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Daniel Baumann, IT

EMISSION LEGISLATION UPDATES & TRENDS


07.09.2016, Jakarta, Indonesia

Engeljehringer Kurt
AVL List GmbH
Public
NOTE:

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AVL List GmbH, Kurt Engeljehringer

Public Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 | 2


CONTENT

Introduction

Emission Legislation Timelines

Real Driving Emissions

Emission Testing Technical Regulations

AVL and Emission Legislation

Public Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 | 3


CLEAN AIR
Most people are more concerned about what
they eat and drink, than what they breath!
This is the volume you eat every day.

This is the volume you drink every day.

... and this is the volume you breath every day.


(10 - 20 m3)

Source:
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/volkswage
ns-lies-show-need-for-real-emissions-tests/blog/54413/

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ENVIRONMENT and RESOURCES
SUSTAINABILITY and RESPONSIBILITY

CO2 is a Pollutants are a


global problem local problem

it must be solved and must be

globally solved locally


and by all of us by you

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AIR POLLUTION
Since the 1970’s,
Air Pollution Health effects California has the
like fine particulate concentration: Mortality attributed to air pollution: Mortality rate by air pollution is stringiest emission control
up to 35µg/m3 PM2.5 annual up to 100+/100.000 population much higher than by unsafe water legislation and still are
average. (i.e. app. up to 70+/100.000 fighting to solve the air
pollution problems.

“In California ... the air


quality is worse than
anywhere else in the
nation, with
23 million people living
in areas with ozone
pollution, and

or mortality by road traffic up to 12 million living in areas


25+/100.000 with fine particle
pollution.”

These pollutants cause


lung disease, heart
disease, and premature
death.”

by CARB’s Executive Officer


Richard W. Corey
Source: WHO
http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/app/searchResults.aspx

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CONTENT

Introduction

Emission Legislation Timelines

Real Driving Emissions

Emission Testing Technical Regulations

AVL and Emission Legislation

Public Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 | 7


EMISSION LEGISLATION
Worldwide emission legislations consists of more than 6000 pages!

In Annex 8 of this Regulation, references to


Annex 4 shall be understood as reference to
Appendix 4 of Annex I of this Regulation.
(Quotation from UN-ECE 101)

1970 2005 2017


20 pages 180 pages 920 pages
Directive 70/220/EEC Directive 70/220/EEC ECE R83.07 (Euro 6d) 270 pages
+ amendements (Euro 4): + RDE 180 pages
+ GTR-15 (WLTP) 470 pages
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STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS
Emission standards are built on 4 main pillars:
1 Emission limits that define the maximum tailpipe emissions allowed.

2 Test cycle that defines how an engine or vehicle is operated for the emission test.

3 Test procedures that describe how to perform the tests and specifications for the test - and measurement
systems
4 Equations describing how to calculate the final result.
1 and 2 are important for protection of the environment and the requirements for powertrain engineering.
3 and 4 define the requirements for planning and operating a testbed, which is also the focus of this handbook.

Split-level approach of modern emission standards:


While older emission legislation covered all 4 parts in one “book”, the latest legislation split it up into two
books. One book focuses on the environmental and engineering relevant requirements, whereas a second book
defines the test procedures and its specifications. Furthermore, it explains which test and measurement
systems shall be used and what requirements must be fulfilled.

• In Europe, this approach is called the “split-level approach”. The limits (1) are specified while the
technical specifications (2, 3, 4) are adopted from the UN-ECE Global Technical Regulations (GTR).

• In the US, different “standard setting parts” for different engine applications define the emission limits
(1), the test cycles (2) and “technical regulations”, in which the test and measurement procedures and
specifications (3, 4) are explained.

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STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS

AVL Emission Report Service AVL Emission Testing Handbook

www.avl.com/emission-legislation-world/index.html www.avl.com/emission-testing-handbook

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits Euro 5b Euro 6b Euro 6d ? Euro 7

RDE Monitor RDE CF 2.1 NOx, (1,5) PN RDE CF NOx 2.1, CF PN 1.5
130 and 95g/km targets
CO2 130 g/km CO2 95 g/km CO2 67-78
based on NEDC
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 83 GTR-15 (WLTP)

EPA US-EPA – Tier 2 US-EPA – Tier 3

CARB US-CARB – LEV II US-CARB – LEV III


PEMS testing used for in-
RDE service screening
GHG (2012-2016) 263 -> 225 gCO2/mi GHG (2017-2025) 212 -> 143 gCO2/mi Beside the GHG regulation
CO2 there is the CAFE standard
Tech. Reg. CFR-86 CFR-1066

National GB-4 GB-5 GB-6a GB-6b + RDE -7°C for Diesel

Beijing Beijing-5 Beijing-6 = GB-6b – RDE GB-6 + RDE

RDE Monitor RDE CF NOx 2.1, CF PN 1.5 Altitude 0-700-1300-2400m

CO2 Fuel Consumption Stage-II 6.9 l/100km (161 gCO2/km) Fuel Consumption 5l/100km (117 gCO2/km) Average fuel consumption
Beyond 2025 likely an own
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 83 GTR-15 (WLTP)
Chinese regulation

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CHINA LEGISLATION – LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

National GB-4 GB-5 GB-6a GB-6b + RDE -7°C for Diesel

Beijing Beijing-5 Beijing-6 = GB-6b – RDE GB-6 + RDE

RDE Monitor RDE CF NOx 2.1, CF PN 1.5 Altitude 0-700-1300-2400m

CO2 Fuel Consumption Stage-II 6.9 l/100km (161 gCO2/km) Fuel Consumption 5l/100km (117 gCO2/km) Average fuel consumption
Beyond 2025 likely an own
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 83 GTR-15 (WLTP)
Chinese regulation

China-6 National Limits 6a: EU-6 but fuel neutral The final version should be finalized China-7 Ideas
Proposal Limits 6b: 50% below EU-6 and released until End of 2016. 2025+ a China-7
by VECC Drive Cycle: WLTC legislation could be
Procedures: GTR-15 (WLTP)
based on an own
Diesel -7°C Test
Chines standard. That
RDE (6b): CF: NOx 2.1, PN 1.5
700 – 1300 - 2400m was already discussed
EVAP: 48h Diurnal at 38°C for China-6 including an
“heated street” own Chinese drive
cycle.
Limits: Similar to ULEV70 Beijing-VI will come with limits. Since limited experience
Beijing-VI
Drive Cycle: FTP-75 But it will be not a separated technical in regulation making and
Proposal Procedures: UN-ECE Reg. 83 regulation. That is not possible by since the “Chinese drive
by EBP RDE: NOx CF 1.2
Chinese legislation, actually. So it will cycle” was quite similar
EVAP: like US w/o running loss to the WLTC, it was
“heated street”
be based on China-6 National technical
requirements. decided to stay for
China-6 with the EU
standard.

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits Post New Long Term

RDE RDE in discussion

CO2 Fuel Economy Targets Fuel Economy Targets 2015 Fuel Economy Targets 2020 km/l related to vehicle weight

Tech. Reg. TRIAS GTR-15 (WLTP)

Fuel quality Limits K-LEV II K-LEV III (= US LEV-III)


is a must for RDE ? RDE Diesel / Gasoline ?
low emissions!
CO2 17 km/l or 140 g GHG/km 24.3 km/l or 97 g GHG/km Fleet average

Tech. Reg. CFR-86 (Gasoline) + UN-ECE Reg. 83 (Diesel) CFR1066 (Gasoline) and GTR-15 (Diesel)

National Bharat III Bharat IV Bharat VI

Cities Bharat IV Bharat VI

RDE Monitor RDE

CO2 Fuel Efficiency: 135g CO2/km

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 83 in future (?) GTR-15

Varies from country to


Limits Euro-2 ? country
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 83

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2- AND 3-WHEELER – VEHICLE CATEGORIES
EU Directive 97/24/EC with amendments - Vehicle Category L:
• L1e 2-Wheel Moped < 50cc
• L2e 3-Wheel Moped < 50cc

• L3e 2-Wheel Motorcycle > 50cc


• L4e 3-Wheel Motorcycle with side car > 50cc

• L5e Tricycles > 50cc


• L6e & L7e Quadrimobiles > 50cc

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – 2- AND 3-WHEELER
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5


Depending on vehicle
UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47
category
Tech. Reg. Since 2007 GTR-2 can be
GTR-2
used as alternative

EPA no change since 2008

CARB no change since 2010

Tech. Reg. CFR-86 CFR-1066

Limit Euro-3 Euro-4


China
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47 GTR-2

Limit Bharat-III Bharat-IV


India
Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47 GTR-2

Limit Euro-3

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47

Limit Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-5

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47

Limit Euro-3

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 40 and Reg. 47

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EU-2 AND EU-3 STANDARDS
EU-2: 2003 – 2004 based on UN-ECE-Regulation 40 (Motorcycle) and 47 (Moped)

EU-3: 2006 based on UN-ECE-Regulation 40 (Motorcycle) and 47 (Moped)

EU-3: since 2007 also alternatively based on UN-ECE GTR-2

Source: Delphi worldwide emissions standards PC-LDV 15/16


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EU-4 AND EU-5 STANDARDS
EU-4: 2016 based on UN-ECE-Regulation 40/47 and GTR-2

Introduction
Introduction of PM
of PM limits
limits for CIfor CIGDI
and andengines,
GDI engines,
only only

EU-5: 2020 based on UN-ECE GTR-2

open discussion until 2017 (Effect study) in-use conformity, off-cycle emissions and PN

Source: Delphi worldwide emissions standards PC-LDV 15/16


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USA STANDARDS
USA: EPA Motorcycle Standard [g/km]

USA: CARB Motorcycle Standard [g/km]

Source: Delphi worldwide emissions standards PC-LDV 15/16


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OTHER COUNTRIES

Source: Delphi worldwide emissions standards PC-LDV 15/16


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MC – EVAPORATIVE EMISSION TESTING
EU-4: 2016

EU-5: 2020

Source:
Delphi worldwide emissions standards PC-LDV 15/16

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EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS - LEGISLATION
An interesting “total” emission approach in India
 in 2016 India will implement the Bharat Stage IV emission legislation for
motorcycles based on the GTR-2 UN-ECE Regulation including evaporative
emissions.

 For the legislation emission limits it will be the first time to combine
tailpipe exhaust and evaporative emission limits.

 The (HC + NOx) Limit depend on the result of the HC Evaporative emission
test, is EVAP results low than a higher exhaust limit is allowed, or the opposite.

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – HEAVY DUTY ENGINES
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits Euro-V Euro-VI ? Euro-VII

RDE NOx Screening Off-Cycle Emissions: WNTE Random 15 mode test + In-Service compliance (PEMS) PN-PEMS will replace PM

CO2 CO2 Monitoring & Declaration ? CO2 Limits ?

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE R-49 GTR-4 (WHSC + WHTC test cycles)

Fuel quality EPA US-EPA – US10


is a must for Evaluation program how to
CARB CARB optional low NOx
low emissions! measure such low NOx
RDE GHG & Fuel Economy – US Phase I US Phase II

CO2 Not to Exceed (NTE) testing with PEMS

Tech. Reg. CFR-1065

National China IV China V China VI

Beijing China IV China V ? China VI

RDE Beijing On-Road NOx Off-Cycle Emissions

CO2 ? WHVC on a chassis dyno

Tech. Reg. UN-ECE Reg. 49 GTR-4

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – HEAVY DUTY ENGINES
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits PNLT PNLT

Limits Euro V Euro VI ? Euro VII

Bharat VI with GTR-4 and


Limits Bharat III Bharat IV Bharat V Bharat VI PEMS
Fuel quality
is a must for Limits ? Euro IV, V or prior ? Euro VI
low emissions!

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HEAVY-DUTY HYBRID, CO2 AND FC TESTING
Hybrid Heavy Duty test procedure – from engine to powertrain
• For hybrid powertrains the total powertrain, energy storage and powertrain control units must
considered.
• In order to avoid testing on a chassis dynamometer, a HILS (Hardware-in-the-loop simulation)
was developed in Japan. In the WHVC cycle, the influence of the hybrid components on the
engine operation is tested. 2 Variants exists:
1. By HILS an engine test cycle is generated and tested on an engine testbed.
2. The whole hybrid powertrain is tested on a powertrain testbed

CO2 and Fuel consumption labeling – from engine to vehicle


• Contrary to exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are not part of the GRPE mandate.
Therefore, regional regulations are under development.
• EU: develops a vehicle based procedure, based on transport work and a simulation tool
VECTO (TU-Graz) with 5 different test cycles representative for different vehicle categories.
Implementation planed for 2018 for Trucks and 2019 Buses
• USA: Green House Gas ruIe developed by EPA and NHTSA. There are separate limits values for
engine and vehicle. CO2 and FC are calculated with a simulation tool GEM.
• Japan: since 2015 fuel economy limits are based on a simulation approach. FC is calculated from
engine testbed data and vehicle class generic vehicle parameters, which are base on JE05
and a motorway cycle.
• China: regulates on base of a modified WHVC to be run on a chassis dyno.

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EMISSION LEGISLATION – NON-ROAD ENGINES
Application: Country Topic 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Notes

Limits III-B Stage - IV Stage - V

RDE NTE Statement ? Off-Cycle + PEMS in Discussion

CO2 CO2 Monitoring & Declaration

Tech. Reg. ISO GTR-11 (NRSC + NRTC test cycles)

Fuel quality Limits Tier-4


is a must for
RDE PEMS in Discussion
low emissions!
CO2 GHG Regulation and CO2 Monitoring & Declaration

Tech. Reg. CFR-1065

Limits China - II China - III ? China – IV (?)

Limits Stage - III Stage - IV

Limits Tier - 3 Tier - 4

Limits CEV/TREM III ? CEV/TREM IV (?)

Limits ? Stage IIIA / Tier-3 od prior ? Stage-IV / Tier - 4

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CONTENT

Introduction

Emission Legislation Timelines

Real Driving Emissions

Emission Testing Technical Regulations

AVL and Emission Legislation

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EMISSION CONTROL MEASURES
CVS + AMA + PSS + APC Automation PEMS Chassis Dyno Street Ambient Conditions Driver Traffic Future Influences
1D
1NDPNP
.S.M.A.D
.S.M.A.D
Smooth no Predictive and
adaptive controls
Curves Temperature Average low
Humidity “WLTC” Vehicle to Vehicle
R ETN UO C EL C I TR A P L V A

R ETN UO C EL C I TR A P L V A

medium and infrastructure


Normal,
communication
“like myself” heavy
Aggressive ADAS
Advanced Driving
Slope Wind Assistance Systems
Drafting

06i SV C LVA TEN IBA C GAB 06i LVA TEN IBA C GAB 06i LVA 06i SSP LVA 06i AMA LVA

Ambient Automated and


Altitude (Pressure) autonomous driving
pressure
06i SV C LVA TEN IBA C GAB 06i LVA TEN IBA C GAB 06i LVA 06i SSP LVA 06i AMA LVA

Laboratory Certification + OBD + COP + ISC + I/M Real Driving Emissions (Not to exceed limits)

Laboratory Certification + OBD + COP + ISC + I/M


only Gasoline
Real Driving Emissions

„Look into
ECU“
PEMS
RDE used to
chase “Defeat
?
Devices”
only Gasoline

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GAP BETWEEN LAB AND REAL LIFE
Real life NOx and CO2 emissions from modern Diesel passenger cars: 15
cars from 6 OEMs in EU-6a or US Tier 2 Bin 5/ULEV II configuration.
Source: ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation 2014

CO2 above declared “Norm” value

NOx above EU-6 limit


Euro-5 Limit
Euro-6 Limit

The ideal EU-


6 car

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KBA REPORT
German Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA), which is the German type approval authority) has tested
53 EU-5 and EU6 Diesel vehicles from several manufacturers
Tests:
1. NEDC cold start (Type approval tests) in Lab
2. NEDC warm start in Lab
3. NEDC at 10°C in Lab only some vehicles
4. NEDC on the road
5. NEDC Phase-2 followed by phase 1 on the road
6. NEDC speed +10% on the road
7. NEDC speed – 10% on the road
8. RDE on the road

Audi A3 2.0 l Euro 6 EA 288

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KBA REPORT, SOME SELECTED EXAMPLES

only RDE

all outside of limits

all within limits

All engines become clean only by


exhaust after-treatment systems

NEDC on road Exhaust after-treatment can


NEDC warm start reduces emissions by 99%

When a car emits 10 times more


emissions, it is “only” 90%

Emission is about 20% physics


and 80% software

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WHY A NEW EU LEGISLATION PROCESS ?

2000 (Euro-3) 2005 (Euro-4) 2010 (Euro-5) 2015 (Euro-6) 2000  2015

NOx Real life mg/km 1000 800 800 600 - 40%


NOx Diesel limit in lab mg/km 500 250 180 80 - 84%
Gab between % 100% 220% 340% 650%

184 172
g/km g/km

CO2 Norm emissions g/km 172 163 140 120 - 30%


CO2 Real life g/km 184 182 168 166 - 10%
Gab between % 7% 12% 20% 38%

This is only a „symbolic “ presentation of the measurement data from ICCT. Nevertheless how accurate and representative this data are, it represents the motivation of the EU rule making for a new
European legislation process. Data Source: ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation 2014.

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MOTIVATION OF NEW EU LEGISLATION?
Today pollutant emissions are in average app. 7 times
Measures: Targets: (Diesel NOx) higher on the road than in the lab.

RDE Close the gap between lab and real


PEMS testing life pollutant emission limits

Euro-6 Further reducing NOx and PN


Limits emissions

130  95 Further reducing CO2 and fuel


gCO2 / km consumption targets

GTR-15 Close the gap between norm and


Technical Regulation real life CO2 and fuel consumption
Today CO2 emissions and fuel consumption are in
average app. 40% higher on the road than the declared
norm values.

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CONTENT

Introduction

Emission Legislation Timelines

Real Driving Emissions

Emission Testing Technical Regulations

AVL and Emission Legislation

Public Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 | 33


GTR 15: TESTING REQUIREMENTS
Test cycle
• WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle)
• Different for 4 vehicle classes, depending on the Power/Weight ratio and max.
speed
• Higher drive dynamic, less Idle, Longer (20  30 min), higher average speed
(34  46km/h avg. and higher max speed (120  131 km/h).
• Individual shifting points for each vehicle for manual transmissions.

Road and Engine Load for testing


• More realistic road load determination and simulation, to voiding fuel
consumption optimization.
• Test of a “Low CO2” and “High CO2” vehicle per vehicle family and
Interpolation
• Electric energy flow evaluated for the 12V vehicle battery

Vehicle preparation and conditioning


• 23°C Test and soak temperature. +/-3°C (5min average data) during soak,
+/- 3°C at test start and +/-5°C during the test (2Hz data).

Test and measurement procedures


• Bag analyzing sequence optimized (calibration and checks once per test run)
• PM/PN Background correction

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 34


WLTC VERSUS NEDC
CO2 (Fuel consumption) Correlation NEDC versus WLTC
• Driving 10 typical diesel and 10 typical gasoline vehicles in the WLTC did not show big difference
in the CO2 results. In average the difference between WLTC and NEDC were.
• +2% for gasoline
• -2% for diesel vehicles

Source: Technical report - Task 7 Europe-centric light duty test cycle and differences with respect to the WLTP cycle
Notes:
• Both cycles were driven with the current UN-ECE R-83 test procedures, same dyno
settings, vehicle preparation and conditioning. It shows the difference caused by the
drive cycle only.

First Results: Difference in CO2 and fuel consumption between NEDC to WLTC +/- 2%
Difference between procedure R-83 to GTR-15 app. + 20%

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TEMPERATURE
Soak Area (23°C) UN-ECE R-83 (Temperature Range)

30°C • Temperature in soak-Area and test cell be shall be


okay between 20 and 30°C and relative stabile.
okay
20°C • Humidity (5.5 - 12.2g H2O/kg dry air) shall be
measured at the vehicle cooling fan outlet

GTR-15 (Temperature Set Value)

• Temperature in Soak-Area and Test bed have a set


23+5°C
point of 23°C and an tolerance of +/-5°C.
Emission Chassis Dyno 23°C okay Soak-Area:
23-5°C
• Set point 23°C +/-3°C(1Hz data 5min running average)
Test-Cell:

23+5°C • Set point 23°C +/-3°C when the test is started


not okay
23°C • Set point 23°C +/-5°C(1Hz data)
not okay
23-5°C
• Humidity (5.5 - 12.2g H2O/kg dry air) shall be
measured at the vehicle cooling fan outlet

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 36


CFR-1066 TESTING REQUIREMENTS
Test cycle and driving validation
• 2 x UDDS test cycle (4 Phases) with several PM sample options:
• 1 PM sample for each phase (traditional)
• 1 PM sample for each UDDS
• 1 PM sample for both UDDS’s, with wf proportional sample flow rate.
• 1 PM sample for all, with wf proportional sample flow rate.
• Drive-cycle validation from tolerances to validation indexes (§1066.425)
• Energy Economy Rating (SAE J2951), Absolute Speed Change Rating (SAE
J2951), Inertia Work Rating (SAE J2951), Phase-weighted composite Energy
Based Drive Metrics (SAE J2951)

CFR-1065/66: All measurement methods and new specifications


• Very different to old CFR-86 specifications.
• Raw measurement, Partial flow dilution and Full flow dilution is accepted for
gaseous and Partial flow dilution and Full flow dilution for PM

Preventing aqueous condensation


• Maintaining internal CVS surface temperatures above diluted exhaust dew
point (§1065.140 ). (Insulation and/or heating)

Particulate measurement
• Particulate measurement for all vehicles and fuels for Tier III/LEV III
• Residence time for PM between 1.0 to 5.5s (§1065.140 (e) (3)).
• Overall dilution factor 1:7 - 1:20 except for HEV (§1066.110).

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 37


CFR-1065 TECHNICAL REGULATION
It is very different
• CFR-1065 is since 2010 mandatory in the USA
• A new way to specify emission testing. Better from a measurement quality
point of view, but also very different to CFR-86 or to the EU legislations.

Focus it the entire measurement chain


• Other regulations have specifications on individual devices. CFR-1065 focus
Specification of
more on specifications for the entire measurement chain.
measurement chain • But, by that it is not possible to clearly say, if a device is CFR-1065 conform
or not, it depends also on whole set of devices and automation system.
• Example: An analyzer may not fulfill some interference criteria, but still can
be used when the automation system can correct for it.

CFR-1065 Analyzer, calibration and check procedures accordingly


• Continuous measuring analyzers must not have an analog gain switch.
• Very challenging CLD Quench check specifications.
• Accuracy, drift and linearity checks based on the emission standard and not
anymore on range full scale.

Raw measurement, Partial flow dilution and Full flow dilution


• All measurement methods (Raw measurement, Partial flow dilution and Full
flow dilution) are accepted for gaseous emissions
• Partial flow dilution and Full flow dilution (CVS) is accepted for PM
measurement

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 38


RDE: REAL DRIVING EMISSIONS
Real Driving Emissions
• Emission testing under normal conditions of use in real world driving.
• Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS)
• CO2, CO, NOx and PN
• Exhaust flow rate, Speed and GPS data.
RDE Test
• 90 to 120 min test time
• 34% City (<60km/h)
• 33% rural (60 ... 90km/h)
• 33% Highway (>90km/h)
• 145km/h max speed (extended range up to 160km/h)
• Realistic vehicle load and AC operated as under normal driving
• Cold start is measured, but not included in result calculation

Ambient conditions
• Temperature between 0°C to 30°C (extended range -7°C to 35°C)
• Altitude up to 700m (extended range up to 1300m)
• Humidity as it is, but no NOx humidity correction like in lab-tests

Limits and Result calculation


• Limits are based on the laboratory limits multiplied by the so called
„Conformity Factor CF“. CF for NOx phase in from 2.1 to 1.5 and CF for PN
under discussion
• 2 Complex result calculation options, EMROAD (JRC) or CLEAR (TU-Graz)
Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 39
HEAVY DUTY – PEMS TESTING
In-Service Emissions conformity (compliance):
• “Real Life” Test on the street with PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement
System). First in-service test should be conducted at the time of type
approval testing
• CO2, CO, NOx, THC, PM (PN in discussion)
• Exhaust flow rate, Speed, n, M and GPS data.

AVL M.O.V.E GAS & PM PEMS PEMS Test


• EU testing is conducted over a mix of urban (0-50 km/h), rural (50-75 km/h)
and motorway (> 75 km/h) conditions, with exact percentages of these
conditions depending on vehicle category.

Ambient conditions
• Temperature and Altitude as defines for off cycle emission requirements

Limits and Result calculation


• Limits are based on the laboratory limits multiplied by 1.5
• EU Result calculation by “Work based window”
• US Result calculation by NTE-Events (during ≥30seconds operation with high
enough engine torque, speed and power

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 40


CONTENT

Introduction

Emission Legislation Timelines

Real Driving Emissions

Emission Testing Technical Regulations

AVL and Emission Legislation

Public Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 | 41


AVL - CUSTOMER EXAMPLE
US-EPA USA Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, USA
• 2 complete chassis dyno emission test cells for light duty cars up to
medium duty commercial vehicles.
• The test cells are fully capable to meet all current regulations and future
new emission regulations, like CFR-1065 and CFR-1066.

Test cell configuration


• Medium Duty CVS
• Dual Dilution Tunnels, heated
• Dilution Air Flow Meter
• PM measurement Diesel and Gasoline GDI
• 2nd Bag Sampler for additional Photo Acoustic and/or FTIR Analyzer
• NMOG measurement
• Alcohol sampling
• GHG measurement
• Raw and dilute gaseous measurements
• Automation system

AVL is setting the standards for CD testbeds at EPA


• These test cells will be used for further development of the current USA
emission regulations for CFR-1065/66 and the LEV-III and Tier-III
program.

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 | 42


AVL - CUSTOMER EXAMPLE
TÜV-Hessen Technologie- und Umweltzentrum (TUZ); Pfungstadt, Germany
• Conventional type approval testing
• Focus on alternative powertrain, alternative fuel and Real Driving
Emissions Testing
• All kind of engines, fuels and vehicles

Test cell configuration


• Most advanced Laboratory for RDE emission testing, new powertrain
concepts and alternative fuels.
• Special focus on RDE testing, from PEMS to Chassis Dyno and Chassis
Dyno with advanced vehicle and traffic simulation
• Engine Test Cell
• Portable Emission Measurement System

TÜV Hessen and TU-Darmstadt and AVL


• Close cooperation between TÜV Hessen, TU Darmstadt and AVL with
focus to develop new development and test mythologies and to combine
simulation and testing.

Audited, certified and accredited chassis dyno lab for


Japanese “TRIAS“ homologation tests (by NTSEL).

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 | 43


AVL - CUSTOMER EXAMPLE – “TURN KEY”
VR - Vietnam Register Vietnam Register Motor Vehicle Emission Test Center
• AVL turn-key project including facility engineering
• Trainings from products level, application up to test facility operation.
• Fully certified by German TÜV.

Comprehensive Time schedule


• In 12 month a rice field was converted into a building with all its
required facility infrastructure.
• 8 month from start of installation, commissioning, training until a fully
German TÜV certified emission test center.

Test cell configuration


• Passenger cars and light duty trucks (picture 1)
• Motorcycles and small 3- and 4 wheelers (picture 2)
• Heavy duty engines (picture 3)
• Evaporative emission testing (picture 4)
• German TÜV-Nord certified (picture 5)

Vietnam Register is
• the most modern emission center in South East Asia.

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 | 44


AVL CONFERENCES:
Largest European emission related conference

The AVL International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emission Forum


is one of the most important gatherings in the engine and
automotive industry for experts in exhaust gas aftertreatment and
the resulting challenges that it poses in terms of metrology.
In 2016 the 9th Forum (one every 2 years) was agented by over
300 national and international experts with over 20 presentations.

It is organized and hosted by AVL.


The content and quality of the technical papers is guaranteed by Advisory
Board. of independent experts - university professors, experts form
industry, manufacturer, supplier and AVL.

AVL Events:
 International AVL Conference "Engine & Environment“
 International Commercial Powertrain Conference
 AVL Large Engines Tech-Days
 AVL UK Expo
 various country Tech-Days and Road-Shows
 various customer in-house events
 ...

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 | 45


AVL EXPERTISE: USA CARB WORKSHOP
at SEMA Specialty Equipment Market Association, CA, USA Test of “Road 2 Lab”
AVL presentation and Demo of Road2LAb Toll Chain
1. Validation of PEMS versus laboratory emission system
2. Road test with PEMS
3. Chassis dyno Re-Run of street PEMS test

Boundary conditions:
• Modern chassis dyno, but not especially configured for RDE
• PEMS with RDE-Export and Automation with RDE-Import
• „Snap-Shoot“ results

“All” CARB Emission guys at SEMA Garage, California, USA

PEMS to Lab Validation  Street test  Chassis dyno Re-Run


Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 46
AVL EXPERTISE: USA EPA WORKSHOP
at EPA Facility in Ann Arbor, USA Test of “Road 2 Lab”
AVL presentation and Demo of Road2LAb Toll Chain
1. Validation of PEMS versus laboratory emission system
2. Road test with PEMS
3. Chassis dyno Re-Run of street PEMS test

Boundary conditions:
• Modern chassis dyno, but not especially configured for RDE
• PEMS with RDE-Export and Automation with RDE-Import
• „Snap-Shoot“ results

EPA CARB Emission guys

PEMS to Lab Validation  Street test  Chassis dyno Re-Run


Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 47
AVL EXPERTISE: CHINESE LEGISLATION
Chinese Emission Legislation Chinese Emission Delegation WS in Graz, 2016
Delegation of the Chinese Emission Legislation Workshop:

• Introduction of AVL
• Visit of AVL test facilities
• Dinner with Prof. List

• Worldwide Emission Legislations


• Chinese legislation road map
• Worldwide technical emission regulations
• Accepted measurement methods

• Emission test workflow and procedures


• Standard gaseous emissions measurement
• Additional pollutants measurement
• Particulate mass and particle number
• Evaporative Emissions
• RDE - Real Driving Emission Legislation and Demo

• Powertrain development, trends and outlook, impact by legislation


AVL Graz Parliament, Austria • On Board Diagnostic

• Austrian Parliament – National Type approval and Traffic Committee


• JRC Joint Research Center of the European Commission, Italy

Joint Research Center


JRC, Italy
Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 48
AVL EXPERTISE: INDONESIA WORKSHOP
Indonesia Chinese Emission Delegation WS in Graz, 2016
“GREEN AUTOMOTIVE & UPCOMING EMISSION REGULATIONS“
7th September 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia

• Welcome speech BT2MP - BPPT

• Key note speech by Ministry of Environment

• Presentation by GAIKINDO

• Emission Legislation Updates & Trends

• CO2 & Fuel Consumption & Testing Solution for Hybrid & EV

• RDE: Real Driving Emission & Updates

• RDE: Real Driving Emission & Impact in the Development

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 49


AVL SUPPORT: AVL EMISSION HANDBOOK

www.avl.com/emission-testing-handbook

Public Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 | 50