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P ro p os e d N ew M un t i nl u pa Ci ty J a il

Promoting wellbeing and human resource development through architecture

for prison rehabilitation

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of

School of Architecture, Industrial Design and the Built Environment

Mapua Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements in Architectural Design 11/ AR200/ AR200S

For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture

Presented by

Reyes, Timothy James S.

2 00 7 1 0 6 59 4

Ar. Noel E. Nicolas

. Adviser

September 2015
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Abstract

Municipal and city jails in the Philippines are often being neglected and left behind by

various local government, while the national agency that mandates and regulates city jails have

the capacity to upgrade their facilities. The neglect and carelessness have led to various problems

city jails face one of which is overcrowding and deterioration of facilities. Overcrowding poses a

great threat to the inmates‟ health and lifestyle. This study aims to provide insights on the current

situation of Philippine penal facilities and what can be done to improve them. The scope of the

study will be limited to Muntinlupa City Jail as it is one of the most congested city jails in the

country. Based on data from Muntinlupa City Jail and Local Government of Muntinlupa, the facility

now has a congestion rate of 1050%. They also have problem with their limited facility and

cannot provide basic services and effective rehabilitation for inmates. This problem can be solved

through architectural approach by proposing a new city jail that can cater to the number of

inmates. With a radical approach, this new facility can also be used to improve prisoner

rehabilitation and increase their chance of reintegration.

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About the Author

Timothy James Salvania Reyes is an architecture student of Mapua Institute of

Technology Intramuros. He chose to study in Mapua Institute of Technology because he believes

that it is one of the best schools for architecture. The proposed New Muntinlupa City Jail is his

first thesis proposal.

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Acknowledgements

My thanks and appreciation to Architect Noel Nicolas and Architect Junar Tablan for

guiding me as my adviser the time it took me to complete this research and write the study. This

research is one of the most important and formative experiences in my life. I am grateful to him

for coordinating and overseeing the concerns that made it possible for me to complete my study.

The members of my thesis panel, Architect Mary Geraldine Legaspi, Architect Carlos

Sauco, and Architect Richard Lim, have generously given their time and expertise to better my

work. I thank them for their contribution, constructive criticism and their good-natured support.

Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, which have provided me with all of the

documents, research, samples I needed in this thesis as well as many others, with consistent

quality. They had offered much advice and insight throughout my work and provided me with the

enough information I needed. Thank you.

I am grateful for the support and advice from colleagues and friends who offered

unflagging support and wise advice. To my very pogi friend, Jonah De Guzman, my sincere and

deepest appreciation for helping me write this acknowledgement, I cannot thank you enough and

also to my gorgeous friend, Nuelle Gelvez for helping me with my presentation. Lastly, to Janeille

Aloha Kasala, for always being exceptional to me, thank you very much. Without you guys, this

study would not be possible.

Finally, I thank my family for supporting me throughout all my studies at Mapua

Institute of Technology, for providing a home in which to complete my write-ups, and everything

in life in general.

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Table of Contents
CHAPTER I – THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND ................................................................ 1
I.1 - General Overview ............................................................................................................ 2
I.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 2
I.1.2 Background of the Study ............................................................................................ 3
I.1.3 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................... 3
I.1.4 Project Goals, Objectives and Strategies ...................................................................... 4
I.1.4.1 Project Goals ....................................................................................................... 4
I.1.4.2 Project Objectives ................................................................................................ 4
I.1.4.3 Project Strategies ................................................................................................ 5
I.1.5 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................ 5
I.1.6 Scope and Limitations ................................................................................................. 5
I.1.7 Assumptions .............................................................................................................. 5
I.1.8 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................... 6
I.1.9 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................... 7
I.1.10 Acronyms ................................................................................................................. 8
I.2 - Review of Related Literature and Studies .......................................................................... 9
I.2.1 Review of Related Literature ....................................................................................... 9
I.2.1.1 “Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners” ..................................... 9
I.2.1.2“Prisons and Human Rights Violations: What Can Architects Do?” ............................ 9
I.2.1.3“Quezon City to Offer ALS Program in City Jails” ................................................... 10
I.2.1.4“Prison School Offers Degrees for Inmates” .......................................................... 11
I.2.1.5“Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism” ........................ 12
I.2.1.6“Prisons” ............................................................................................................ 12
I.2.1.7„Poverty no excuse for having bad jails‟ ................................................................ 13
I.2.2 Foreign Related Projects ........................................................................................... 14
I.2.2.1 Mississippi State Penitentiary .............................................................................. 14
I.2.2.2 Florida State Prison ............................................................................................ 15
I.2.3 Local Related Projects .............................................................................................. 17
I.2.3.1New Bilibid Prison ............................................................................................... 17
I.2.3.2 Manila City Jail ................................................................................................... 19
I.3 Research Methodology ..................................................................................................... 22
I.3.1 Research Design ...................................................................................................... 22
I.3.1.1 Case Study of the Problematic Site: Muntinlupa City Jail ....................................... 22
I.3.1.2 Interview Method............................................................................................... 35
I.3.1.3 Survey Method .................................................................................................. 39
I.3.3 Research Instruments............................................................................................... 40
I.3.3.1 Case Study Method ............................................................................................ 41
I.3.3.2 Interview Method............................................................................................... 41

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I.3.3.3 Survey to Visitors ............................................................................................... 41
I.3.3.4 Survey to Personnel ........................................................................................... 41
I.4 Summary of Findings and Analysis .................................................................................... 42
I.4.1 Presentation of Collected Data .................................................................................. 42
I.4.2 Need Analysis .......................................................................................................... 52
I.4.3 Qualitative and Qualitative Analysis ........................................................................... 52
I.5 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................... 52
CHAPTER II – RESEARCH FOCUS ........................................................................................... 54
II.1 Rationale: Positive Learning Environment ......................................................................... 55
II.2 Principles and Relevance to the Project ............................................................................ 55
II.2.1 Physical Learning Environment – Facilities that support the users............................... 55
II.3 Application to the Project ................................................................................................ 56
II.3.3 Proper Planning of Spaces ....................................................................................... 56
CHAPTER III – SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS ............................................................ 57
III.1 Site Selection Process .................................................................................................... 58
III.1.1Criteria for Site Selection ......................................................................................... 58
III.1.2 Site Option Description ........................................................................................... 59
III.1.3 Site Selection and Justification ................................................................................ 63
III.2 Site Evaluation and Analysis ........................................................................................... 64
III.2.1 The Macro Settings – The City of Muntinlupa ........................................................... 64
III.2.2 The Micro Settings – Brgy. Poblacion ...................................................................... 68
III.2.3 Laws and Ordinances Pertaining to the Site ............................................................. 69
III.3 Site Development Options .............................................................................................. 71
III.3.1 Site Analysis .......................................................................................................... 71
CHAPTER IV – ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION ......................................................... 73
IV.1 Design Program ............................................................................................................. 74
IV.1.1 Problem Diagnosis .................................................................................................. 74
IV.1.2 Design Objectives ................................................................................................... 74
IV.1.3 Design Criteria ....................................................................................................... 75
IV.1.3.1 Philosophy ....................................................................................................... 75
IV.1.4 Design Concept ...................................................................................................... 75
IV.1.5 Design Considerations (Laws and Standards) ........................................................... 76
IV.1.5.1 National Building Code of the Philippines ........................................................... 76
IV.1.5.2 Manual on Habitat, Water, Sanitation and Kitchen in Jails ................................... 76
IV.1.5 Space Programming and Allocation .......................................................................... 78
IV.1.6 Behavioural Analysis ............................................................................................... 81
IV.1.7 User Analysis ......................................................................................................... 82
IV.1.8 Organizational Structure ......................................................................................... 84

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IV.1.9 Functional Zoning ................................................................................................... 85
IV.1.10 Programming Matrix ............................................................................................. 86
IV.1.11 Inter-relationship Diagram .................................................................................... 87
IV.1.12 Circulatory Diagram .............................................................................................. 88
IV.2 Concept Development .................................................................................................... 89
IV.2.1 Architectural Concept ............................................................................................. 89
IV.2.2 Structural Concept .................................................................................................. 90
IV.2.3 Utility Concept ....................................................................................................... 91
IV.3 Synthesis....................................................................................................................... 92
IV.3.1 Scheme 1 .............................................................................................................. 92
IV.3.2 Scheme 2 .............................................................................................................. 93
IV.4 Presentation Drawings ................................................................................................... 94
IV.4.1 Perspectives ........................................................................................................... 94
IV.4.2 Plans, Elevations, Sections ...................................................................................... 97
Appendices ............................................................................................................................. 1
References ............................................................................................................................. 7

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List of Tables

Table 1: BJMP Protective Services by Facilities and Equipment MCJ Male Dorm ......................... 34
Table 2: Jail Statistics, Muntinlupa City Jail Male Dorm ............................................................ 34
Table 3: BJMP Protective Services by Facilities and Equipment MCJ Female Dorm ..................... 34
Table 4: Jail Statistics, Muntinlupa City Jail Female Dorm ........................................................ 34
Table 5: Site A Technical Description ...................................................................................... 59
Table 6: Site B Technical Description ...................................................................................... 60
Table 7: Site C Technical Description ...................................................................................... 61
Table 8: Site Selection Criteria ............................................................................................... 63

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List of Figures and Illustrations

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Diagram ................................................................................ 6


Figure 2: Entrance of the Mississippi State Penitentiary ........................................................... 14
Figure 3: Aerial view of Unit 29 .............................................................................................. 15
Figure 4: Entrance of Florida State Prison ............................................................................... 16
Figure 5: Facade of the Admin Building .................................................................................. 17
Figure 6: Location map of New Bilibid Prison .......................................................................... 17
Figure 7: Aerial View of the Maximum Security Compound ...................................................... 18
Figure 8: Facade of the Halfway House .................................................................................. 19
Figure 9: Location map of Manila City Jail ............................................................................... 19
Figure 10: Old Bilibid Prison ................................................................................................... 20
Figure 11: Screen cap from 24ORAS showing Manila City Jail................................................... 20
Figure 12: The Old Entrance .................................................................................................. 21
Figure 13: Entrance to Muntinlupa City Jail ............................................................................. 22
Figure 14: Location Map of the Muntinlupa City Jail ................................................................. 23
Figure 15: Mid-Rise Commercial Building ................................................................................ 24
Figure 16: Boutique Shops ..................................................................................................... 24
Figure 17: Mid Rise Commercial Building ................................................................................ 25
Figure 18: Old Theatre across the Site ................................................................................... 25
Figure 19: Entrance along National Highway ........................................................................... 26
Figure 20: National Flag inside the facility ............................................................................... 26
Figure 21: The Community Precinct 1 ..................................................................................... 27
Figure 22: The public toilet for male and female ..................................................................... 27
Figure 23: Entrance viewed from inside .................................................................................. 28
Figure 24: Inmates taking up Accreditation and Equivalency Test ............................................ 29
Figure 25: Inmates orientation on Accreditation and Equivalency Test ...................................... 29
Figure 26: Inmates attending the mass .................................................................................. 30
Figure 27: Inmates paying attention to the Mass .................................................................... 30
Figure 28: Makeshift altar table with the presiding priest on the Roof Deck .............................. 31
Figure 29: Inmates making paper arts .................................................................................... 31
Figure 30: Some inmates are making tissue holders ................................................................ 32
Figure 31: Basketball tournament inside MCJ .......................................................................... 32
Figure 32: Roof Deck can also function as a seminar room ...................................................... 33
Figure 33: Inmates attentively listen to the talk ...................................................................... 33
Figure 34: BJMP-MCJ answering the survey form .................................................................... 40
Figure 35: BJMP Personnel answering the survey form ............................................................ 40
Figure 36: Adjacency of Spaces Diagram ................................................................................ 42
Figure 37: Current Population Chart ....................................................................................... 43

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Figure 38: Cell Population Chart ............................................................................................. 43
Figure 39: Cell Allocation Chart .............................................................................................. 44
Figure 40: Age Distribution Chart ........................................................................................... 44
Figure 41: BJMP Personnel to Detainee Population Chart ......................................................... 45
Figure 42: Personnel Gender Distribution ................................................................................ 46
Figure 43: Personnel Age Bracket .......................................................................................... 46
Figure 44: Personnel Current Location .................................................................................... 46
Figure 45: Personnel Mode of Transportation .......................................................................... 47
Figure 46: Personnel Rating of the Facility .............................................................................. 47
Figure 47: Personnel Rating for the Detainees ........................................................................ 47
Figure 48: Personnel Comfort Satisfaction .............................................................................. 48
Figure 49: Personnel Facility Satisfaction ................................................................................ 48
Figure 50: Personnel Description of the Facility ....................................................................... 48
Figure 51: Visitor‟s Gender Demographics............................................................................... 49
Figure 52: Visitor's Age Bracket ............................................................................................. 49
Figure 53: Visitor's Current Location ....................................................................................... 49
Figure 54: Visitor's Visit Occurrence ....................................................................................... 50
Figure 55: Visitor's Mode of Transportation ............................................................................. 50
Figure 56: Visitor's Stay ......................................................................................................... 50
Figure 57: Visitor's Perception of the Facility ........................................................................... 51
Figure 58: Visitor's Comfort Rating ......................................................................................... 51
Figure 59: Lot 1-A-1 Sucat, Muntinlupa City ............................................................................ 59
Figure 60: Block 36, Filinvest Corporation City, Alabang Muntinlupa City ................................... 60
Figure 61: Lot 3 B-3 Poblacion Muntinlupa City ....................................................................... 61
Figure 62: Site Map ............................................................................................................... 62
Figure 63: Metro Manila emphasizing the location of Muntinlupa City ....................................... 64
Figure 64: Land Use Classification of Muntinlupa City .............................................................. 65
Figure 65: Nine Barangays of Muntinlupa City ......................................................................... 65
Figure 66: Summary of Slope Classification, Areas, and Distribution ......................................... 66
Figure 67: Metro Manila, including Muntinlupa, belongs to type 1 rainfall ................................. 67
Figure 68: New Bilibid Prison ................................................................................................. 68
Figure 69: Vehicular and Pedestrian Access ............................................................................ 71
Figure 70: Solar Analysis ....................................................................................................... 71
Figure 71: Wind Analysis ....................................................................................................... 72
Figure 72: Noise Analysis ....................................................................................................... 72
Figure 73: Behavioral Analysis ............................................................................................... 81
Figure 74: Organizational Chart ............................................................................................. 84
Figure 75: Functional Zoning ................................................................................................. 85

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Figure 76: Adjacency Matrix................................................................................................... 86
Figure 77: Interrelationship Diagram ...................................................................................... 87
Figure 78: Circulatory Diagram .............................................................................................. 88
Figure 79: Concept Development ........................................................................................... 89
Figure 80: Structural Concept ................................................................................................ 90
Figure 81: Utility Concept ...................................................................................................... 91
Figure 82: Scheme 1 ............................................................................................................. 92
Figure 83: Scheme 2 ............................................................................................................. 93
Figure 84: Aerial Perspective ................................................................................................. 94
Figure 85: Workshop ............................................................................................................. 94
Figure 86: Dormitory ............................................................................................................. 95
Figure 87: Cell ...................................................................................................................... 95
Figure 88: Dayroom .............................................................................................................. 96
Figure 89: Chapel ................................................................................................................. 96

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CHAPTER I – THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

General Overview

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Research Methodology

Summary of Findings and Analysis

Conclusions and Recommendations

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I.1 - General Overview

I.1.1 Introduction

The concept of imprisonment has existed as a form of punishment for law breakers

since time immemorial. Back then, they used metal cages, castle basements, and fortresses for

containment of law breakers. Every crime committed has their own corresponding punishment,

which needed to be paid and those who cannot afford to pay will be imprisoned.

Jails are temporary detention for those who are suspected to have committed crimes

for investigation or trial after arrest. These facilities are usually operated by the police. Most jails

in the country are good only for a limited length of detention time thus do not usually have

rehabilitation programs. Some city jails with larger population have educational, vocational

classes or other programs to help detainees.

In the Philippines, during the Spanish colonization, one example of a jail facility used

by the Spanish officials was Fort Santiago where Jose Rizal was imprisoned before his execution

in 1896. In Fort Santiago, Rizal was looked after by two guardia civil. The cell had its own bed,

desk, and some furniture. This was a fortress of the Spaniards and is a part of Intramuros. The

Spaniards built jails in order to detain indios or people who will disobey the guardia civil. These

facilities were usually located at church basements, forts, and government offices without or

limited natural light and ventilation with wooden or iron bars for their doors and thick stone walls.

Today, the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP), under the Department

of Interior and Local Government, oversee jail facilities in every city, district, and municipality in

the country. BJMP oversees prisoners whose cases are under litigation in trial court or detainees

who are convicted for not more than three years in prison. Detainees are turned over to the

Bureau of Corrections National Penitentiary if they are convicted guilty on crimes and if their

sentence is three years and one day or until death.

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I.1.2 Background of the Study

The City of Muntinlupa is the southernmost city in the National Capital Region and

according to the 2010 census, it has a population of 459,941 and classified as a Highly Urbanized

City. It is also known as one of the most progressive cities in the country and was given the

nickname “Emerald City of the Philippines”. Sadly, Muntinlupa is also notoriously known

throughout the country not because of its awesome features but because of the national insular

penitentiary, New Bilibid Prison, which houses the country's most dangerous criminals.

It has undergone tremendous growth mainly due to a development boom in the late

90‟s led by two large-scale commercial real estate projects namely; the Filinvest Corporate City

and Ayala Land‟s Madrigal Business Park. This development changed the landscape of Muntinlupa

City from what were once vast fields of cow pasture in the late 1980‟s into a super city. With the

rapid urbanization, industrialization and migration, study shows that the urban growth has also

been associated with the major factors that contribute to higher crime rates in the Philippine

urban centres.

I.1.3 Statement of the Problem

Due to the rapid increase in criminals being captured every month and because of

the slow justice system, our jails around the country are already above their maximum allowed

capacity. Based on the data of BJMP on May of 2012, the percentage of congestion on NCR alone

is 315% and there were 22 jail facilities that are congested out of 24.

This congestion is very serious problem in our jail facilities, to the detainees but also

to jail wardens who supervises and ensures the security of the facility. Various health problems

arise since it is easy to contaminate contagious diseases like tuberculosis, measles, and other skin

diseases on a hot, overcrowded, and has minimal natural ventilation detention cell. There are also

issues of unhygienic tap water, clogged toilets, unhealthy meals, gang war, and understaffed

jailers. This is a mismatch to the description of penology which is a reform geared to productive

life upon re-entry to the community but rather they still provide punishment. Sadly, the detainees

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are still being treated as mere animals that need to be punished because of the idea that they are

plague to the society.

Our jail facilities today are currently overcrowded, out-dated, and deteriorating due to

overuse of the facility thus this requires the need for a new facility that will address the current

issues while still providing the necessary security for the detainees.

 What are the standards of a jail?

 What are the different approaches in planning and designing a jail?

 What are the facilities needed for a successful rehabilitation of detainees to prevent

incarceration?

 What approaches are needed in order to remove the negative image of our jail facilities?

I.1.4 Project Goals, Objectives and Strategies

I.1.4.1 Project Goals

 This study aims to know the current situation of the existing jail facilities.

 Determine the facilities and services that are needed by the detainees.

 Analyse the relationship of facilities and services for security.

 Provide information in order to create an efficient and humane jail facility

 Produce detainees that can easily integrate to our society

I.1.4.2 Project Objectives

 To provide the comfort needed by a detainee by having a well-ventilated habitable space

without sacrificing their security

 To accommodate the current inmates detained and the expected number of inmates in

the future

 To have the facilities and services updated and upgraded used by the detainees

 To give hope to the detainees through effective rehabilitation

 To create a new facility that will be efficient and sustainable in operation in the long run

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I.1.4.3 Project Strategies

 Application of tropical design to modern jail facility to provide inmates decent ventilation

and natural lighting.

 Application of low energy building techniques and principles in order to reduce heat and

energy consumption

 Provision for natural landscaping for rehabilitation

 Different educational, livelihood and recreational facilities that will help for penalizing

detainees

I.1.5 Significance of the Study

The proposal is beneficial to the Muntinlupa City because the improvement of the

facility which cannot be seen anywhere around the country will boost the reputation not only the

city but also the morale and dignity of the BJMP Muntinlupa personnel. The proposal is also

beneficial to the Bureau itself since the new facility will be more sustainable and efficient; it will

generate its own savings to their allocated funds. The proposal is also beneficial to the detainees

since they are the ones who will use the facility. The benefits are comfortable spaces, clean

facilities, and decongested cells.

I.1.6 Scope and Limitations

The proposal will be limited to planning and designing a new facility that will cater

and improve the needs of the existing facility. It will focus more on application of architectural

design, structural conceptualization, location of utility and services, and circulation of different

users of the facility. The proposal excludes the preparation of the structural, mechanical, or

plumbing details, estimates and its method of construction.

I.1.7 Assumptions

The proposed city jail will be the first modernized jail in the country. The facilities will

become the standards for future proposal of jails. This jail will be become the model structure

and representation of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology vision which is a dynamic

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institution highly regarded for its sustained humane safekeeping and development of inmates and

will help rebuild the negative image of the detainees by having a facility that adapts world class

standards.

I.1.8 Conceptual Framework

R e sea rch a bout Current Ja il


Issues

Conduct Interviews

Conduct Case Study Officials and Inmates


Ga ther R eleva nt Da ta

Model Site
Surveys

Problematic Site
Visitors
Analyze and Study the
gathered data

Formula te a n Architectu ra l
Solution

Produce a n efficient a nd
huma ne fa cility for the end
users

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Diagram

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I.1.9 Definition of Terms

Detainee A person held in custody or confinement

Prisoner A person held in custody, captivity, or a condition of forcible restraint,

especially while on trial or serving a prison sentence

Inmate A person who is confined to an institution such as a prison or hospital

Jail A place for the confinement of persons in lawful detention, especially

persons awaiting trial under local jurisdiction

Prison A place for the confinement of persons in lawful detention, especially

persons convicted of crimes.

Correctional The treatment of offenders through a system of penal incarceration,

rehabilitation, probation, and parole, or the administrative system by

which these are effectuated.

Jailer One whose responsibility is keeping a jail

Litigation To contest in legal proceedings

Incarceration To put into jail

Congestion To overfill or overcrowd

Tuberculosis An infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the tubercle

bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and

other tissues of the body, often developing long after the initial infection

Efficient Acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or

unnecessary effort

Sustainable Capable of being continued with minimal long-term effect on the

environment

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I.1.10 Acronyms

BJMP Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

DILG Department of Interior and Local Government

BuCor Bureau of Corrections

NCR National Capital Region

PNP Philippine National Police

ALS Alternative Learning System

CJ City Jail

NBC National Building Code

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I.2 - Review of Related Literature and Studies

I.2.1 Review of Related Literature

I.2.1.1 “Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners”

It is said that all sleeping accommodation shall meet all the requirements of health. it

should have enough content of air, minimum floor space, lighting, heating and ventilation. There

shall also windows that are large enough to enable the prisoners to read or work using only the

natural light and also it allows the entrance of fresh air whether or not there is artificial

ventilation. Artificial light should also be provided in order for the prisoners to read or work

without compromising their eyesight. All sanitary equipment shall be provided and adequate

enough for all prisoners to comply with the needs of nature when necessary and in a clean and

decent manner. There should also be bathing and shower installations so that every prisoner can

take a bath or shower as frequently as necessary for their general hygiene depending to their

season and geographical region. It is also noted that all parts of the institution that are usually

used by the prisoners shall be properly maintained and clean. It is also said that bed should be

issued in every prisoner and with separate and sufficient bedding which shall be cleaned and kept

in good order.

I.2.1.2“Prisons and Human Rights Violations: What Can Architects Do?”

According to an article by Raphael Sperry, he said that prison design in the United

States is violating fundamental human rights. Execution and the use of prolonged solitary

confinement are widespread - and widely criticised. Amnesty International and the UN condemn

US practices such as isolation, which can damage the long-term mental health and eyesight of an

individual in a matter of weeks. He also said that UK and EU recently banned exports of drugs

used for lethal injection in order to pressure America into reconsidering death penalty.

He then pointed out that even we criticize the penal condition of the United States,

licensed architects who are involve in construction of new prisons including death chambers and

isolation cells which are a very clear evidence of human rights violation. He pointed out that in

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designing prisons, we must consider not only the status of the guards and inmates detained

inside but also the freedom of others on the outside as well.

I.2.1.3“Quezon City to Offer ALS Program in City Jails”

According to an online newspaper article by Chito A. Chavez (September, 2014), the

Quezon City government will integrate the Alternative Learning System (ALS) of the Department

of Education program to the Quezon City Jail educational program. He also said that mayor

Herbert Bautista has already approved the ordinance number SP-2300 S-2014 which ensures that

the Quezon City Jail detainees will have access to Department of Education‟s ALS program to

prevent recidivism among themselves. The Alternative Learning System is a parallel learning

system that serves as a viable alternative to existing formal education.

Chito also said that recent research on prison education programs does have

unsightly statistical data regarding on the current recidivism rate. He also pointed out the US

Institute for Higher Education Policy reported in 2011 that there are 70 percent of people who are

imprisoned will commit a new crime and half of them will be caught and brought to prison within

a span of three years. The IHEP also revealed that the best way to reduce the recidivism is

through education during imprisonment. The officials of the Quezon City Jail Management also

believe that the education during imprisonment will help the detainees have a change of life from

being a criminal to a good citizen when they are released.

The implementing rules and regulations (IRR) for the Alternative Learning System

shall be issued by the Quezon City jail with the cooperation of the division of the city schools. For

the implementation of the said program, the Quezon City division of city schools are authorized to

conduct inspections of the detention facilities so that the adequate facilities will be made available

for the implementation of the program.

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I.2.1.4“Prison School Offers Degrees for Inmates”

Assistant Solicitor General Karl Miranda, one of the volunteer teachers at the prisons'

campus said that the UPHDS Extension School does not easily give up on people viewed by some

as social outcasts so that they offer a course on Bachelor of Science in Commerce for inmates.

They believe that this course can help inmates start their own business after serving their terms

because inmates usually find it very difficult to look for new jobs because due to their background

and records.

There are 200 inmates that are currently enrolled in the college course. These are all

from the Medium Security Compound in New Bilibid Prison. They are all convicted and have

serving terms between 3 and 20 years. The prison also offers alternative learning programs for

preschool, elementary and high school levels accredited by the Department of Education. Thus,

the curricula and books they use are similar to those that regular public school students use. It is

said that the campus inside the prison started in June 1984 through an agreement between the

University of Perpetual Help Rizal-Las Piñas, Rotary Club of Las Piñas and Bureau of Corrections.

Victor Fajardo, a school assistant officer in charge, said that inmates already have

corrupted values and their morale is very low and then he said that through education, the school

can give them back their dignity and also the proper values they need. The school accepts about

80 new students every year. There are also requirements in order to be admitted to the prison

school. They must have finished high school and should pass an entrance exam test and an

interview. While they wants to accommodate more inmates, they said that their funds were

limited. They only rely on private donations which are declining. Fajardo and some 10 other

school officials and teachers are actually employees of the Bureau of Corrections and working for

the school is an extra work on top of their regular duties for the prison. The UPHDS sends three

teachers to the prisons‟ school. Twelve professors are volunteers from big schools and hold

weekend classes for free. Private donors gave the school a television set, a library and some

computers.

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The prison also has an annex of Itaas Elementary School, where 67 inmates are

enrolled, and Muntinlupa National Extension High School, which has 179 students. Both have

their own school buildings inside the compound. Inmates enrolled at any school level get to stay

at a campus dorm, separate from the regular prison cells.

I.2.1.5“Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism”

According to a new RAND Corporation report, prison inmates who receive general

education and vocational training are significantly less likely to return to prison after release and

are more likely to find employment than peers who do not receive such opportunities

The project lead researcher Louis Davis said that they have found strong evidence

that correctional education plays a big role in reducing recidivism. He said that providing inmates

education programs and vocational training helps keep them from returning to prison and

improves their future job prospects.

They found out that inmates who participate in correctional education programs have

43% lower odds of returning to prison than those who do not. Their estimate is based on studies

that carefully account for motivation and other differences between correctional education

recipients and non-recipients. They also said that employment after release was 13% higher

among prisoners who participated in either academic or vocational education programs than

those who did not. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be

employed after release from prison than who did not receive such training.

I.2.1.6“Prisons”

Attorney Manuel Laserna said that, based on the government statistics, the

population of our city jails in the metro manila increased from 11,258 in 2000 to 21,733 in 2006.

This is also the same for the other regions in the Philippines. He said that our jail population have

an annual rate of 6% increase. Our jail population composes of 95% detention prisoners that are

on trials and appeals for their criminal cases. He also said that the ideal jail capacity based on

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BJMP ideal standard is that for every square meter of detention cell, there must be 3 prisoners.

He also said that the jail congestion rate in metro manila alone was 246% and the top three city

jails that have highest congestion rate are Caloocan City Jail (1,124%), Quezon City Jail (676%),

and Muntinlupa City Jail (626%) and 260% for the national congestion rate.

He said that we only have 336 or 31% out of 1,082 jail facilities have separate cells

for women prisoners and only 203 or 18.7% separate cells for children in conflict with the law

(CICL). Therefore, for 2 out of 3 women prisoners are mixed with male prisoners and 4 out of 5

children in conflict with the law are mixed with adult prisoners. He also noted that under article

80 of the revised penal code, the children in conflict with the law or CICL "shall be put under the

custody of a publicly-recognized private institution or any other responsible person and that

under Art. 191 of P. D. No. 603, in the absence of a youth home, the provincial city, and

municipal jails shall provide a cell for CICL separate from adult detainees.” But technically, there

are only 4 youth homes nationwide, Molave Youth Home (Quezon City), Manila Youth Reception

Centre (MYRC), Pasay City Youth Home (PCYH), and the Regional Rehabilitation Centre for the

Youth (Cebu City).

I.2.1.7„Poverty no excuse for having bad jails‟

Based on an article written by Dona Pazzibungan, even if we are a poor country, that

should not be an excuse to have substandard jails. Anne marie norenofferman of the correctional

service of Sweden said that “It‟s easy to get tired and give up because anyway we‟re a poor

country. But you can do a lot even without money,” She also said that she was shocked when she

hear the story of a woman prisoner in Manila City Jail. She said that “She‟s been in prison 12

years but she‟s not been sentenced. She said that there were 200 of them (in a similar situation).

When we asked for a show of hands, about 30 raised their hands and said they were not yet

convicted,”

Our facilities cannot hold less than a quarter of the 90,000 prisoners estimated by the

CBCP. ICPA President Rev. Birgittawinberg said that our government in our country reflects the

conditions of our prisons. she also said that “The more prosperous countries, like Sweden, had

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better facilities with rehabilitation programs while the poorer countries like the Philippines could

afford only the most basic accommodations,”. Winberg also added that we have the most

impoverished prison she has seen. She also said that “It‟s worse here. The overcrowding and the

standard of the prison system here are failing, actually,” and “In Manila City Jail, I was impressed

by the prisoners and the prison staff because they‟re able to survive. If I were put there, I should

die. I would not be able to live,”

I.2.2 Foreign Related Projects

I.2.2.1 Mississippi State Penitentiary

590 Parchman Road 12

Parchman, MS 38738-3099

(662) 745-6611

Figure 2: Entrance of the Mississippi State Penitentiary

Also known as the Parchman Farm, it is the oldest prison and the only maximum

security prison for men in the state of Mississippi USA. It is located on about 73 square kilometres

in unincorporated Sunflower County in the Mississippi delta region.

The facility has 4,840 beds for Inmates, which then classified by custody levels from

minimum to maximum security. They also houses death row inmates. There are currently six (6)

units that house the inmates and other thirteen (13) units that are classified as closed housing

units. Inmates worked as labourers in its operations from prison farm, manufacturing, and

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workshops. Their tasks varies from raising cotton and other farm food products, extracting gum

from pine trees, soy beans, produced livestock, swine, poultry and milk.

Figure 3: Aerial view of Unit 29

The Mississippi State Penitentiary also provides houses the employees and their

dependents. It is called the Guard Row which is identical to wood frame houses, most of which

are built from the 1930‟s. In the 1970‟s, the employees of the state penitentiary rent their houses

ten (10) to twenty (20) dollars per month. They provide housing for the employees because the

location of the Mississippi State Penitentiary is secluded from the city. In this way, the staff can

easily respond to the disturbances and emergencies from the state penitentiary.

I.2.2.2 Florida State Prison

7819 N.W. 228th Street

Raiford, Florida 32026-1000

(904) 368-2500

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Figure 4: Entrance of Florida State Prison

Located on the County of Bradford in Florida, it is once known as the East Unit. It

was constructed in 1961 with the new death chamber. It was part of what is now known as the

Union Correctional Institution. The facility has a maximum population of over 1,400 inmates. The

Florida State Prison belongs to the one of the largest prisons in the state. The prison is located

between several other prisons. It is surrounded by New River Correctional Institution, New River

O-Unit, and Florida State Prison West Unit.

The Florida State Prison has two (2) open bay housing units, thirteen (13) cell

housing units, and has a total maximum capacity of 1460 inmates wherein 1,205 are currently

detained. The prison specifically is for male adult. The custody grades are from maximum, close,

medium, minimum, and community. It also has Medical Grades ranges from one (1) through four

(4) and Psychological Grades ranges from one (1) through three (3)

The programs and services of the state prison are Adult Basic Education, Continuing

Education, General Education Development, Inmate Teaching Assistant Program, and Special

Education Services. Chaplaincy Services also includes Anger Management, and Awareness

program, Worship services, Religious Education, Chapel Library Program, Personal Growth

Programs, Spiritual Advisor, Holy Day Observation, and Religious TV Reception.

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I.2.3 Local Related Projects

I.2.3.1New Bilibid Prison

Sampaguita Road, Muntinlupa City,

National Capital Region 1776

(02) 809 8588

Figure 5: Facade of the Admin Building

Located in Muntinlupa, Philippines, it is the national insular penitentiary. It had a

capacity of three thousand (3,000) prisoners on its inauguration and then increased up to eight

thousand seven hundred (8,700) prisoners due to expansion. The New Bilibid Prison was

categorized as a maximum security compound. The total area of the prison is five hundred eighty

seven (587) hectares but the compound proper only had an area of nine (9) hectares. It is

surrounded by three (3) layers of barbed wire.

Figure 6: Location map of New Bilibid Prison

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The New Bilibid Prison compound facilities are the Director‟s quarter, the

Administration Building, the food and supply, the transport and security, a Museum (former lethal

injection chamber), three main security camps, and the halfway house. The three main security

camps are as follows; Maximum Security Compound which is the main building, Camp

Sampaguita for Medium Security Compound located near the Daang Hari road and Camp Bukang

Liwayway for the Minimum Security Compound.

Figure 7: Aerial View of the Maximum Security Compound

The Maximum Security compound has twelve (12) buildings ( brigada). This was

located in the centre of the camp. These brigadas are divided according to their gang or group

affiliations where they belong. Various religious chapels can be seen inside for the prisoners. The

Camp Sampaguita also has brigadas. They have more spacious place to wander around and

people outside can see the prisoners inside. There is a high school and a college level school in

this camp. The Camp Bukang Liwayway is for prisoners who are ready to get out of the facility.

The prisoners here are allowed to go out of their camp to do some tasks like faming, and

cleaning. They are also allowed to interact with the civilians. The Halfway House are for those

prisoners who are preparing for their exit in the New Bilibid Prison after serving their sentence.

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Figure 8: Facade of the Halfway House

The recreation and facilities of the New Bilibid Prison includes basketball court, and

production of handicrafts. Educational facilities are also available from primary, secondary,

vocational training, and adult literacy programs. There is also a Bachelor‟s Degree in Commerce.

It also has a market for commodities of the prisoners.

The employees of the Department of Justice and other government agencies have

been allocated one hundred and four (104) hectares of land to be converted into housing. This

housing project is now called Katarungan “Justice” Village.

I.2.3.2 Manila City Jail

Figure 9: Location map of Manila City Jail

Bounded by Oroquieta road, Recto Avenue and Quezon Boulevard, the location of the

Old Bilibid Prison can be seen. The site is now being used as a detention centre by the

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government of Manila named Manila City Jail. It was first constructed on April 10 1866 under the

Spanish regime. After construction, it has 15 buildings arranged in a radial manner and a central

tower for the hub. Originally erected to house 1,000 prisoners, the Manila City Jail presently

crams about 5,300 inmates on a 1.2-hectare facility, making the quintuple overcapacity rate

among the worst over-congestions in the country‟s notoriously-conditioned jail facilities.

Figure 10: Old Bilibid Prison

Figure 11: Screen cap from 24ORAS showing Manila City Jail

Shanties are also sprawling around the site taking over almost half of the whole site

and making them number one spot for criminal hideouts. Aside from over congested, its jail

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facilities are deteriorating due to the fact that it is more than a century old and its water supply

are limited due to the malfunctioning of the pipelines.

Figure 12: The Old Entrance

The Manila City Jail has four major compounds containing four groups (gangs)

separated by ethnicity and gender. The males and the females are housed separately, but the

juvenile delinquents share houses with the adult prisoners, and so do the mentally ill with the

mentally sound as well as the physically sick with the physically healthy. All the compounds are

segregated from one another by fences and walls and have a main hall and a main dormitory

with bare facilities.

The women‟s dorm may be found on the gate‟s left side next to the Medical Infirmary

while the men‟s is behind the Paralegal Office just beyond the Administration Office,

Rehabilitation Office, and Operations. Each dormitory is cramped and poorly-lit and –ventilated,

which makes it scorching hot for most of the times and malodorous despite scrubbing of strong

disinfectants.

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I.3 Research Methodology

In order to come up with varying innovations and solutions that will address the

problems of our city jails, a comprehensive and detailed study is needed. It is very important to

evaluate the status of the existing jails and its primary users to determine their insights on

criminal rehabilitation.

The research method that will be used is a descriptive research study. This method

will be used to gather relevant information that will be used in the assessment for the need of a

new city jail. This method will aid the researcher to analyse and discern the daily activities and

recurring behaviour of the jail wardens and the inmates.

I.3.1 Research Design

I.3.1.1 Case Study of the Problematic Site: Muntinlupa City Jail

The case study is a direct observation of the facility, analysing and identifying

possible flaws and weaknesses of the facility making it as a basis in order to know the needs of

the facility. This case study is limited to the area available to public for the reason that the

researcher‟s request was denied due to the safety and security reasons.

Figure 13: Entrance to Muntinlupa City Jail

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The Muntinlupa City Jail is located on the southern portion of Muntinlupa City, along

the national highway. The Muntinlupa City Jail is one of the two institutional facilities in the city.

The other one is the National Penitentiary which is the New Bilibid Prison. Inside the site, the

Muntinlupa City Police Station Community Precinct 1 is also located there.

Figure 14: Location Map of the Muntinlupa City Jail

It is currently surrounded by different commercial establishments. There is a

commercial complex on one side and on the other side is a boutique shops. Upon entering the

site, one can notice that their parking space is relatively small. BJMP and PNP officials mainly use

motorcycles when they came to work. Since their parking space is occupied by motorcycles, their

patrol unit is parked outside, along the national highway.

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Figure 15: Mid-Rise Commercial Building

Figure 16: Boutique Shops

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Figure 17: Mid Rise Commercial Building

Figure 18: Old Theatre across the Site

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Figure 19: Entrance along National Highway

Figure 20: National Flag inside the facility

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Figure 21: The Community Precinct 1

Their public assistance and complaint desk is visible and therefore very accessible to

public entering the facility while its front desk where the officials gather lacks the presence of

natural light. Their main office is also accessible through parking area. There is also a small toilet

cubicle for employees and visitors. While the cubicle is also for employees, it is located outside

the front desk.

Figure 22: Male and Female public toilet

It is also noticeable upon entering the site that the City Jail‟s finish grade line is

below the street level which makes them vulnerable to flooding.

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Figure 23: Entrance viewed from inside

The Muntinlupa City Jail is a two storey building with a covered basketball court at

the roof deck. This roof deck also serves as their day room, visiting area, livelihood area,

educational area, and their recreational area. Based on my observations from outside, the facility

itself lacks natural air and ventilation for the reason that both left side and right side of the facility

abuts the adjacent commercial buildings.

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Figure 24: Accreditation and Equivalency Test for inmates

Figure 25: Accreditation and Equivalency Test for inmates

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Figure 26: Inmates attending the mass

Figure 27: Inmates paying attention to the Mass

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Figure 28: Makeshift altar table with the presiding priest on the Roof Deck

Figure 29: Inmates making paper arts

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Figure 30: Inmates are making tissue holders

Figure 31: Basketball tournament inside MCJ

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Figure 32: Seminar Orientation

Figure 33: Inmates attentively listen to the talk

I have not entered the dormitory area but based on my observations and the data on

the front desk, the ground floor consist of the Front Desk, a Cooperative store (Sari-sari Store),

Women‟s dormitory, Yakal cell A, B, C, and D, the Kitchen and service area. The second floor

consists of the remaining Men‟s Dormitory and lastly the covered roof top for gathering. While

observing their morning activity, I also noticed that the inmates that are assigned in the

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preparation of food are keeping on passing through the front desk area. Some of their raw foods

are freshly delivered directly by the meat and fish vendors from the nearby Tunasan Wet Market.

Type of Location Area Number Person to Facilities/Equipment Condition


service (sq.m) of Population
Personnel ration
City Jail National 684.50 sq. 50 1:10 1 Kawasaki-Aura Serviceable
Rd. m. Motorcycle from but need
Tunasan LGU Repair
Muntinlupa
City 1 L300FB VAN Good and
FROM BJMP-NCRO Serviceable
Table 1: BJMP Protective Services by Facilities and Equipment MCJ Male Dorm

No. of Jail No. of Jail Jail No. of Inmates


Jail Facilities
Cells Officers Capacity Male Female
8 50 40 488 0 Visiting Area
Basketball
Court
Kitchen
Clinic
Storage
Table 2: Jail Statistics, Muntinlupa City Jail Male Dorm

Type of Location Area Number of Person to Facilities/Equipment Condition


service (sq.m) Personnel Population
ration
City Jail Tunasan 48.6 15 1:5 None None
Table 3: BJMP Protective Services by Facilities and Equipment MCJ Female Dorm

No. of Jail No. of Jail Jail No. of Inmates


Jail Facilities
Cells Officers Capacity Male Female
1 15 10 0 87 Visiting Area
Basketball
Court
Kitchen
Mess Hall
Personnel
Barracks
Table 4: Jail Statistics, Muntinlupa City Jail Female Dorm

Based on the data gathered from the Socio Economic Profile of Muntinlupa City in the

year 2013, the BJMP facility has an area of 684.50 square meters allocated for male inmates and

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48.6 square meters for female inmates. The male dormitory has 8 cells having a total maximum

capacity of 40 inmates while the female dormitory only have 1 cell that can accommodate of a

maximum of 10 inmates. The current number of inmates for the year 2013 is 488 for male and 87

for female. The facility only has two service vehicles one motorcycle and one van for the

escorting of inmates to and from trial courts.

I.3.1.2 Interview Method

An interview will also be conducted for data gathering on the facility. The interview

will be done in an organize manner in order to come up with an information that leads to a

reliable evaluation of the facility. The interview will be conducted by a questionnaire prepared by

the researcher that will answer the problems of the research. In this method, the researcher will

conduct an interview with a key person knowledgeable in operations inside the facility.

I.3.1.2.1 Interviewee Profile

The key person to be interviewed is Senior Jail Officer III Donaldo D. Bautista.

He is the Chief Logistics in the Muntinlupa City Jail. He is also the Food Service Supervisor who is

in-charge of daily food preparation. S/JO3 Bautista is in service for more than eighteen years.

I.3.1.2.2 Interview Documentation

1. What is the current population of the Muntinlupa City Jail?

651 tapos mayroong 542 na lalaki at 109 na babae.

2. What is the maximum population of the Muntinlupa City Jail?

1000% congested ang ating kulungan. Nasa 40-50 na inmates ang estimated na

kayang i-accomodate ng ating City Jail.

3. How many cells are there?

May 9 na selda at ang isa dito ay naka laan para sa mga babae.

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4. What is the dimension and capacity of each cell?

Iba-iba ang sukat ng ating selda. Ang pinakamaliit ay para lamang sa 30 na inmates

pero dahil congested ang ating kulungan ay lumalagpas tayo dito.Mayroon din tayong

malaking selda na kasya ang 100 katao.

5. How the prisoners are segregated?

Depende sa kanilang edad at base sa grounds in crime.

6. Is there any females detained? Are they separated?

May mga babae tayo dito at may sarili silang selda.Yun nga lang ay lahat sila ay

nagsisiksikan sa isang selda.

7. How many females are detained?

109

8. Are there any children in conflict with the law? Is there any Senior Citizens? Persons with

Disability? Sick? How they are separated?

Sa children in conflict with the law, Negative tayo dyan, but meron tayong mga

senior citizens at nasa 30 sila. Meron din tayong may mga sakit kagayang tuberculosis at

nasa infirmary ward sila.

9. What are the daily activities of the inmates? From waking up to sleep

Nag-iistart sila tuwing umaga ng physical fitness at meron din tayong sunning para sa

may mga sakit.

10. What kinds of recreational activities that they do?

Mayroon tayong mga activities sa kanila kagaya ng ehersisyo at meron din tayong

moral values ethics na ginaganap dalawang beses sa isang lingo at meron ding misa.

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11. Do they have livelihood activities? What do they do?

Sa ngayon, bead making at parol making ang livelihood nila.

12. Where do they eat? In their own cell or a mess hall?

Walang mess hall ang Muntinlupa City Jail pero meron tayong kitchen. Ang pagkain

ay dinidistribute sa bawat isa.Ito ay naka-pack at mayroon silang sariling kutsara at

tinidor.

13. Where do they take a bath? Common or Single bath?

Bawat selda natin ay may sariling banyo para sa mga nakakulong doon sa selda.

Kumbaga single bath lang siya pero common parin dahil marami silang pwedeng

gumamit.

14. Is the gang or kapatiran or pangkat system exists in muntinlupa city jail? If yes, what are

these?

Sa ngayon wala dahil ang isa sa mga gawain ng BJMP ay buwagin at tanggalin ang

mga gang sa ating mga kulungan pero mahirap parin itong maiwasan.

15. If there is a system, is it advisable to segregate them according to their groups?

Hindi dahil tutol ang BJMP sa mga ganitong klaseng sistema.

16. Is there a separate access point for the inmates and visitors?

Isa lang ang pasukan at labasan ng mga tao at ito ay lagging binabantayan.

17. How many BJMP personnel are currently employed?

55 personnel

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18. What are the daily activities of BJMP personnel? From time in up to time out

Nakadepende kasi sa bawat empleyado ang aming ginagawa pero tuwing Tuesday at

Thursday mayroon kaming physical fitness at tuwing biyernes ay mayroon kaming

basketball.

19. Where do they eat? Do they have allocated space?

Sa may front desk lang kami kumakain.

20. What are the other spaces and facilities of the Muntinlupa City Jail? Offices? Health clinic?

Isolation cell? Kitchen? Mess Hall? Others?

Yung office ay makikita sa bungad.Meron din tayong clinic. Wala kaming isolation cell

pero meron kaming Infirmary ward, ditto inihihiwalay ang mga may sakit kagaya ng

tuberculosis. Wala kaming Mess Hall pero meron kaming Kitchen. Yung Roof top naming

para sa mga activities.

21. Is there a plan or proposal for relocation/rehabilitation of Muntinlupa City Jail?

Meron nang proposal dati pa para sa bagong city jail pero hanggang ngayon ay wala

parin nangyayari. Yung lote natin ngayon ay may problema dahil hindi naming alam kung

sino ang totoong may ari dahil sa tinagal ng panahon. Wala itong deed or title kaya hindi

din pwede na ma-renovate. Hindi na namin ma-trace ang tunay na nagmamay-ari nitong

kinatatayuan ng city jail.

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I.3.1.3 Survey Method

Survey method will also be conducted in order to assess thoughts, opinions, and

analyse behaviour of a group of individuals. The survey must be done in a systematic way in

order to gather variables needed in order to formulate the needs of the facility to be studied. The

survey will be accompanied by a questionnaires prepared by the researcher. The group of

individuals to be surveyed will be the public users that are frequently visiting the site for personal

reasons. They may be family members, relatives, or friends of the detainees to be visited. The

other group to be surveyed will be the BJMP personnel that are currently assigned in Muntinlupa

City Jail

I.3.1.3.1 Population and Sampling

Cluster sampling will serve as the sampling strategy of the study. The randomized

process will include the clustering of groups with representative sample of visitors and personnel

that uses the facility.

The total population that agreed to answer the survey questionnaires is 20 people.

The respondents are divided into two groups. The first are the visitors or the general public that

goes to the site. The number of respondents for the visitors is 10. They are the ones who agreed

to be surveyed. The second group of respondents are the BJMP personnel. The number of

respondents for the personnel is 10. They are the ones who are available to be surveyed during

the visit of the researcher. Photo documentation for the visitors is not available due to their

privacy and other personnel are on their respective posts.

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Figure 34: BJMP-MCJ answering the survey form

Figure 35: BJMP Personnel answering the survey form

I.3.3 Research Instruments

These are the tools used in data gathering in the study of the Muntinlupa City Jail.

Since there are three researches design method used in this study, there will be three different

research instruments to support this study. These will be used in order to identify the particular

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needs and in order to have a reliable source. The three tools used in this study are Case Study,

Interview, and Survey Method.

I.3.3.1 Case Study Method

In this method, the researcher inspects the activity of the personnel and inmates

from the outside. This also used in order to know personally by the researcher the current status

and situation of the facility. Sadly, the researcher was not granted his request to enter the inner

portion of the facility due to security reasons.

I.3.3.2 Interview Method

The interview to Senior Jail Officer III Donaldo D. Bautista was to know the current

status and situation of the Muntinlupa City Jail. The interview was conducted on November 26,

2014, in the Muntinlupa City Jail Assistance Desk.

I.3.3.3 Survey to Visitors

The survey questionnaires are made by the researcher to be answered by the visitors

of the Muntinlupa City Jail. The survey questionnaires were given to respondents and are chosen

according to their willingness to answer the questionnaire. The survey was conducted in order to

determine the visitor‟s insights which may provide the researcher knowledge related to the study.

I.3.3.4 Survey to Personnel

The survey questionnaires are made by the researcher to be answered by the

personnel of the Muntinlupa City Jail. The survey questionnaires were given to respondents and

are chosen according to their willingness to answer the questionnaire. The survey was conducted

in order to determine the personnel insights which may provide the researcher knowledge related

to the study.

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I.4 Summary of Findings and Analysis

Gathered data are analysed, summarized, and discussed in a directed and systematic

manner. The data gathered from the research methodology will be represented through figures

and documentation in order to simplify and to further understand the collected data.

I.4.1 Presentation of Collected Data

Data collected in the research methodology will be represented in a graphical method

and figures which can be easily analysed.

Male
Dormitories Other
Female Facilities
Dormitory

Front Coop
Desk Store
Kitchen

Public
Assistance
Toilet

Community Parking Main


Precinct 1 Space Office

Figure 36: Adjacency of Spaces Diagram

Based on the Observation of the researcher, this diagram is the adjacency of spaces

in Muntinlupa City Jail.

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Current Population
600 542

500

400

300

200
109
100

0
Male Female

Figure 37: Current Population Chart

According to the interview, the total population of the detainees are 651. There are

542 male which accounts to 83% of the total population and 109 female which is equal to 17% of

the total population. The detainees have an estimated ratio of 1:5 or for every one female; there

is an equivalent of five male detainees.

180 164
160
140
120 109
100 84
80 63 63 62
60 49
39
40
18
20
0

Figure 38: Cell Population Chart

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Based on the data gathered through case study, Narra cell has the largest cell

population which houses 25% of the total detainee‟s population followed by the female dormitory

which is the insular cell. The smallest cell population are the Anahaw cell (3%).

0
Male Female

Figure 39: Cell Allocation Chart

According to the interview, there have a total of 9 detention cells in which eight of

them are for male and the last one is designated for female.

Age Group
160 148
140
126
120 114

100

80 Male
57
60 Female
44
40 32
26 26
20
20 12 11 7 7 4
2 0 0 0
0
18 - 25 26 - 32 33 - 39 40 - 46 47 - 53 54 - 59 60 - 65 66 - 70 72 and
above

Figure 40: Age Distribution Chart

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According to the interview and data gathered, there are no minors that are currently

detained in the facility and the group of 26 – 32 have the most number of detainees followed by

33 – 39. (Source: Directorate for Operations, BJMP NHQ)

700 651

600

500

400

300

200

100 55

0
BJMP Personnel Detainees

BJMP Personnel Detainees

Figure 41: BJMP Personnel to Detainee Population Chart

According to the interview, there are 55 BJMP personnel while there are 651

detainees. The population of the facility has an estimated ratio of 1:12 whereas for every 1 BJMP

personnel, there are 12 detainees.

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Survey Data Results (Personnel)

Gender

10

0
Male Female

Figure 42: Personnel Gender Distribution

How old are you?

10

0
18 - 30 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60

Figure 43: Personnel Age Bracket

Where do you live?

10
8
6
4
2
0

Figure 44: Personnel Current Location

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What modes of transportation do you use when you are going to work?

10

0
Private Vehicle Public Vehicle Bicycle Walking

Figure 45: Personnel Mode of Transportation

How do you rate the facility for the BJMP Personnel?

10

0
5 4 3 2 1

Figure 46: Personnel Rating of the Facility

How do you rate the facility for the detainees? (5 Highest; 1 Lowest)

10

0
5 4 3 2 1

Figure 47: Personnel Rating for the Detainees

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Are you comfortable when you work in the city jail?

10
8
6
4
2
0
Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Neither
Dissatisfied

Figure 48: Personnel Comfort Satisfaction

Are you satisfied with the current situation of the facilities of the city jail?

10
8
6
4
2
0
Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Neither
Dissatisfied

Figure 49: Personnel Facility Satisfaction

Does the jail have these characteristics?

10

0
Serene Natural Natural Light Parking Decent None of
Ventilation Space Toilet these

Figure 50: Personnel Description of the Facility

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Survey Data Results (Visitors)

Gender:

10

8 7

4 3

0
Male Female

Figure 51: Visitor‟s Gender Demographics

Age:

10

0
17 - below 18 - 30 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60 61 - above

Figure 52: Visitor's Age Bracket

Where do you live?

10
8
6
4
2
0

Figure 53: Visitor's Current Location

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How often do you visit?

10

0
Everyday Frequent Sometimes Once every month

Figure 54: Visitor's Visit Occurrence

Mode of Transportation?

10

0
Private Public

Figure 55: Visitor's Mode of Transportation

How long do you stay?

10

0
less 15 minutes 15 - 30 minutes 30 - 1 hour more than 1 hour

Figure 56: Visitor's Stay

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Maayos po ba ang ating mga pasilidad para sa mga bisita? (5 – Highest; 1 – Lowest)

10

0
5 4 3 2 1

Figure 57: Visitor's Perception of the Facility

Kumportable po ba kayo sa pagpunta at pamamalagi ninyo dito? (5 – Highest; 1 –

Lowest)

10

0
5 4 3 2 1

Figure 58: Visitor's Comfort Rating

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I.4.2 Need Analysis

Based on the gathered data, it shows that their first and foremost needed are more

spaces. Because of their limited space, the bureau is limited in fully implementing their programs

and services. This makes the detainees not motivated to participate unless they are given

incentives and rewards. The need for more adequate facilities also is a must. These facilities, like

workshops, will help them to upgrade and to make their programs more efficient. The

rehabilitation of the detainees will help them recover their bad image and help them to re-entry

to the community. These facilities, with an implementation of an effective program scheme, will

help the detainees to prevent them from re-incarceration.

I.4.3 Qualitative and Qualitative Analysis

The gathered data also shows that there is a congestion and lack of other

rehabilitation and recreational facility inside the Muntinlupa City Jail. The facility is dominated by

males. The interview result also revealed that their operational cost is not efficient due to the fact

that they serve their foods in packs. It also shows, based on the interview, that their cells are not

typical; they have different sizes of cell. They are already planning to construct new city jail due

to overcrowding and deterioration of the existing facility.

The congestion of the Muntinlupa City Jail is one of the main problems they are

having because they have limited dormitories to accommodate the detainees. They also had to

perform mass and other rehabilitation programs in their covered basketball court which is their

recreational area. Their covered basketball court also serves as their visitation area during visiting

hours. The need for more dormitories, wider spaces, upgraded facilities, and decent spaces for

the BJMP personnel is a must in order to have a modernized city jail.

I.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

After gathering and analysing of the data, it is concluded that this proposal is

feasible. Many problems that plague our existing jail facilities are can be addressed and solved

through architectural approach. The lack of dormitories and spaces for the existing detainees and

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for future detainees are the main problems of the city jail. Their spaces lack natural lighting and

natural ventilation for efficiency. Their recreational and rehabilitation facilities are inadequate

enough in order to cater the growing population of the city jail. The need for a modernized city

jail is required in order to have a more efficient, sustainable and rehabilitative outcome not only

for the detainees and personnel but also for the existing condition of the city jail.

A new, modernized Muntinlupa City Jail is needed in order for the facility to cope up

with the growing population of the detainees. There must be the basic facilities indicated by the

BJMP plus the additional facilities that may help the detainees in their rehabilitation and to reform

them to productive life upon re-entry to the community. It should also be sustainable and

efficient in operation in the long run through application of contemporary design and principles

that may help reduce energy consumption for the reduction of operation cost.

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CHAPTER II – RESEARCH FOCUS

Rationale

Principles and Relevance to the Project

Application to the Project

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II.1 Rationale: Positive Learning Environment

“How can a detainee learn effectively in a totalitarian regime like prisons when

he is distressed with his environment and apprehensive on his future?"

Education in the prison community serves as the backbone of rehabilitation. It is the

central program from where all significant programs revolve. It promotes values, skills, standards

and principles: matters that equip the most dangerous sector of our society to reform and

recuperate from an undisciplined past. Education will help the detainees to reintegrate

themselves to the community and this programme reduces the chance for the detainees of

recidivism.

Once a detainee is released, guilty or not, he is immediately labelled by the community as

“ex-convict.” Any disorder or violation in the community is an invitation for his presence. He is

part of the usual suspects. And because, he has already a criminal record, his chance to gain

employment becomes zero. He virtually becomes a liability to his family. Public perception on

those who passed through the rigors of incarceration has never been reasonable.

II.2 Principles and Relevance to the Project

In this part of the chapter, principles will be discussed in order to have a well-

designed architectural solution. The following principles will be analysed and how it is relevant to

the project.

II.2.1 Physical Learning Environment – Facilities that support the users

It is argued that the physical environment can contribute to the quality of the

education and helps the student learn more. Academic facilities, libraries and media centers

shape the learning experience to optimize the exchange of ideas across disciplines. There are also

other types of physical environment that acts as a stimulus to the users that may help or prevent

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them from learning effectively. This design approach seeks to bring the promising learners more

directly into the learning experience as active contributors, innovative thinkers, and engaged

collaborators.

Having a learning environment for the detainees will help them to be knowledgeable

and improve the quality of rehabilitation that they undertake. It will promote values, skills,

standards and principles: matters that equip the most dangerous sector of our society to reform

and recuperate from an undisciplined past. The effects of the learning environment not only

boost their morale and hope for the future but also their stay inside the facility will be meaningful

and worthy.

II.3 Application to the Project

Improving the conditions and the environment of the detainees is the first priority in

order to have a learning environment in order to have a successful rehabilitation. Comfort ability

and humane environment must be established for the detainees in order to have an effective

learning. This will be achieved by proper integration of architectural technologies into the facility.

II.3.3 Proper Planning of Spaces

Proximity of different spaces must also be considered in planning and designing the

facility. If vertical approach will be considered, adjacency of spaces must be on every floor and

the vertical zoning must be taken into account. If sprawl will be considered, walkable distances

should be considered and landscapes and greeneries will be integrated in order to have a lively

community.

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CHAPTER III – SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS

Site Selection Process

Site Evaluation and Analysis

Site Development Options

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III.1 Site Selection Process

Many factors are considered during the jail site selection process. Strategic location

of the lot and good road access are primary criteria. Criteria may include the need to replace

existing dilapidated and overcrowded jails, proximity to courts and friendly forces.

III.1.1 Criteria for Site Selection

The location will be limited on the boundaries of Muntinlupa City since the proposal is

the city jail of Muntinlupa. Most of the users are also residents of Muntinlupa City. There are

several critical factors that must be accounted when considering the location of the new city jail.

To be able to choose the best site for the city jail, criteria for choosing the site must be

established. The criteria to be used were based on the Chapter 1 – Habitat: Space and

Quarters of the BJMP Manual on Habitat, Water, Sanitation and Kitchen in Jails. The

criterion includes the following:

1. Lot should be titled/donated in the name of the BJMP. (In this case, the lot to be used

will be in the name of the local government.)

2. Sufficient area for jail building, roads, parking and jail amenities.

3. Proximity and access to major highways, court and friendly forces.

4. Availability of water supply and other utilities.

5. Availability of drainage facilities and waste disposal system

6. Overall site development cost

7. Adequate open space for future expansion

8. Risk to climate hazards (flood, landslides, etc.)

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III.1.2 Site Option Description

Site A: Lot 1-A-1 Sucat, Muntinlupa City

Figure 59: Lot 1-A-1 Sucat, Muntinlupa City

Table 5: Site A Technical Description

Registered Owner Republic of the Philippines

Total Area in sq. m. 15,869.00

Type of Lot Interior Lot

Existing Structure Yes

Adjacent Structure Solid Mills

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Site B: Block 36 Filinvest Corporation City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City

Figure 60: Block 36, Filinvest Corporation City, Alabang Muntinlupa City

Table 6: Site B Technical Description

Registered Owner Republic of the Philippines

Total Area in sq. m. 40,807.49

Type of Lot Inside Lot

Existing Structure Partial

Adjacent Structure Ospital ng Muntinlupa

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Site C: Lot 3-B-3 Poblacion, Muntinlupa City

Figure 61: Lot 3 B-3 Poblacion Muntinlupa City

Table 7: Site C Technical Description

Registered Owner Republic of the Philippines

Total Area in sq. m. 125,477.00

Type of Lot Inside Lot

Existing Structure None

Adjacent Structure None

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Figure 62: Site Map

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III.1.3 Site Selection and Justification

The three sites chosen by the researcher will be evaluated and justified in this

chapter. The table below shows how the sites will be rated. The site with the highest total rating

will be used by the researcher for the proposal of the modernized City Jail. The sites will be rated

according to the following: 1 – Poor; 2 – Fair; 3 – Good; 4 – Very Good; 5 – Excellent

Site Criteria Site A Site B Site C

Size 25% 2 10% 4 20% 5 25%

Proximity to Major Highway 10% 4 8% 5 10% 3 6%

Proximity to Courts 20% 1 4% 3 12% 4 16%

Proximity to Friendly Forces 15% 4 12% 5 15% 3 9%

Availability of utilities 10% 5 10% 5 10% 5 10%

Adequate Space for Future Expansion 10% 1 2% 3 6% 5 10%

Risk to Climate Hazard 10% 2 4% 3 6% 4 8%

TOTAL 100% 50% 79% 84%

Table 8: Site Selection Criteria

Based on the criteria of the BJMP, the Site C which is Lot 3 B-3 on barangay Poblacion,

Muntinlupa City is the best site for the proposal of the new facility.

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III.2 Site Evaluation and Analysis

In this chapter, the chosen site will be evaluated and analysed in order to prove the

feasibility of the site for the facility. The chosen site based on the criteria was the Site C which is

Lot 3 B-3 on barangay Poblacion, Muntinlupa City.

III.2.1 The Macro Settings – The City of Muntinlupa

Located in the southernmost part of the National Capital Region, Muntinlupa City is

one of the most progressive cities in the country. It is classified as a Highly Urbanized City with a

population of more than 400,000 and is given the nickname

Figure 63: Metro Manila emphasizing the location of Muntinlupa City

The Muntinlupa City has a total land area of 46.70 square kilometres or 4,670

hectares. It is elevated by 16 meters above sea level. It is 22 kilometers south of Metro Manila,

easily accessible to all points of Metro Manila through the National Highway and the South Luzon

Expressway.

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Figure 64: Land Use Classification of Muntinlupa City

Muntinlupa City is composed of a lone congressional district, and two legislative

districts which are further subdivided into nine barangays. District One contains four barangays in

the southern half of the city. These are Bayanan, Poblacion, Putatan, and Tunasan. District Two

occupies the five barangays in the northern portion of the city. These barangays are Alabang,

Buli, Cupang, Ayala Alabang, and Sucat.

Figure 65: Nine Barangays of Muntinlupa City

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Its topography is relatively flat to sloping towards the east along the lake. Gentle

rolling hills occupy the western part of the city, with elevation increasing up to 60 meters and

above towards its south portion

Muntinlupa is generally level to gently sloping. About 68.72 of its total or 3,211

hectares as shown in Table is characterized by level to nearly level, with gradients ranging from

0.0 – 2.5% offering good opportunities for urban or agricultural uses. This greatly influences the

development of the municipality, which at present is rapidly and continually being transformed

into a residential – industrial town. This characterizes the whole of Barangay Bayanan and Buli,

almost three fourth (3/4) of Barangay Alabang, Cupang, Putatan and Sucat and half (1/2) of

Barangay Poblacion and Tunasan.

Figure 66: Summary of Slope Classification, Areas, and Distribution

Very gently sloping or undulating with gradients ranging from 2.5 – 50% covers

17.37% of the municipality‟s land area and is found in some parts of Alabang, Cupang, Poblacion,

Putatan and Tunasan. Portions of Barangay Poblacion, Sucat and Tunasan are characterized by

gently sloping lands with gradients ranging from 5.0 – 10.0% compromising about 13.91% of the

municipalities land area.

The Muntinlupa City also has the first type of rainfall according to PAG-ASA. The dry

season is from the months of November to April, while the wet season starts in May and lasts to

October. The wet season reaches its peak in the month of August. The maximum rainfall occurs

from the month of June to September.

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Figure 67: Metro Manila, including Muntinlupa, belongs to type 1 rainfall

Ground water development in the area is rated well which is probably one reason

why many of the residents obtain their water by deep well. The Marikina Faultline traverses

Muntinlupa on a north-south direction from Marikina to Taal Lake, entering through Sucat and

exiting towards Tunasan.

The soils of Muntinlupa belong to the Guadalupe Clay Loam Series. The series of

developed from water laid volcanic tuff, and has brown to dark-brown clay-to-clay loam subsoil.

Its good-to-excessive external drainage but poor internal drainage is best suited to lowland rice,

corn, root, crops, and cogon grass.

Muntinlupa has two major arteries, the South Luzon Expressway and Alabang-Zapote

Road. These two roads intersect at the Alabang Interchange where it is plied by more than 10

bus routes going towards various destinations in Manila and Quezon City. More than 20 jeepney

routes also pass through this point connecting the city to places like Santa Rosa, Calamba, and

Baclaran. It can be said that Muntinlupa, through its Alabang Interchange, serves as the southern

gateway of Metro Manila.

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III.2.2 The Micro Settings – Brgy. Poblacion

Figure 68: New Bilibid Prison

Located on the southern part of Muntinlupa City, It is one of the most densely

populated barangay in Muntinlupa. It is also bounded by Cavite on the western portion through

Daang Hari. It is also the site location of National Penitentiary of Bureau of Corrections and the

Justice Hall of Muntinlupa City. Various governments owned schools and establishments can be

seen within the barangay Poblacion. There is also direct access to South Luzon Expressway

through Susana Heights and to Cavite province through the new Muntinlupa-Cavite Expressway.

Based on the data gathered by the researcher, the barangay of Poblacion have vast

idle lands that can be used for any other purposes. The location is also suitable due to the fact

that there are isolated areas that are ideal for the new proposal of Muntinlupa City Jail.

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III.2.3 Laws and Ordinances Pertaining to the Site

Local Government Code of 1991

SECTION 17: Basic Services and Facilities.

(a) Local government units shall endeavour to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the

powers and discharging the duties and functions currently vested upon them. They shall also

discharge the functions and responsibilities of national agencies and offices devolved to them

pursuant to this Code. Local government units shall likewise exercise such other powers and

discharge such other functions and responsibilities as are necessary, appropriate, or incidental to

efficient and effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein.

(b) Such basic services and facilities include, but are not limited to, the following:

(2) For a municipality:

(xii) Sites for police and fire stations and substations and the municipal jail;

(4) For a City:

All the services and facilities of the municipality and province, and in addition thereto, the

following:

(i) Adequate communication and transportation facilities;

(ii) Support for education, police and fire services and facilities.

National Building Code

RULE VII - CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTSOF ALL BUILDINGS BY USE OR

OCCUPANCY

SECTION 701: Occupancy Classified

iv. Group D - Institutional

Group D Occupancies shall include:

Division 1 - Mental hospitals, mental sanitaria, jails, prisons, reformatories, and buildings were

personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained.

Section 707 Maximum Height Limit

Building Height Limit for Institutional

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15.00 meters (or must follow the duly-approved BHL in the major zone it is part of)

Parking Requirements for Group D Division D-1

One (1) off-street cum on-site car parking slot for every twenty five (25) beds; and one (1) off-

RROW (or off-street) passenger loading space that can accommodate two (2) queued jeepney/

shuttle slots

Section 804 Sizes and Dimensions of Courts

Minimum Setbacks for Commercial, Industrial, Institutional and Recreational Buildings

RROW Width = 20.00 to 24.00

Front = 5.00

Rear = 3.00

Sides = 3.00

The 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096 (as published by the DPWH on 01, 08 & 15 April 2005)

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III.3 Site Development Options

III.3.1 Site Analysis

This study will provide data analysis on the factors that will affect the site. These factors are

identified and analysed to serve as the basis of site planning. The analysis will include the

vehicular and pedestrian access, solar analysis, wind analysis, and noise analysis.

Figure 69: Vehicular and Pedestrian Access

Figure 70: Solar Analysis

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Figure 71: Wind Analysis

Figure 72: Noise Analysis

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CHAPTER IV – ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION

Design Program

Concept Development

Synthesis

Presentation Drawings

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IV.1 Design Program

In this chapter, various data collected by the researcher will be used and analysed in

order to create an architectural solution to the current problems that have been identified. This

chapter covers the conceptualization phase of the architectural programming and will be

presented through tables, charts and schematic drawings.

IV.1.1 Problem Diagnosis

The city jail of Muntinlupa is currently overcrowded and has a congestion rate of

1050%. It poses a great threat to the detainees‟ health and lifestyle. The facility itself is also

deteriorating and out-dated. The researcher is tasked to prepare a proposal for the new

Muntinlupa City Jail that will address the current issues and problems of the existing facility. The

facility should help the officers in rehabilitation and wellbeing of the inmates. Its design and

functionality must be innovative in nature and radical.

IV.1.2 Design Objectives

The design objectives are set of goals of the researcher in order to have outlines to

follow in conceptualizing and designing the new facility of the Muntinlupa city jail. The objectives

will direct the the researcher in order to achieve a successful project. This thesis proposal aims

to:

 To improve the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs of the administration through

radical approach

 To provide a humane facility that will cater not only the inmates but also the officers

and visitors

 To update and uplift the environment and surroundings of the city jail

 To create an efficient and sustainable facility for the BJMP Administration

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IV.1.3 Design Criteria

The design criteria will be used as a consideration needed in creating a feasible

solution to the development of the facility. Preliminary schemes of the new city jail will be based

through the principles and philosophies of the researcher.

IV.1.3.1 Philosophy

“Enhancing human behaviour through architectural approach”

Human nature is concerned with relationships between people and their social and

artificially created environments. These environments can focus on how human beings function

together and are influenced by each other and nature.

IV.1.4 Design Concept

“Serene and Tranquil”

Unaffected by disturbance; calm and peaceful

The main idea is to change the negative behavior of inmates and negative perception

of jails into positive peaceful behavior by integration of architectural elements that promotes

serenity and tranquility. Reformation should be done inside the facility therefore the facility itself

will help the inmates in order for them to be effectively reformed.

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IV.1.5 Design Considerations (Laws and Standards)

IV.1.5.1 National Building Code of the Philippines

The first design considerations that will be considered are from the PD 1096 or also known as

National Building Code of the Philippines. The guidelines that will be observed are the following:

 Zoning Classification

GI (General Institutional) – a community to national level of institutional use or

occupancy, characterized mainly as a low-rise, medium- rise or high-rise building/

structure for medical, government service administrative and related activities, e.g.,

hospitals and related health care facilities, government offices, military, police and

correctional buildings and the like.

 Building Height Limit (BHL) by Type of Use or Occupancy

15.00 meters (or must follow the duly-approved BHL in the major zone it is part of)

 General Requirements for Occupant Loads and Exits

Unit area per occupant will be 8.40 square meters and minimum of two (2) Exits other

than elevators are required where number of occupants is over 5.

 Number of Parking Slot

One (1) off-street cum on-site car parking slot for every twenty five (25) beds; and one

(1) off-RROW (or off-street) passenger loading space that can accommodate two (2)

queued jeepney/shuttle slots

IV.1.5.2 Manual on Habitat, Water, Sanitation and Kitchen in Jails

Bureau of Jail Management and Penology‟s Manual on Habitat, Water, Sanitation and Kitchen in

Jails will also be used as guidelines in designing the facility. These are the following

considerations that must be observed.

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 Basic Components of a Jail Facility

For a jail to function properly, basic structures are needed:

Administration Building, Jail Building, Primary and Secondary Fences, Kitchen,

Yard, Sanitary Installations, Infirmary, Multi-Purpose Buildings, Elevated Water

Tank, Adequate Drainage, and Garbage Collection Facility

 Security

To maintain and reinforce the security aspect, the jail, in its conceptual stage

alone, should include a perimeter fence with guard towers. There may be one or

several barriers and fences around the jail premises. The jail compound may be

enclosed by a buffer zone which is provided by a secondary fence. This will serve

as the first line of defence against any untoward incidents.

 Fence Design

The minimum height of the perimeter fence from the finish grade line to the top

shall not be less than 4.00m Additional 1.00m shall be added for barbed wire

provision. It is made from 6” CHB.

The minimum height of the secondary fence from the finish grade line to the top

shall not be less than 2.50m. Additional 0.60m height shall be added for barbed

wire provision. Welded wire/ Steel Matting can be used for secondary fence.

Minimum distance of the nearest building wall to perimeter fence is 4.00 meters.

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IV.1.5 Space Programming and Allocation

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IV.1.6 Behavioural Analysis

Figure 73: Behavioral Analysis

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IV.1.7 User Analysis

USERS NO. ACTIVITIES SPACE NEEDED


INMATES 900 ASSEMBLY VISITING HALL
MAINTENANCE
SUNNING DORMITORY CELLS
STAFF
ISOLATED INMATES EXERCISE COMMUNAL SHOWER
EAT QUADRANGLE
ATTEND TRAINING LECTURE ROOMS
ATTEND SEMINARS WORKSHOP
ATTEND LECTURES FUNCTION ROOMS
DO CHORES TOILETS
DO WORKS STORAGE
FRESHEN UP CLINIC
PLAY CONSULTATION ROOM
RELAX GENERAL WARD
SLEEP SURGICAL ROOM
LIBRARY
CHAPEL
LAUNDRY AREA
KITCHEN
PANTRY
MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY
JANITORS CLOSET

VISITORS 100 ARRIVAL VISITING HALL


LOG IN TOILET
INSPECTED PARKING AREA
WAITING FRONT DESK
INTERACT WITH INMATES
EAT

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USERS NO. ACTIVITIES SPACE NEEDED
JAIL OFFICERS 100 REPORTING IN FRONT DESK
WARDENS GUARD OFFICES
STAFFS INSPECT MAIN CONTROL ROOM
OBSERVE SECURITY OFFICES
DO PAPERWORKS GUARD TOWERS
EAT WEAPONS CLOSET
ASSIST INMATES VISITING HALL
REHABILITATE INMATES TOILETS
GUARD AREAS
WORKSHOP
FUNCTION ROOMS
CONSULTATION ROOM
GENERAL WARD
SURGICAL ROOM
LIBRARY
CHAPEL
LAUNDRY AREA
KITCHEN
PANTRY
DELIVERY AREA
MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY
RECORDS ROOM
LECTURE ROOMS
PARKING AREA
QUADRANGLE

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IV.1.8 Organizational Structure

Figure 74: Organizational Chart

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IV.1.9 Functional Zoning

Figure 75: Functional Zoning

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IV.1.10 Programming Matrix

Figure 76: Adjacency Matrix

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IV.1.11 Inter-relationship Diagram

Figure 77: Interrelationship Diagram

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IV.1.12 Circulatory Diagram

Figure 78: Circulatory Diagram

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IV.2 Concept Development

IV.2.1 Architectural Concept

Serenity and Tranquillity

The concept was derived from the symbol of peace that represents serenity and

tranquillity. Each branch is then separated and will represent each function of the jail. The outer

circle will symbolize the perimeter wall that will enclose the surroundings. Each space is then

compressed in order to have maximized area for outdoor activities.

Figure 79: Concept Development

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IV.2.2 Structural Concept

Standard Reinforced Concrete Construction (Post and Lintel)

Reinforced concrete will be applied on all elements of the building. The

reinforcements are steel reinforcing bars or rebars that will be embedded in the concrete. This

will help the concrete to be strong, ductile and durable that can resist compression and tension

forces that are present on the building.

The type of structure will be a typical post and lintel construction. Combination of

beams supported by columns and foundation will be used. Also, reinforced concrete is more

secure compared to other construction materials due to the presence of steel inside the concrete

which is needed for a jail facility.

Figure 80: Structural Concept

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IV.2.3 Utility Concept

Elevated Water Tank

Main water supply will be distributed from a pressurized or gravity-fed system. The

water will be distributed by gravity to the various parts of the jail. An elevated tank will provide

the pressure needed to supply buildings at ground level.

Water Pump will also be used to fill the storage tank and to feed the internal distribution network

while a cistern tank or underground reservoirs can be filled overnight when there is less demand

for water and sufficient pressure.

Rainwater Harvester

Rainwater Collection System will be implemented using large barrels above the

structures to provide free alternative water. Waters collected through the barrels will be used for

cleaning, laundry, bathing and irrigation as these activities doesn‟t require clean water unlike

cooking. These will help the facility to conserve and provide the inmates extra water during

emergency situations.

Figure 81: Utility Concept

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IV.3 Synthesis

IV.3.1 Scheme 1

Figure 82: Scheme 1

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IV.3.2 Scheme 2

Figure 83: Scheme 2

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IV.4 Presentation Drawings

IV.4.1 Perspectives

Figure 84: Aerial Perspective

Figure 85: Workshop

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Figure 86: Dormitory

Figure 87: Cell

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Figure 88: Dayroom

Figure 89: Chapel

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IV.4.2 Plans, Elevations, Sections

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Appendices

Site A Property Information and Location Map

1|Page
Site C Property Information and Location Map

2|Page
Site B Tax Declaration

3|Page
Letter from Bureau of Jail Management and Penology National Headquarters

Jail Population and Age Group of Inmates from BJMP NHQ

4|Page
Clearance for site visit

5|Page
Manual on Habitat, Water, Sanitation and Kitchen in Jails from BJMP NHQ

Survey Questionnaires fro the Personnel

6|Page
References

First United Nations Congress, Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/treatmentprisoners.pdf

Raphael Sperry, Prisons and Human Rights Violations: What Can Architects Do?

http://www.archdaily.com/?p=494912

Chito A. Chavez, Quezon City to Offer ALS Program in City Jails. http://www.mb.com.ph/qc-to-

offer-als-program-in-city-jails/

Edson C. Tandoc Jr., Prison School Offers Degrees for Inmates.

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090824-221731/Prison-school-

offers-degrees-for-inmates

RAND Corporation, Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism, Improves

Job Outlook. http://www.rand.org/news/press/2013/08/22.html

Dona Pazzibugan, Poverty no excuse for having bad jails.

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/metro/view/20081130-175250/Poverty-no-excuse-

for-having-bad-jails

Atty. Manuel J Laserna Jr., Prisons. attylaserna.blogspot.com/2008/04/prisons.html

Allen R. Beck, Ph.D., Deciding on A New Jail Design. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/design.htm

http://www.bjmp.gov.ph/datstat.html

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