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Manufacturing Processes MECH 306

TIG Welding

Student Name:
Student Number:
Experiment - TIG Welding

Objectives: -
1. Student will be able to identify operational parameters for TIG welding.
2. Student will be able to identify the basic components TIG welding

Introduction: -
Tungsten Inert gas welding (TIG) also known as Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an arc
welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area
is protected from atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas (argon or helium) and a
filler metal is normally used.

TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals
such as aluminum, magnesium and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control
over the weld than competing processes such as shielded metal arc welding and metal arc welding
(TIG), allowing for stronger, higher quality welds and also more clean because there is no slag
leave after welding. However, TIG is comparatively more complex and difficult to master and it
is significantly slower than other welding technique. Besides, welder is also exposed to huge
intensities of light.

The following diagram show an equipment of TIG welding system: -

Fig 1: TIG Welding Equipment

The TIG-Welding process: -

Fig 2: TIG Process

TIG-welding (Tungsten Inert Gas) or GTAW-welding (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) uses a
permanent non-melting electrode made of tungsten. Filler metal is added separately, which makes
the process very flexible. It is also possible to weld without filler material.
The most used power source for TIG-welding generates alternating current (AC). Direct current
can be used, but due to high heat generation on the tungsten electrode when DC-EP (electrode
positive) welding, that particular polarity is not feasible. In some cases, DC-EN (electrode
negative) is used, however, this requires special attention before welding, due to the arc's poor
oxide cleaning action.
AC TIG-welding usually uses argon as a shielding gas. The process is a multi-purpose process,
which offers the user great flexibility. By changing the diameter of the tungsten electrode, welding
may be performed with a wide range of heat input at different thicknesses. AC TIG-welding is
possible with thicknesses down to about 0.5 mm. For larger thicknesses, > 5 mm, AC TIG-welding
is less economical compared to MIG-welding due to lower welding speed.
DC TIG-welding with electrode negative is used for welding thicknesses above 4 mm. The
negative electrode gives a poor oxide cleaning compared to AC-TIG and MIG, and special
cleaning of joint surfaces is necessary. The process usually uses helium shielding gas. This gives
a better penetration in thicker sections. DC TIG-welding is applicable for welding thicknesses in
the range 0.3 to12 mm. More and more popular is also pulsed DC TIG welding, which makes it
possible to weld uniform welds with deeper penetration at the same heat input. Pulse frequency is
usually in the range 1 to10 Hz.

Fig 3: TIG Weld Direction

Procedures: -
1. Turn ON the power supply
2. Activate the switch at the machine
3. Set the Argon gas pressure to 30 L/min by turning the gas regulator and nozzle.
4. Choose types of Current:
i. Power supply for steel, mild steel and copper is Direct Current (DC).
ii. Power supply for alloy is Alternate Current (AC).
5. Set the current to 70A (for mild steel).
6. Clamp the earth cable to work piece.
7. Touch the electrode ( Tungsten) at 450 to the work piece.
8. Press and release the Argon gas trigger until spark appears.
9. Weld the given work pieces of 10 cm x 4 cm x 3mm with feeder by moving outwards.
10. When TIG welding you will push the weld. This means you will work from right to left
(assuming you’re right handed), starting the weld at the right side of the material and working your
way left. This keeps the weld shielded during the process while the metal is hot.
11. Make sure both gas regulator and nozzle is fully closed after working.
12. Ensure that the gas pressure is set to Zero.
13. Press the gas trigger to release all the gas in the pipe.
14. Switch OFF the TIG machine and the main socket switch.

Fig 4: TIG Welded Sample