your daughter to be a member? _________Euros

10. Do you feel the yearly fee is:

Expensive
Reasonable
Cheap

11. Does your daughter attend any other type of extracurricular activity after
school hours?
Yes No

12. Overall do you think your daughter is benefiting from being a member? Yes
No

Any other Comments: If you would like to add anything to this questionnaire, please
do so in this space provided.

Thank You for Your Time.

CLAIRE DUFF

Mob: 79065098

E-mail: cduf0001@um.edu.mt / claireduff01@gmail.com


116
Appendix H: Letter sent to the Malta Girl Guides
Association

10th January 2010

Dear Chief Commissioner,

As a university student reading for an Honours Degree in Management, I have


chosen to base my thesis on Recruitment and Retention in a Voluntary Organization
and would like to base the research question on a case study focusing on your
Association.

In this view, I hereby ask your permission to hold questionnaire, focus groups and
observation sessions with various volunteers and members in your Association to
acquire more in-depth information on the subject. All information gathered will be
strictly confidential and material will only be seen by myself for research purposes.

Thank you in advance for you time and consideration.

Yours Sincerely,

Claire Duff

270086M

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Appendix I: Growth Strategy 2009 – 2010

MALTA GIRL GUIDES ASSOCIATION:

Strategic Plan for Growth 2009-2010


Long Term Objectives:

To recruit new members and retain present members longer

Specific Target

To have 1300 members by 2015 (5% p.a.)

Short Term Objectives

Registration & Evaluation

YEAR 2009-2010

To have an accurate record of number of new members and no of


members who did not renew the membership this year.
To identify factors that enhance or inhibit recruitment and retention

ACTIONS

Leaders were asked to mark the new members when handing in their
registration database
Use the current data available to determine the global number of new
members per section and the number of members that left the Association
per section - District Treasurers North Pending
Create a database that holds accurate information that can lead to deep
analysis on membership - Marjoe Abela in liaison with treasurers team
National Board’s approval for web designer to start working on it
Conduct an internal & external research on membership, evaluating
recruitment & retention - Claire Duff
Communicate with the leaders at the District Leaders Meeting/Annual
General Meeting in June 2010, the results of the research prepared by
Claire Duff.

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Recruitment of Young Members

Year 2009-2010

To provide a network of support to local units for a recruitment plan


To use the Centenary Celebrations as a unified message for recruitment
campaigns

Actions

Identify people to set up the Inspiration Team. (personal approach by DCs,


job market and adult members meeting)
Train the Inspiration Team on specific topics. Membership group & Sharon
to coordinate training.
Identify people to set up the Mobile Team personal approach by DCs, job
market and adult members meeting)
Train the Mobile Team in assessing the situation of a unit and plan a tailor
made recruitment campaign. Training coordinator – Marjoe Abela
Inspiration Team & Mobile Team give a taste of their service during June
2010 district meetings /Annual General Meeting.
Set up an advertising team – Coordinated by Claire
 Design posters to use in centenary celebrations
 Write press releases for each centenary celebration
 Promote guiding activities through facebook
 Design adverts for recruitment of adults
 Produce a DVD to promote guiding
 Work together with a professional in the field
Expose the guiding programme to the public through Get Going in the
Community and Thinking Day projects – Marjoe / Claire follow up

Recruitment & Retention of Leaders

Year 2009 - 2010

To promote different jobs for adult volunteers within the National


Association.
To empower the Adult Member Group to be more effective and involved
within the Association.
To set up the Young Leaders Membership Scheme (16 to 18 yrs) –
Actions

119
Set up a job market stand for adult volunteers during convention,
offering specific roles with job description within the association.
Job Market Follow up:

Closing date of online applications – 21st March 2010. Claire will forward
applications to respective team leaders as follows:
 Educational Programme – Carmen Camilleri
 International – Karen Buttigieg
 Training – Sharon Libreri O’ Neil
 District treasurer – Ruth
 Spiritual Team - ????
 Mobile Team – membership core group contact person Marjoe
 Inspiration Team – membership core
 Advertising Team - membership core group contact person Marjoe
The group will work in collaboration with Claire Duff
and a marketing professional

The respective responsible person for each group needs to go through


applications. Then by 5th April she will communicate to all the applicants
via email or by post whether she will be given the job or not, and if needs
be call them for an interview.

Once the applicants are selected, a meeting should be called individually or


as a team to discuss the way forward.

Set up a meeting with the Adult Members to revive the Adult Members
Group and set a strategy for the running of the group. The District
Commissioners will identify potential members in this group and Chief
Commissioner will send them a personal invitation.
The National Board will be updated on the new way forward of adult
member group if still relevant.
The Young Leaders Membership Scheme (16 to 18 yrs) is to be drafted
and finalised to be launched in the upcoming year. (Educ Porg Comm &
Rangers Advisor)
Prepare and finalize the pack to be presented to all new appointed Unit
Helpers and Leaders to be given in the year to come. (DCs)
All Appointed Guiders will be provided a mentor to support them in their
journey to become leaders. The assigned mentors will be trained
accordingly. (DCs) South not practicing the system yet

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Young Members Programme & Retention

Year 2009 – 2010

To revise educational programme keeping in mind the results of the survey


To promote the material we have available
To revise the rest of material available and make it accessible for guiders
To provide training on delivery of new material to the girls

Actions coordinated by Carmen Camilleri

Commence sale of new MGG publications of stories for the Dolphin and
Brownie Sections
Set up official Book Launch and invite author Nathalie Portelli and artist
Nathalie Pace to activity.
Give a complimentary copy,signed by author and artist, of story books to
each village during launch

Finalise Local & International Guiding Pack for Guide Section


Proof read L & I Pack for Guide Section
Photocopy starter amount of L & I Packs for Guide Section
Assembly of files for Dolphin, Brownie,Guide and Ranger Sections and Leaders
Set dates for sale of Resource materials once per term.
Halt provision of photocopies of L & I Resource Packs when stock is exhausted
Move all available L & I Resource Packs to ‘the members only area’ of the
MGG website

Review Material in Environment Section CD


Put Environment Section material up on website – Dolphin Advisor (Pauline
Vassallo)

Review Skills Section Material


Put up Skills Section material on website – Guide Advisor (Annabelle Salafia)

Draft Young Leaders Membership Scheme (16 -18yrs)- Carmen Camilleri and
Roberta Cauchi Muscat

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Set up guidelines for revamping Ranger Section programme (Carmen
Camilleri and Roberta Cauchi Muscat)
Education Programme Commissioner to attend February 2010 District Guiders
Meetings to explain implementation of Education Programme, Progressive
Targets etc for all Sections
5th to 7th March 2010 – National Convention – EP Team to coordinate
Programme Track for Leaders of all Sections

Draft criteria for annual Service Badge: Patron’s award for Service
Draft criteria for annual Environment Badge : Environment Award
Set up meetings with Patron and Environment Minister respectively re above
awards

Devise and design:


o Badge Certificate Booklet
o Enrollment Certificate
o Special Awards Certificate
Print:
o Badge Certificate Booklet
o Enrollment Certificate
o Special Awards Certificate

122